Internal Auditors  Training Programme  on  Quality Management System ISO/TS 16949 : 2002
PRINCIPLES OF AUDITING
PRINCIPLES OF AUDITING <ul><li>Dictionary definition of audit </li></ul><ul><li>“ Audit (noun) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An ex...
AUDITOR (ISO 10011) “ A person who has the qualification and is authorised to perform all or any part of a quality system ...
Audits may be described using a number of different terms  <ul><li>INTERNAL versus EXTERNAL </li></ul><ul><li>1 ST  PARTY ...
INTERNAL AUDIT <ul><li>An audit that is performed on an organisation by or on behalf of itself is commonly called an inter...
EXTERNAL AUDIT <ul><li>An audit that is performed on an organisation by or on behalf of a separate organisation is commonl...
1 ST  PARTY AUDIT <ul><li>A 1 st  party audit is another term used for ‘internal audits’.  Where an orgnisation commission...
2 ND  PARTY AUDIT <ul><li>A 2 nd  Party Audit is one type of external audit, where an organisation is audited by an outsid...
3 RD  PARTY AUDIT <ul><li>A 3 rd  party audit is a specific type of external audit that is done for the purpose of objecti...
Client Auditor Auditee 1 st  party audit Internal Internal or External Internal 2 nd  party audit External External Intern...
WHY IS AUDITING NECESSARY ? <ul><li>To determine conformity or non-conformity of the quality system elements with specifie...
<ul><li>As a routine examination of the organisation quality system to verify that it continues to meet requirements. </li...
THE AUDIT LIFE CYCLE <ul><li>PLANNING. </li></ul><ul><li>CONDUCTING THE AUDIT. </li></ul><ul><li>ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. </li...
AUDIT PLANNING <ul><li>What type of audit ? </li></ul><ul><li>Gather preliminary information. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop ch...
AUDIT CHECK LISTS <ul><li>Check lists can be </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on recognised quality standards. </li></ul></ul><...
AUDITOR QUALITIES <ul><li>Confident. </li></ul><ul><li>Diplomat. </li></ul><ul><li>Good listener. </li></ul><ul><li>Constr...
VERIFY THAT THE DEFINED SYSTEM ELEMENTS EXIST AND ARE IMPLEMENTED AUDITORS TASK
COLLECTING EVIDENCE BY  CONDUCTING INTERVIEWS  EXAMINATION OF DOCUMENTS/ PRODUCTS  OBSERVATION OF ACTIVITIES  OBSERVATION ...
CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS INTERVIEW THE RIGHT PEOPLE BE WELL PREPARED LET THE INTERVIEWEE RELAX ADJUST STYLE TO SUIT
A BAD AUDITOR  IS ONE  WHO  CULTIVATES  ONE-WAY COMMUNICATION
AUDITORS MUST LEARN TO LISTEN WITH THE MIND AS WELL AS  THE EARS
POINTS TO REMEMBER Talk to the person who does the job Don’t talk down Talk the language of the auditee Speak clearly Reph...
AUDITOR SHOULD ENSURE <ul><li>WHAT HE IS LOOKING FOR ? </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT IS HE LOOKING AT ? </li></ul>
AUDIT PROCESS <ul><li>BE OPEN. </li></ul><ul><li>DISCUSS. </li></ul><ul><li>CLARIFY. </li></ul><ul><li>GET FACTS. </li></u...
VERIFICATION <ul><li>RANDOM BASIS. </li></ul><ul><li>CHOSEN BY THE AUDITOR. </li></ul><ul><li>PERMISSION SOUGHT. </li></ul...
TIME WASTERS <ul><li>INTRODUCTION AND PRESENTATIONS. </li></ul><ul><li>A WALK ROUND – THE LONG WAY. </li></ul><ul><li>COFF...
TO RECORD A NON-CONFORMANCE THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION IS NECESSARY : <ul><li>THE FACTS FOUND/OBSERVED. </li></ul><ul><li>W...
A SIGNIFICANT NON-COMPLIANCE WITH A QUALITY SYSTEM REQUIREMENT. OR A FAILURE OF, OR COMPLETE OMISSION OF A QUALITY SYSTEM ...
AN ISOLATED INCIDENT OF A FAILURE TO COMPLY WITH A PROCEDURE OR QUALITY SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS. MINOR NON-CONFORMITY
<ul><li>Do not trust your memory, write down information as you go. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not clutter your mind with trivia...
REMEMBER TO LISTEN TO WHAT IS SAID AND OBSERVE AT ALL TIMES, ANALYSE AND RECORDED WHAT IS IMPORTANT.
INTERNAL AUDIT REQUIREMENT – ISO/TS 16949 - 2002
8.2.2  Internal audit The organisation shall conduct internal audits at planned intervals to determine whether the quality...
Selection of auditors and conduct of audits shall ensure objectivity and impartiality of the audit process. Auditors shall...
8.2.2.1 Quality management system audit The organisation shall audit its quality management system to verify compliance wi...
8.2.2.2 Manufacturing process audit The organisation shall audit each manufacturing process to determine its effectiveness.
8.2.2.3 Product audit The organisation shall audit products at appropriate stages of production and delivery to verify con...
8.2.2.4  Internal audit plans Internal audits shall cover all quality management related processes, activities and shifts,...
8.2.2.5 Internal auditor qualification The organisation shall have internal auditors who are qualified to audit the requir...
INTERNAL AUDIT (ISO/TS 16949 – 2002)
Auditing for conformance with planned arrangements Planned Arrangements   are the agreed criteria and these are the intent...
Clause 7.1 refers to clause 4.1  and therefore, the audit should verify that in designing the management system, the organ...
Planned intervals  - Any time interval and as the quality policy is unlikely to change very much in a five-year period, an...
The audits should be designed to verify that the system is capable of –   <ul><li>Implementing the agreed policies (a poli...
Importance of the Process <ul><li>Whom is it important – the customer, the managing director, the public or immediate supe...
The audit criteria are the standards for the performance being audited.  They may include policies, procedures, regulation...
Selection of Auditors <ul><li>Should be selected on the basis of their objectivity and impartiality – such that their asso...
<ul><li>Auditors can be from the same department as the activities being audited, provided they do not perform the activit...
Audit procedures   <ul><li>This means that the who, when, where, what, why and the how of planning, conducting and reporti...
The audit procedures should cover the following - <ul><li>Preparing the annual audit programme. </li></ul><ul><li>The sele...
<ul><li>The forms on which you plan the audit. </li></ul><ul><li>The forms on which you record the observations and correc...
Audit Planning The detail plan for each audit include dates, what is to be audited, against what requirements and by whom....
Although checklists may be considered a plan, in the context of an audit they should be considered only as an aid to allow...
Taking Action Management responsible for the area audited are those who have the authority to cause change. Action without...
Eliminating non-conformities and their causes means that managers should –   <ul><li>Take remedial action to correct the p...
The auditor needs to be sure that a failure to act will in fact impact performance of the processes or the system. Therefo...
Follow up Audits An action taken after the audit to verify that agreed actions from the audit have been completed as plann...
The auditor who carries out the follow-up audit need not be the same that carried out the internal audit.  In fact there i...
Product Audit <ul><li>On-site verification activity used to –  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>verify conformance to specified produ...
Manufacturing Process Audit <ul><li>On-site verification activity used to –  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>verify conformance to s...
ISO/TS 16949 – 2002 REQUIREMENTS AND CHECKLISTS
The organisation shall establish, document, implement and maintain a quality management system and continually improve its...
c) determine criteria and methods needed to ensure that both the operation and control of these process are effective. d) ...
NOTE : Processes needed for the quality management system referred to above should include processes for management activi...
Clause No 4.1 e & f <ul><li>Monitoring measuring and analysing the processes and implementing actions necessary to achieve...
4.1.1 General Requirements - Supplemental Ensuring control over outsourced processes shall not absolve the organisation of...
 
