•AGGRESSION
DEFINITION

Aggression in general terms may be defined as the act of
beginning a quarrel, accidentally injuring someone ,c...
Factors affecting aggression
What made you blow your cool? Why do people become aggressive?
To answer this question there ...
PERSONAL FACTORS





Type A and B behaviour pattern
Hostile attributional bias
Narcissism, ego- threat,and aggression...
STRATEGIES FOR REDUCING AGGRESSION
 PUNISHMENT : an effective deterrent to aggression
 Catharsis : does getting it out o...
PUNISHMENT

Punishment is a procedure in which aversive
consequences are delivered to individuals when they engage
in spec...
catharsis
It is an opportunity provided to an angry person to express their
aggressive impulses in relatively safe ways wi...
Cognitive interventions
Aggression can be reduced by apologies- DO YOU FIND IT EASY OR
DIFFICULT TO APOLOGISE TO OTHERS? ...
Training of social skills
One reason of aggression may be that they are lacking in social
skills for instance they don't k...
INCOMPATIBLE RESPONSES : IT’S

DIFFICULT TO STAY ANGRY IF YOU SMILE
It is a technique for reducing aggression in which ind...
SOCIAL STRATEGIES
 Implications of legal sanctions (Berkovits)

Crime prevention approach
Aggressive behaviour is subdue...
Thank You

THANK YOU
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Aggression In Social Psychology

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Concept of aggression, factors influencing aggression and strategies for reducing aggression

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Aggression In Social Psychology

  1. 1. •AGGRESSION
  2. 2. DEFINITION Aggression in general terms may be defined as the act of beginning a quarrel, accidentally injuring someone ,criticising or insulting someone or attempting and committing suicide. According to Baron and Byrne Behavior directed towards the goal of harming another living being who is motivated to avoid such treatment. Atkinson and Smith et al Behavior intended to injury someone physically or verbally or destroy someone
  3. 3. Factors affecting aggression What made you blow your cool? Why do people become aggressive? To answer this question there are several factors that leads to or in same affects our behaviour .they are as followsPERSONAL FACTORS SITUATIONAL FACTORS SOCIAL FACTORS SOCIAL FACTORS: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Frustration (frustration-aggression hypothesis) Direct provocation (when aggression breeds aggression) Exposure to media (affects of witnessing aggression) Heightened arousal (emotion, cognition and aggression) Provocation
  4. 4. PERSONAL FACTORS     Type A and B behaviour pattern Hostile attributional bias Narcissism, ego- threat,and aggression Gender differences SITUATIONAL FACTORS Alcohol consumption  High temperature  Cultural beliefs and values
  5. 5. STRATEGIES FOR REDUCING AGGRESSION  PUNISHMENT : an effective deterrent to aggression  Catharsis : does getting it out of your system really help  Cognitive interventions :apologies and overcoming cognitive deficits  EXPOSURE TO NON-AGGRESSIVE MODELS TRAINING IN SOCIAL SKILLS INCOMPATIBLE RESPONSE
  6. 6. PUNISHMENT Punishment is a procedure in which aversive consequences are delivered to individuals when they engage in specific actions – a technique to reduce aggression. But sometimes it often fails to deter violent crimes.Four are most important ways are: It must be prompt.(must follow aggressive actions as quickly as possible). It must be certain.(probability that it will follow aggressive actions will be very high). It must be strong.(strong enough to be highly unpleasant to potential recipients). It must be perceived by recipients as justified or deserved.
  7. 7. catharsis It is an opportunity provided to an angry person to express their aggressive impulses in relatively safe ways will reduce their tendencies to engage in more harmful forms of aggression. But a mixed picture is offered by evidences which suggest that , participation in activities that are not harmful ( vigourous sports, shouting obscenities in an empty room) can reduce emotional arousal .such effects appears to be temporary stemming from frustration and provocation because it may reappear as soon as the individuals bring the incident that made them angry to mind .Thus, participating in safe forms ,energy draining activities may produce temporary reductions in arousal but feeling of anger may quickly return when individuals meet ,or merely think about about the one who annoyed them of aggression Cognitive factors may ensure that cathartic effects if reappear , are short lived and less effective.
  8. 8. Cognitive interventions Aggression can be reduced by apologies- DO YOU FIND IT EASY OR DIFFICULT TO APOLOGISE TO OTHERS? If your answer is “yes” then start working on this very social skill. Similarly ,god excuses can also be effective in reducing overt aggression by persons who have been provoked by some manner. Admissions of wrong doing that include a request of forgiveness and by engaging in activities that distract away from the source of anger.
  9. 9. Training of social skills One reason of aggression may be that they are lacking in social skills for instance they don't know how to soothe others when they become angry , and they don’t know how to refuse requests that does not anger the requester . So teaching such people in social skills may help to reduce aggression a long way. Procedures for teaching individuals such skills exists and are not very complex. For example both adults and children can improve from watching other persons( social models) demonstrate both effective and ineffective behaviors.
  10. 10. INCOMPATIBLE RESPONSES : IT’S DIFFICULT TO STAY ANGRY IF YOU SMILE It is a technique for reducing aggression in which individuals are exposed to events or stimuli that cause them to experience affective states incompatible with anger and aggression. Suppose you feel that you are growing angry and then someone told you a joke and that made you laugh . Would you remain angry? Probably not. The changes are good , you would feel less angry because laughter and positive effect it generates are incompatible with feeling angry and actually aggressive. Thus , humor, mild sexual arousal ,and feeling of empathy are all effective toward the victim in this respect .
  11. 11. SOCIAL STRATEGIES  Implications of legal sanctions (Berkovits) Crime prevention approach Aggressive behaviour is subdued , criminals are prevented from reaching the goal.
  12. 12. Thank You THANK YOU
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