4.2 Documentation requirements 4.2.1 General The quality management system documentation shall  include a) documented stat...
NOTE 1 Where the term “documented procedure” appears within this International Standard, this means that the procedure is ...
4.2.2 Quality manual The organisation shall establish and maintain a quality manual that includes a) the scope of the qual...
4.2.3 Control of documents   Documents required by the quality management system shall be controlled. Records  are a speci...
e) to ensure that documents remain legible and readily identifiable, f) to ensure that documents of external origin are id...
Clause No 4.2.3 <ul><li>List of controlled documents alongwith their latest revision status. </li></ul>ALL <ul><li>Issue r...
. 4.2.3.1 Engineering specifications The organisation shall have a process to assure the timely review, distribution and i...
Clause No 4.2.3.1 <ul><li>Timely review, distribution and implementation of all customer engineering standards/ specificat...
4.2.4  Control of records  Records shall be established and maintained to provide evidence of conformity to requirements a...
Clause No 4.2.4 <ul><li>Legibility, readily identifiability and retrievability of records </li></ul>ALL <ul><li>Retaining ...
4.2.4.1 Records retention The control of records shall satisfy regulatory and customer requirements.
5 MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBILITY 5.1 Management commitment Top management shall provide evidence of its commitment to the devel...
5.1.1 Process efficiency Top management shall monitor the product realisation processes and the support processes to assur...
Clause No 5.1.1 <ul><li>Review by top management of the product realisation processes and the support processes to assure ...
5.2 Customer focus Top management shall ensure that customer requirements are determined and are met with the aim of enhan...
 
5.3 Quality policy Top management shall ensure that the quality policy a) is appropriate to the purpose of the organisatio...
 
Clause No 5.3 <ul><li>Communication and understanding of the quality policy within the organisation . </li></ul>ALL <ul><l...
5.4  Planning 5.4.1 Quality objectives Top management shall ensure that quality objectives, including those needed to meet...
Clause No 5.4.1 <ul><li>Establishment of quality objectives at all levels. </li></ul>ALL <ul><li>Development of action pla...
5.4.1.1 Quality objectives- supplemental Top management shall define quality objectives and measurements that shall be inc...
5.4.2 Quality management systems planning Top management shall ensure that   a) the planning of the quality management sys...
 
5.5  Responsibility, authority and communication 5.5.1 Responsibility and authority   Top management shall ensure that the...
5.5.1.1 Responsibility for quality   Managers with responsibility and authority for corrective action shall be promptly in...
5.5.2 Management representative Top management shall appoint a member of management who, irrespective of other responsibil...
Clause No 5.5.2 <ul><li>Promoting of awareness of customer requirement throughout the organisation.   </li></ul>MR
5.5.2.1 Customer representative Top management shall designate personnel with responsibility and authority to ensure that ...
5.5.3 Internal communication Top management shall ensure that appropriate communication processes are established within t...
 
5.6  Management review 5.6.1 General Top management shall review the organisation’s quality management system, at planned ...
Clause No 5.6.1 <ul><li>Maintaining records from management review   </li></ul>MR <ul><li>Management review includes all r...
5.6.1.1 Quality management system performance These reviews shall include all requirements of the quality management syste...
Clause No 5.6.1.1 <ul><li>Recording the results of review of customer satisfaction of the product  </li></ul>MR <ul><li>Pa...
5.6.2 Review input The input to management review shall include information on a) results of audits, b) customer feedback,...
5.6.2.1 Review input- Supplemental Input to management review shall include an analysis of actual and potential field-fail...
Clause No 5.6.2 and 5.6.2.1  <ul><li>Management review includes :   </li></ul>MR <ul><li>Results of audits   </li></ul><ul...
5.6.3 Review output The output from the management review shall include any decisions and actions related to a) improvemen...
Clause No 5.6.3  <ul><li>The management review output includes  :   </li></ul>MR <ul><li>improvement of the effectiveness ...
 
6  RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 6.1 Provision of resources The organisation shall determine and   provide the   resources needed a)...
 
6.2  Human resources 6.2.1 General Personnel performing work affecting product quality shall be competent on the basis of ...
 
Clause No 6.2.1  <ul><li>The personnel performing work effecting product quality are competent on the basis of appropriate...
6.2.2 Competence, awareness and training The organisation shall   a) determine the necessary competence for personnel perf...
Clause No 6.2.2  <ul><li>Determining the necessary competence for personnel performing work affecting product quality   </...
6.2.2.1 Product design skills The organisation shall ensure that personnel with product design responsibility are competen...
6.2.2.2 Training The organisation shall establish and maintain documented procedures for identifying training needs and ac...
Clause No 6.2.2.2  <ul><li>Identifying training needs and achieving competence of all personnel performing activities affe...
6.2.2.3 Training on the job The organisation shall provide on-the-job training for personnel in any new or modified job af...
Clause No 6.2.2.3  <ul><li>Providing on the job training for personnel in any new or modified job affecting the product qu...
6.2.2.4 Employee motivation and empowerment The organisation shall have a process to motivate employees to achieve quality...
Clause No 6.2.2.4  <ul><li>Motivating employees to achieve quality objectives, to make continual improvements ; and to cre...
6.3 Infrastructure The organisation shall determine, provide and maintain the infrastructure needed to achieve conformity ...
6.3.1 Plant, facility and equipment planning The organisation shall use a multidisciplinary approach (see 7.3.1.1) for dev...
Clause No 6.3.1 <ul><li>Using multi disciplinary approach for developing plant facility and equipment plans.   </li></ul>P...
6.3.2 Contingency plans The organisation shall prepare contingency plans to satisfy customer requirements in the event of ...
Clause No. 6.3.2 <ul><li>Multi skilling of personnel   </li></ul>ALL <ul><li>Stocking of spares of key equipment and monit...
6.4 Work environment The organisation shall determine and manage the work environment needed to achieve conformity to prod...
Clause No. 6.4 <ul><li>Managing work environment needed to achieve conformity to product requirements.   </li></ul>WS, PS,...
6.4.1 Personnel safety  Product safety and means to minimize potential risks to employees shall be addressed by the organi...
Clause No. 6.4.1 <ul><li>Minimising potential risks to employees in process design and development process and manufacturi...
6.4.2 Cleanliness of premises The organisation shall maintain its premises in a state of order, cleanliness and repair con...
Clause No. 6.4.2 <ul><li>Maintaining premises in a state of order, cleanliness and repair consistent with the product and ...
7 PRODUCT realisation 7.1 Planning of product realisation The organisation shall plan and develop the processes needed for...
c) required verification, validation, monitoring, inspection and test activities specific to the product and the criteria ...
NOTE 2 The organisation may also apply the requirements given in 7.3 to the development of product realisation processes. ...
7.1.1   Planning of product realisation - Supplemental Customer requirements and references to its technical specification...
 
7.1.2  Acceptance criteria   Acceptance criteria shall be defined by the organisation and, where required, approved by the...
7.1.3  Confidentiality   The organisation shall ensure the confidentiality of customer-contracted products and projects un...
Clause No 7.1, 7.1.1 and 7.1.3 Contd…. <ul><li>Planning the product realisation. </li></ul>PED <ul><li>Determining the fol...
Contd…. <ul><li>defining the acceptance criteria.   </li></ul><ul><li>ensuring confidentiality of customer – contracted pr...
7.1.4  Change control The organisation shall have a process to control and react to changes that impact product realisatio...
When required by the customer, additional verification / identification requirements, such as those required for new produ...
 
Clause No. 7.1.4 <ul><li>Controlling, reacting to and validation of changes that impact product realisation before impleme...
7.2  Customer- related processes 7.2.1  Determination of requirements related to the    product. The organisation shall de...
Note 1  Post delivery activities include any after sales product service provided as part of the customer contract or purc...
Clause No 7.2.1 <ul><li>Determination of requirements related to the product including  </li></ul>PED <ul><li>requirements...
7.2.1.1  Customer designated special characteristics The organisation shall demonstrate conformity to customer requirement...
Clause No. 7.2.1.1 <ul><li>Designating, documentation and control of special characteristics.   </li></ul>PED
7.2.2  Review of requirements related to the product The organisation shall review the requirements related to the product...
Where the customer provides no documented statement of requirement, the customer requirements shall be confirmed by the or...
Clause No. 7.2.2 <ul><li>Reviewing requirements related to the product as per procedure.   </li></ul>PED, BD   <ul><li>Rec...
7.2.2.1  Review of requirements related to the produuct - Supplemental Waiving the requirement stated in 7.2.2 for a forma...
7.2.2.2  Organisation manufacturing feasibility The organisation shall investigate, confirm and document the manufacturing...
Clause No. 7.2.2.2 <ul><li>Investigating, conforming and documenting the manufacturing feasibility including risk analysis...
7.2.3  Customer communication  The organisation shall determine and implement effective arrangements for communicating wit...
 
Clause No. 7.2.3 <ul><li>Determining and implementing effective arrangements for communication with customers, as per proc...
7.2.3.1  Customer communication – Supplemental The organisation shall have the ability to communicate necessary informatio...
7.3  Design and development  NOTE The requirements of 7.3 include product and manufacturing process design and development...
7.3.1  Design and development planning The organisation shall plan and control the design and development of product. Duri...
Clause No. 7.3.1 <ul><li>Planning and controlling the process design and development of product, as per procedure.   </li>...
7.3.1.1  Multidisciplinary approach The organisation shall use a multidisciplinary approach to prepare for product realisa...
Clause No 7.3.1.1 <ul><li>Using multi disciplinary approach for :  </li></ul>PED <ul><li>finalisation and monitoring of sp...
7.3.2  Design and development inputs Inputs relating to product requirements shall be determined and records maintained (s...
7.3.2.1  Product design input The organisation shall identify, document and review the product design inputs requirements,...
7.3.2.2  Manufacturing process design input The organisation shall identify, document and review the manufacturing process...
7.3.2.3  Special characteristics The organisation shall identify special characteristics (see 7.3.3 d) and - include all s...
Clause No 7.3.2, 7.3.2.2 and 7.3.2.3 Contd…. <ul><li>Determining and maintaining records of the inputs relating to product...
Contd…. <ul><li>Reviewing the adequacy of the inputs.  </li></ul>PED <ul><li>Identifying special characteristics.  </li></...
7.3.3  Design and development output The outputs of design and development shall be provided in a form that enables verifi...
7.3.3.1  Product design outputs - Supplemental   The product design output shall be expressed in terms that can be verifie...
7.3.3.2  Manufacturing process design output The manufacturing process design output shall be expressed in terms that can ...
Clause No 7.3.3 and 7.3.3.2 Contd…. <ul><li>Providing process design and development output including  </li></ul>PED <ul><...
Contd…. <ul><li>manufacturing process FMEA.   </li></ul><ul><li>control plan.   </li></ul><ul><li>work instructions.   </l...
7.3.4  Design and development  review At suitable stages, systematic reviews of design and development shall be performed ...
Clause No 7.3.4 <ul><li>Systematic reviews of process design and development at suitable stages in accordance with planned...
7.3.4.1  Monitoring Measurements at specified stages of design and development shall be defined, analysed and reported wit...
Clause No 7.3.4.1 <ul><li>Defining, analysing and reporting with summary results as an input to management review of measu...
7.3.5  Design and development verification Verification shall be performed in accordance with planned arrangements (see 7....
Clause No 7.3.5 <ul><li>Verifying the process design and development in accordance with the planned arrangements to ensure...
7.3.6  Design and development validation Design and development validation shall be performed in accordance with planned a...
Clause No 7.3.6 <ul><li>Validation of process design and development in accordance with planned arrangements to ensure tha...
7.3.6.1 Design and development validation -  Supplemental Design and development validation shall be performed in accordan...
Clause No 7.3.6.1 <ul><li>Validation of process design and development in accordance with customer requirement including p...
7.3.6.2  Prototype programme When required by the customer, the organisation shall have a prototype programme and control ...
7.3.6.3  Product approval process The organisation shall conform to a product and manufacturing process approval procedure...
Clause No 7.3.6.3 <ul><li>Product and manufacturing process approval as recognised by the customer.  </li></ul>PED <ul><li...
7.3.7 Control of design and development changes Design and development changes shall be identified and records maintained....
 
Clause No 7.3.7 <ul><li>Identifying and recording process design and development changes  </li></ul>PED <ul><li>Reviewing,...
7.4  Purchasing  7.4.1  Purchasing process The organisation shall ensure that purchased product conforms to specified purc...
NOTE 1  Purchased products above include all products and services that affect customer requirements such as sub-assembly,...
Clause No 7.4.1 <ul><li>Records of the results of evaluation and any necessary action arising from the evaluation of the s...
7.4.1.1  Regulatory compliance All purchased products or materials used in product shall conform to applicable regulatory ...
Clause No 7.4.1.1 <ul><li>Ensuring all purchased products or materials used in product conform to applicable regulatory re...
7.4.1.2  Supplier quality management system development The organisation shall perform supplier quality management system ...
Clause No 7.4.1.2 <ul><li>Performing supplier quality management system development with the goal of supplier conformity w...
7.4.1.3  Customer approved sources Where specified by the contract (e.g. customer engineering drawing, specification), the...
Clause No 7.4.1.3 <ul><li>Purchasing products, materials or services from sources approved by the customer where specified...
7.4.2  Purchasing information Purchasing information shall describe the product to be purchased, including where appropria...
Clause No 7.4.2 <ul><li>Purchasing information describe the product to be purchased, including where appropriate  </li></u...
7.4.3   Verification of purchased product The organisation shall establish and implement the inspection or other activitie...
7.4.3.1  Incoming product quality The organisation shall have a process to assure the quality of purchased product (see 7....
Clause No 7.4.3.1 <ul><li>Receiving inspection as per laid down procedures.   </li></ul>QA
7.4.3.2  Supplier monitoring Supplier performance shall be monitored through the following indicators: - delivered product...
 
 
Clause No 7.4.3.2 <ul><li>Monitoring of supplier performance including product quality, customer disruptions, delivery and...
7.5  Production and service provision 7.5.1  Control of production and services provision. The organisation shall plan and...
Clause No 7.5.1 <ul><li>Carrying out production under controlled conditions, including :  </li></ul>PS, WS, MFG., LC   <ul...
7.5.1.1  Control plan The organisation shall - develop control plans (see Annex A) at the system, sub system, component an...
- include methods for monitoring of control exercised over  special characteristics (see 7.3.2.3)  defined by both the  cu...
 
Clause No 7.5.1.1 <ul><li>Control plan, including initiating the specified reaction plan when the process becomes unstable...
7.5.1.2  Work instructions The organisation shall prepare documented work instructions for all employees having responsibi...
Clause No 7.5.1.2 <ul><li>Documented work instructions for employees having responsibilities for the operation of processe...
7.5.1.3  Verification of job set-ups Job set-ups shall be verified whenever performed, such as an initial run of a job, ma...
Clause No 7.5.1.3 <ul><li>Verification of job set up as per laid down procedure  </li></ul>PS, WS, MFG., LC   <ul><li>Avai...
7.5.1.4  Preventive and predictive maintenance The organisation shall identify key process equipment and provide resources...
Clause No 7.5.1.4 Contd…. <ul><li>Following preventive and predictive maintenance procedure  </li></ul>PM   <ul><li>Preven...
Contd…. <ul><li>Documentation, evaluation and improving maintenance objectives  </li></ul>PM   <ul><li>Utilising predictiv...
7.5.1.5  Management of production tooling The organisation shall provide resources for tool and gauge design, fabrication ...
- tool-change programmes for perishable tools, - tool design modification documentation, including  engineering change lev...
Clause No 7.5.1.5 Contd…. <ul><li>Following tooling maintenance procedure.  </li></ul>DM   <ul><li>Tooling maintenance pla...
Contd…. <ul><li>Revision to documentation when modification in tools is carried out  </li></ul>DM <ul><li>Identification o...
7.5.1.6  Production scheduling Production shall be scheduled in order to meet customer requirements, such as just-in-time ...
Clause No 7.5.1.6 <ul><li>Following the production planning procedure.  </li></ul>MX, WS, PS, MFG., LC
7.5.1.7  Feedback of information from service A process for communication of information on service concerns to manufactur...
7.5.1.8  Servicing agreement with customer When there is a servicing agreement with the customer, the organisation shall v...
 
7.5.2  Validation of processes for production and service  provision The organisation shall validate any processes for pro...
a) defined criteria for review and approval of the processes, b) approval of equipment and qualification of personnel, c) ...
Clause No 7.5.2 <ul><li>Validation of all processes to demonstrate ability of these processes to achieve planned results, ...
7.5.2.1  Validation of processes for production and service provision-supplemental The requirements of 7.5.2 shall apply t...
7.5.3  Identification and traceability Where appropriate, the organisation shall identify the product by suitable means th...
NOTE In some industry sectors, configuration management is a means by which identification and traceability are maintained...
 
7.5.3.1  Identification and traceability-supplemental The words “where appropriate” in 7.5.3 above, shall not apply.
7.5.4  Customer property The organisation shall exercise care with customer property while it is under the organisation’s ...
Clause No 7.5.4 <ul><li>Identifying, verifying, protecting and safe guarding customer property.  </li></ul>MX, DM, PED   <...
7.5.4.1  Customer owned production tooling Customer-owned tools, manufacturing, test, inspection tooling and equipment sha...
Clause No 7.5.4.1 <ul><li>Permanently marking the ownership of customer owned tooling.  </li></ul>DM
7.5.5  Preservation of product The organisation shall preserve the conformity of product during internal processing and de...
Clause No 7.5.5 <ul><li>Identification, handling, packaging, storage and protection of product during internal processing ...
7.5.5.1  Storage and inventory In order to detect deterioration, the condition of product in stock shall be assessed at ap...
 
Clause No 7.5.5.1 <ul><li>Assessing the condition of product in stock at planned intervals to detect deterioration.  </li>...
7.6  Control of monitoring and measuring devices The organisation shall determine the monitoring and measurement to be und...
a) be calibrated or verified at specified intervals, or prior to use, against  measurement standards traceable to internat...
In addition, the organisation shall assess and record the validity of the previous measuring results when the equipment is...
Clause No 7.6 <ul><li>Control of monitoring and measurement devices as per procedure  </li></ul>QA
7.6.1  Measurement system analysis Statistical studies shall be conducted to analyse the variation present in the results ...
Clause No 7.6.1 <ul><li>Measurement system analysis to analyse the variation present in each type of measurement and test ...
7.6.2  Calibration /verificationrecords Records of the calibration/ verification activity for all gauges, measuring and te...
Clause No 7.6.2 <ul><li>Records of calibration/ verification for all gauges, measurement and test equipment, including :  ...
7.6.3 Laboratory requirements 7.6.3.1 Internal laboratory An organisation’s internal laboratory facility shall have a defi...
- capability to perform these services correctly, traceable to the relevant process standard (such as ASTM, EN etc.), and ...
Clause No 7.6.3.1 <ul><li>Internal laboratory facility as per laid down procedures.  </li></ul>QA
7.6.3.2  External laboratory External / commercial / independent laboratory facilities used for inspection, test or calibr...
NOTE 1 Such evidence may be demonstrated by customer assessment, for example, or by customer approved second party assessm...
 
Clause No 7.6.3.2 <ul><li>Use of external laboratory facility in line with the procedure  </li></ul>QA
8  MEASUREMENT, ANALYSIS AND IMPROVEMENT 8.1  General The organisation shall plan and implement the monitoring, measuremen...
Clause No 8.1 <ul><li>Planning and implementing the monitoring, measurement, analysis and improvement processes needed :  ...
8.1.1  Identification of statistical tools Appropriate statistical tools for each process shall be determined during advan...
Clause No 8.1.1 <ul><li>Determining appropriate statistical tools for each process during advance quality planning and the...
8.1.2  Knowledge of basic statistical concepts Basic statistical concepts, such as variation, control (stability), process...
 
 
Clause No 8.1.2 <ul><li>Understanding the basic statistical concepts throughout the organisation.  </li></ul>HRD   <ul><li...
8.2  Monitoring and measurement 8.2.1  Customer satisfaction As one of the measurements of the performance of the quality ...
Clause No 8.2.1 <ul><li>Monitoring customer satisfaction through information relating to customer perception as to whether...
8.2.1.1  Customer satisfaction-supplemental  Customer satisfaction with the organisation shall be monitored through contin...
Clause No 8.2.1.1 <ul><li>Monitoring customer satisfaction through continual evaluation of performance of the realisation ...
8.2.2  Internal audit The organisation shall conduct internal audits at planned intervals to determine whether the quality...
Selection of auditors and conduct of audits shall ensure objectivity and impartiality of the audit process. Auditors shall...
Clause No 8.2.2. Contd…. <ul><li>Conducting internal audits at planned intervals  </li></ul>MR   <ul><li>Planning of inter...
Contd…. <ul><li>Records of internal audits  </li></ul>MR   <ul><li>Taking actions without undue delay to eliminate detecte...
8.2.2.1 Quality management system audit The organisation shall audit its quality management system to verify compliance wi...
8.2.2.2 Manufacturing process audit The organisation shall audit each manufacturing process to determine its effectiveness.
Clause No 8.2.2.2 <ul><li>Auditing of each manufacturing process to determine its effectiveness  </li></ul>MR
8.2.2.3 Product audit The organisation shall audit products at appropriate stages of production and delivery to verify con...
Clause No 8.2.2.3 <ul><li>Auditing products at appropriate stages of production and delivery, at a defined frequency.  </l...
8.2.2.4  Internal audit plans Internal audits shall cover all quality management related processes, activities and shifts,...
Clause No 8.2.2.4 <ul><li>Internal audits cover all quality management related processes, activities and shifts.  </li></u...
8.2.2.5 Internal auditor qualification The organisation shall have internal auditors who are qualified to audit the requir...
Clause No 8.2.2.5 <ul><li>Qualification of internal auditor.  </li></ul>MR
8.2.3  Monitoring and measurement of processes The organisation shall apply suitable methods for monitoring and, where app...
8.2.3.1 Monitoring and measurement of manufacturing  processes The organisation shall perform process studies on all new m...
The organisation shall maintain manufacturing process capability or performance as specified by the customer part approval...
The organisation shall initiate a reaction plan from the control plan for characteristics that are either not statisticall...
Clause No 8.2.3.1 Contd…. <ul><li>Performing process studies on all new manufacturing processes to verify process capabili...
Contd…. Contd…. <ul><li>Specify, all process capability or performance requirement as defined by the customer part approva...
Contd…. Contd…. <ul><li>Include all requirement of control plan and process flow diagram in JBPS or other manufacturing pr...
Contd…. <ul><li>Initiating a reaction plan for characteristics that are either not statistically capable or are unstable, ...
8.2.4  Monitoring and measurement of product The organisation shall monitor and measure the characteristics of the product...
NOTE  When selecting product parameters to monitor compliance to specified internal and external requirements, the organis...
 
Clause No 8.2.4 <ul><li>In process and final verification/ inspection of products as per procedure.  </li></ul>QA, MX, PS,...
8.2.4.1  Layout inspection and functional testing A layout inspection and a functional verification to applicable customer...
Clause No 8.2.4.1 <ul><li>Layout inspection and functional verification for each product as specified in the control plan....
8.2.4.2  Appearance items For organisation manufacturing parts designated by the customer as “appearance items”, the organ...
Clause No 8.2.4.2 <ul><li>Providing :  </li></ul><ul><li>appropriate lighting for evaluation  </li></ul><ul><li>appearance...
Internal auditors training programme
Internal auditors training programme
Internal auditors training programme
Internal auditors training programme
Internal auditors training programme
Internal auditors training programme
Internal auditors training programme
Internal auditors training programme
Internal auditors training programme
Internal auditors training programme
Internal auditors training programme
Internal auditors training programme
Internal auditors training programme
Internal auditors training programme
Internal auditors training programme
Internal auditors training programme
Internal auditors training programme
Internal auditors training programme
Internal auditors training programme
Internal auditors training programme
Internal auditors training programme
Internal auditors training programme
Internal auditors training programme
Internal auditors training programme
Internal auditors training programme
Internal auditors training programme
Internal auditors training programme
Internal auditors training programme
Internal auditors training programme
Internal auditors training programme
Internal auditors training programme
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Internal auditors training programme

  1. 2. Internal Auditors Training Programme on Quality Management System ISO/TS 16949 : 2002
  2. 3. PRINCIPLES OF AUDITING
  3. 4. PRINCIPLES OF AUDITING <ul><li>Dictionary definition of audit </li></ul><ul><li>“ Audit (noun) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An examination of accounts by one or more duly authorised persons.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Audit (verb) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To examine by reference to vendors.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ISO 8402 definition of quality audits </li></ul><ul><li>“ A systematic and independent examination to determine whether quality activities comply with planned arrangements and whether these arrangements are implemented effectively and are suitable to achieve objectives.” </li></ul>
  4. 5. AUDITOR (ISO 10011) “ A person who has the qualification and is authorised to perform all or any part of a quality system audit.”
  5. 6. Audits may be described using a number of different terms <ul><li>INTERNAL versus EXTERNAL </li></ul><ul><li>1 ST PARTY </li></ul><ul><li>2 ND PARTY </li></ul><ul><li>3 RD PARTY </li></ul>TYPE OF AUDITS Since we come across these terms frequently, when discussing different types of audits, it is important to understand how they are used.
  6. 7. INTERNAL AUDIT <ul><li>An audit that is performed on an organisation by or on behalf of itself is commonly called an internal audit. The actual auditors may be internal employees, or may be contracted auditors to perform the auditing services. </li></ul>
  7. 8. EXTERNAL AUDIT <ul><li>An audit that is performed on an organisation by or on behalf of a separate organisation is commonly referred to as an external audit. There may be several different kinds of external audits, depending on the nature of the client and the purpose of the audit. </li></ul>
  8. 9. 1 ST PARTY AUDIT <ul><li>A 1 st party audit is another term used for ‘internal audits’. Where an orgnisation commissions an audit of itself, for its own internal purposes. Satisfies the ‘EMS Audit’ clause of ISO 14001. May be performed by external auditors or internal auditors, but never by 2 nd or 3 rd party auditors. </li></ul>
  9. 10. 2 ND PARTY AUDIT <ul><li>A 2 nd Party Audit is one type of external audit, where an organisation is audited by an outside, external organisation for the purposes of the outside organisation. Common examples would include a supplier audit (an audit by a potential customer performed on a potential supplier), an an audit of a potential financial partner (joint venture or purchase etc.) </li></ul>
  10. 11. 3 RD PARTY AUDIT <ul><li>A 3 rd party audit is a specific type of external audit that is done for the purpose of objectively verifying the auditee’s circumstances. An ISO 14001 certification audit is the most common example of a 3 rd party verification audit. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Client Auditor Auditee 1 st party audit Internal Internal or External Internal 2 nd party audit External External Internal 3 rd party audit Internal External Internal
  12. 13. WHY IS AUDITING NECESSARY ? <ul><li>To determine conformity or non-conformity of the quality system elements with specified requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>To determine the effectiveness of the implemented quality system in meeting specified quality objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>To afford an opportunity to improve the quality system. </li></ul><ul><li>To provide managers with information. </li></ul>Quality audits are an essential element of the Quality Assurance function. The general objectives of quality audits are –
  13. 14. <ul><li>As a routine examination of the organisation quality system to verify that it continues to meet requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>As a consequence of particular circumstances such as variation in the product quality, organisational modifications or to follow up corrective actions from a previous audit. </li></ul><ul><li>For evaluation of the organisation’s quality system against quality systems standards. </li></ul>Internal quality systems audit should be initiated : Audits may also be needed for meeting regulatory requirements.
  14. 15. THE AUDIT LIFE CYCLE <ul><li>PLANNING. </li></ul><ul><li>CONDUCTING THE AUDIT. </li></ul><ul><li>ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. </li></ul><ul><li>REPORTS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION (INCLUDING FOLLOW-UP AUDITS). </li></ul>A quality systems audit can be broken down into four basic phases :
  15. 16. AUDIT PLANNING <ul><li>What type of audit ? </li></ul><ul><li>Gather preliminary information. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop check lists. </li></ul><ul><li>Who will perform audit ? </li></ul><ul><li>Arrange time of audit. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine previous audit results. </li></ul><ul><li>Talk to other departments. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare audit plan. </li></ul>
  16. 17. AUDIT CHECK LISTS <ul><li>Check lists can be </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on recognised quality standards. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed around departments operating system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on company standards and procedures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on product/customer requirements. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Check lists act as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A guide. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An aide memoire. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provider of continuity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A record of audit coverage. </li></ul></ul>An extremely powerful audit tool, if used correctly :
  17. 18. AUDITOR QUALITIES <ul><li>Confident. </li></ul><ul><li>Diplomat. </li></ul><ul><li>Good listener. </li></ul><ul><li>Constructive. </li></ul><ul><li>Objective. </li></ul><ul><li>Analytical. </li></ul><ul><li>Familiar with Quality System. </li></ul><ul><li>Professional. </li></ul>
  18. 19. VERIFY THAT THE DEFINED SYSTEM ELEMENTS EXIST AND ARE IMPLEMENTED AUDITORS TASK
  19. 20. COLLECTING EVIDENCE BY CONDUCTING INTERVIEWS EXAMINATION OF DOCUMENTS/ PRODUCTS OBSERVATION OF ACTIVITIES OBSERVATION OF CONDITIONS/ HOUSE KEEPING
  20. 21. CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS INTERVIEW THE RIGHT PEOPLE BE WELL PREPARED LET THE INTERVIEWEE RELAX ADJUST STYLE TO SUIT
  21. 22. A BAD AUDITOR IS ONE WHO CULTIVATES ONE-WAY COMMUNICATION
  22. 23. AUDITORS MUST LEARN TO LISTEN WITH THE MIND AS WELL AS THE EARS
  23. 24. POINTS TO REMEMBER Talk to the person who does the job Don’t talk down Talk the language of the auditee Speak clearly Rephrase the question if not understood Don’t confuse – pose one question at a time Come back if information is not immediately available
  24. 25. AUDITOR SHOULD ENSURE <ul><li>WHAT HE IS LOOKING FOR ? </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT IS HE LOOKING AT ? </li></ul>
  25. 26. AUDIT PROCESS <ul><li>BE OPEN. </li></ul><ul><li>DISCUSS. </li></ul><ul><li>CLARIFY. </li></ul><ul><li>GET FACTS. </li></ul><ul><li>HELP. </li></ul>
  26. 27. VERIFICATION <ul><li>RANDOM BASIS. </li></ul><ul><li>CHOSEN BY THE AUDITOR. </li></ul><ul><li>PERMISSION SOUGHT. </li></ul><ul><li>ESTABLISH AND AGREE FACTS. </li></ul><ul><li>REMAIN DISINTERESTED. </li></ul><ul><li>REMAIN POLITE. </li></ul>
  27. 28. TIME WASTERS <ul><li>INTRODUCTION AND PRESENTATIONS. </li></ul><ul><li>A WALK ROUND – THE LONG WAY. </li></ul><ul><li>COFFEE, TEA, LUNCH. </li></ul><ul><li>THE RED HERRING. </li></ul><ul><li>THE UNIMPORTANT WAY. </li></ul><ul><li>TOP BRASS. </li></ul>
  28. 29. TO RECORD A NON-CONFORMANCE THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION IS NECESSARY : <ul><li>THE FACTS FOUND/OBSERVED. </li></ul><ul><li>WHERE THE FACTS WERE FOUND. </li></ul><ul><li>WHY IT IS A NON-CONFORMANCE. </li></ul><ul><li>WHO WAS INVOLVED (OPTIONAL) </li></ul>
  29. 30. A SIGNIFICANT NON-COMPLIANCE WITH A QUALITY SYSTEM REQUIREMENT. OR A FAILURE OF, OR COMPLETE OMISSION OF A QUALITY SYSTEM REQUIREMENT. OR A SIGNIFICANT NUMBER OF MINOR NON-CONFORMITIES CONCERNING THE SAME QUALITY SYSTEM REQUIREMENT. MAJOR NON-CONFORMITY
  30. 31. AN ISOLATED INCIDENT OF A FAILURE TO COMPLY WITH A PROCEDURE OR QUALITY SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS. MINOR NON-CONFORMITY
  31. 32. <ul><li>Do not trust your memory, write down information as you go. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not clutter your mind with trivia. </li></ul><ul><li>Use your check list and record on it if you wish. </li></ul>IF ADEQUATE NOTES ARE NOT TAKEN IT WILL BE VERY DIFFICULT TO RECALL WHAT HAS BEEN OBSERVED.
  32. 33. REMEMBER TO LISTEN TO WHAT IS SAID AND OBSERVE AT ALL TIMES, ANALYSE AND RECORDED WHAT IS IMPORTANT.
  33. 34. INTERNAL AUDIT REQUIREMENT – ISO/TS 16949 - 2002
  34. 35. 8.2.2 Internal audit The organisation shall conduct internal audits at planned intervals to determine whether the quality management system a) Conforms to the planned arrangements (see7.1) to the requirements of this International Standard and to the quality management system requirements established by the organisation, and b) Is effectively implemented and maintained. An audit program shall be planned, taking into consideration the status and importance of the processes and areas to be audited, as well as the results of previous audits. The audit criteria, scope, frequency and methods shall be defined.
  35. 36. Selection of auditors and conduct of audits shall ensure objectivity and impartiality of the audit process. Auditors shall not audit their own work. The management responsible for the area being audited shall ensure that actions are taken without undue delay to eliminate detected non-conformities and their causes. Follow-up activities shall include the verification of the actions taken and the reporting of verification results (see 8.5.2). NOTE See ISO 10011-1, ISO 10011-2 and ISO 10011-3 for guidance.
  36. 37. 8.2.2.1 Quality management system audit The organisation shall audit its quality management system to verify compliance with this Technical Specification and any additional quality management system requirements.
  37. 38. 8.2.2.2 Manufacturing process audit The organisation shall audit each manufacturing process to determine its effectiveness.
  38. 39. 8.2.2.3 Product audit The organisation shall audit products at appropriate stages of production and delivery to verify conformity to all specified requirements, such as product dimensions, functionality, packaging, labeling, at a defined frequency.
  39. 40. 8.2.2.4 Internal audit plans Internal audits shall cover all quality management related processes, activities and shifts, and shall be scheduled according to an annual plan. When internal / external non conformities or customer complaints occur, the audit frequency shall be appropriately increased. NOTE Specific checklists should be used for each audit.
  40. 41. 8.2.2.5 Internal auditor qualification The organisation shall have internal auditors who are qualified to audit the requirements of this Technical Specification (see 6.2.2.2).
  41. 42. INTERNAL AUDIT (ISO/TS 16949 – 2002)
  42. 43. Auditing for conformance with planned arrangements Planned Arrangements are the agreed criteria and these are the intentions of management as expressed by the quality policy, quality objectives and particular requirements for products.
  43. 44. Clause 7.1 refers to clause 4.1 and therefore, the audit should verify that in designing the management system, the organization has identified all the necessary processes, determined their sequence and interaction, the criteria and methods for effective operation and control, provided the necessary information and resources and installed the necessary monitoring, measurement analysis and improvement processes.
  44. 45. Planned intervals - Any time interval and as the quality policy is unlikely to change very much in a five-year period, annual audits may not detect any significant variations. Quality objectives also may change once a year and so quarterly audits may not detect any significant change. However, product requirements vary with every new product. Intervals of audit need to be set relative to changes in polices, objectives and products rather than a set frequency.
  45. 46. The audits should be designed to verify that the system is capable of – <ul><li>Implementing the agreed policies (a policy audit) </li></ul><ul><li>Enabling the organization to achieve the agreed objectives (a strategic audit) </li></ul><ul><li>Enabling the organization to meet the specific product requirements (a project or product audit). </li></ul>
  46. 47. Importance of the Process <ul><li>Whom is it important – the customer, the managing director, the public or immediate superior ? </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of the activity upon the effect of non-compliance with the planned arrangements. </li></ul><ul><li>Minor decision in the planning or design phase could result in major problems. </li></ul>
  47. 48. The audit criteria are the standards for the performance being audited. They may include policies, procedures, regulations or requirements The scope of the audit is a definition of what the audit is to cover including the areas, locations, shifts, processes, departments etc. Defining audit criteria, scope, frequency and methods Contd…..
  48. 49. Selection of Auditors <ul><li>Should be selected on the basis of their objectivity and impartiality – such that their association with the work being audited should not influence their judgment. </li></ul>
  49. 50. <ul><li>Auditors can be from the same department as the activities being audited, provided they do not perform the activities being audited. </li></ul><ul><li>Separate independent quality audit departments could be set staffed with trained auditors. </li></ul><ul><li>Audits could be carried out by competent personal at any level. </li></ul>Retaining Impartiality
  50. 51. Audit procedures <ul><li>This means that the who, when, where, what, why and the how of planning, conducting and reporting audits should be defined and documented. The methods of maintaining audit records following the audit should also be defined and documented </li></ul>
  51. 52. The audit procedures should cover the following - <ul><li>Preparing the annual audit programme. </li></ul><ul><li>The selection of auditors and team leader if necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>Planning particular type of audits. </li></ul><ul><li>Conducting the audit. </li></ul><ul><li>Recording observations. </li></ul><ul><li>Determining corrective actions. </li></ul><ul><li>Reporting audit findings. </li></ul><ul><li>Implementing corrective actions. </li></ul><ul><li>Confirming the effectiveness of corrective actions. </li></ul>Contd…..
  52. 53. <ul><li>The forms on which you plan the audit. </li></ul><ul><li>The forms on which you record the observations and corrective actions. </li></ul><ul><li>Any warning notices you send out of impending audits, overdue corrective actions and escalation actions. </li></ul>
  53. 54. Audit Planning The detail plan for each audit include dates, what is to be audited, against what requirements and by whom. Overall plans are best presented as programme chargs and detail plan as check lists.
  54. 55. Although checklists may be considered a plan, in the context of an audit they should be considered only as an aid to allow the auditor to follow trails that may lead to discovery of pertinent facts. The checklist should represent minimum aspects indicating - <ul><li>Those activities that were compliant </li></ul><ul><li>Those activities that did not comply. </li></ul><ul><li>Those activities that were not checked. </li></ul><ul><li>Those activities where there were opportunities for improvement. </li></ul>
  55. 56. Taking Action Management responsible for the area audited are those who have the authority to cause change. Action without undue delay means that management are expected to act before the detected problem impacts subsequent results.
  56. 57. Eliminating non-conformities and their causes means that managers should – <ul><li>Take remedial action to correct the particular non-conformity. </li></ul><ul><li>Search for other examples of non-conformity and establish how widespread the problem is. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish the route cause of the non-conformity and prevent its recurrence. </li></ul>
  57. 58. The auditor needs to be sure that a failure to act will in fact impact performance of the processes or the system. Therefore, auditor to explain the impact of the detected non-conformity within the audit report – possibly by using a classification convention from critical to minor.
  58. 59. Follow up Audits An action taken after the audit to verify that agreed actions from the audit have been completed as planned. Follow-up audits may be carried out immediately after the planned completion date for the actions or at some other agreed time. However, unless the audit is carried out relatively close to the agreed completion date, it will not be possible to ascertain if the action was carried out without undue delay. Contd…..
  59. 60. The auditor who carries out the follow-up audit need not be the same that carried out the internal audit. In fact there is some merit in using different auditors in order to calibrate the auditors.   When all the agreed non-conformities have been eliminated the audit report can be closed. The audit remains incomplete until all actions have been verified as being completed.
  60. 61. Product Audit <ul><li>On-site verification activity used to – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>verify conformance to specified product requirements (e.g., design requirements, engineering specifications), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ensure that quality objectives are met, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>verify that these requirements are met. </li></ul></ul>
  61. 62. Manufacturing Process Audit <ul><li>On-site verification activity used to – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>verify conformance to specified requirements, such as control plan, work instructions, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ensure that quality objectives are met, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>verify that specified requirements for process capability/ performance are met, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>assess the effectiveness of activities and related results. </li></ul></ul>
  62. 63. ISO/TS 16949 – 2002 REQUIREMENTS AND CHECKLISTS
  63. 64. The organisation shall establish, document, implement and maintain a quality management system and continually improve its effectiveness in accordance with the requirements of this International Standard . The organisation shall 4. QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 4.1 General requirements a) identify the processes needed for the quality management system and their application throughout the organisation (see 1.2), b) determine the sequence and interaction of these processes, Contd.
  64. 65. c) determine criteria and methods needed to ensure that both the operation and control of these process are effective. d) ensure the availability of resources and information necessary to support the operation and monitoring of these processes. e) monitor, measure and analyse these processes, and f) implement actions necessary to achieve planned results and continual improvement of these processes. These processes shall be managed by the organisation in accordance with the requirements of this International Standard. Contd.
  65. 66. NOTE : Processes needed for the quality management system referred to above should include processes for management activities, provision of resources, product realisation and measurement Where an organisation chooses to outsource any process that affects product conformity with requirements, the organisation shall ensure control over such processes. Control of such outsourced processes shall be identified within the quality management system. Contd.
  66. 67. Clause No 4.1 e & f <ul><li>Monitoring measuring and analysing the processes and implementing actions necessary to achieve planned results and continual improvement of the processes. </li></ul>ALL <ul><li>Controlling of outsourced processes that can affect product conformity with requirements. </li></ul>PM, DM, QA
  67. 68. 4.1.1 General Requirements - Supplemental Ensuring control over outsourced processes shall not absolve the organisation of the responsibility of conformity to all customer requirements. NOTE : See also 7.4.1 and 7.4.1.3
  68. 70. 4.2 Documentation requirements 4.2.1 General The quality management system documentation shall include a) documented statements of a quality policy and quality objectives, b) a quality manual, c) documented procedures required by this International Standard , d) documents needed by the organisation to ensure the effective planning, operation and control of its processes, and e) records required by this International Standard(see 4.2.4) .
  69. 71. NOTE 1 Where the term “documented procedure” appears within this International Standard, this means that the procedure is established, documented, implemented and maintained. NOTE 2 The extent of the quality management system documentation can differ from one organisation to another due to a) the size of organisation and type of activities, b) the complexity of processes and their interactions, and c) the competence of personnel. NOTE 3 The documentation can be in any form or type of medium.
  70. 72. 4.2.2 Quality manual The organisation shall establish and maintain a quality manual that includes a) the scope of the quality management system, including the details of and justification for any exclusions (see 1.2), b) the documented procedures established for the quality management system, or reference to them, and c) a description of the interaction between the processes of the quality management system .
  71. 73. 4.2.3 Control of documents Documents required by the quality management system shall be controlled. Records are a special type of document and shall be controlled according to the requirements given in 4.2.4. A documented procedure shall be established to define the controls needed a) to approve documents for adequacy prior to issue, b) to review and update as necessary and re-approve documents. c) to ensure that changes and the current revision status of documents are identified, d) to ensure that relevant versions of applicable documents are available at points of use, Contd.
  72. 74. e) to ensure that documents remain legible and readily identifiable, f) to ensure that documents of external origin are identified and their distribution controlled, and g) to prevent the unintended use of obsolete documents, and to apply suitable identification to them if they are retained for any purpose. Contd.
  73. 75. Clause No 4.2.3 <ul><li>List of controlled documents alongwith their latest revision status. </li></ul>ALL <ul><li>Issue record of documents </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of pertinent documents at its point of use . </li></ul><ul><li>Withdrawal of obsolete documents </li></ul>
  74. 76. . 4.2.3.1 Engineering specifications The organisation shall have a process to assure the timely review, distribution and implementation of all customer engineering standards / specifications and changes based on customer required schedule. Timely review should be as soon as possible, and shall not exceed two working weeks. The organisation shall maintain a record of the date on which each change is implemented in production . Implementation shall include updated documents. NOTE A change in these standards/specifications requires an updated record of customer production part approval when these specifications are referenced on the design record or if they affect documents of production part approval process, such as control plan, FMEAs, etc.
  75. 77. Clause No 4.2.3.1 <ul><li>Timely review, distribution and implementation of all customer engineering standards/ specification and changes based on customer required schedule. </li></ul>PED <ul><li>Review should be as soon as possible and not exceeding two working weeks </li></ul>PED <ul><li>Record of the date on which each change is implemented in production including updating of documents. </li></ul>PED
  76. 78. 4.2.4 Control of records Records shall be established and maintained to provide evidence of conformity to requirements and of the effective operation of the quality management system. Records shall remain legible, readily identifiable and retrievable. A documented procedure shall be established to define the controls needed for the identification, storage, protection, retrieval, retention time and disposition of records . NOTE 1 “Disposition” above includes disposal. NOTE 2 “Records” also include customer -specified records.
  77. 79. Clause No 4.2.4 <ul><li>Legibility, readily identifiability and retrievability of records </li></ul>ALL <ul><li>Retaining updated record of customer production part approval (PPA) if the changes in the standards/ specifications effect PPA documents i.e., Control Plan, FMEA etc. </li></ul>PED
  78. 80. 4.2.4.1 Records retention The control of records shall satisfy regulatory and customer requirements.
  79. 81. 5 MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBILITY 5.1 Management commitment Top management shall provide evidence of its commitment to the development and implementation of the quality management system and continually improving its effectiveness by a) communicating to the organisation the importance of meeting customer as well as statutory and regulatory requirements, b) establishing the quality policy, c) ensuring that quality objectives are established, d) conducting management reviews,and e) ensuring the availability of resources.
  80. 82. 5.1.1 Process efficiency Top management shall monitor the product realisation processes and the support processes to assure their effectiveness and efficiency.
  81. 83. Clause No 5.1.1 <ul><li>Review by top management of the product realisation processes and the support processes to assure their effectiveness and efficiency. </li></ul>MR
  82. 84. 5.2 Customer focus Top management shall ensure that customer requirements are determined and are met with the aim of enhancing customer satisfaction (see 7.2.1 and 8.2.1).
  83. 86. 5.3 Quality policy Top management shall ensure that the quality policy a) is appropriate to the purpose of the organisation, b) includes a commitment to comply with requirements and continually improve the effectiveness of the quality management system, c) provides a framework for establishing and reviewing quality objectives, d) is communicated and understood within the organisation, and e) is reviewed for continuing suitability.
  84. 88. Clause No 5.3 <ul><li>Communication and understanding of the quality policy within the organisation . </li></ul>ALL <ul><li>Reviewing of continuing suitability of Quality Policy. </li></ul>MR
  85. 89. 5.4 Planning 5.4.1 Quality objectives Top management shall ensure that quality objectives, including those needed to meet requirements for product (see 7.1 a) are established at relevant functions and levels within the organisation. The quality objectives shall be measurable and consistent with the quality policy.
  86. 90. Clause No 5.4.1 <ul><li>Establishment of quality objectives at all levels. </li></ul>ALL <ul><li>Development of action plan and road map for each objective </li></ul><ul><li>Measuring, monitoring and analysing the results against the road map of each objectives and implementing actions necessary to achieve the planned results </li></ul>
  87. 91. 5.4.1.1 Quality objectives- supplemental Top management shall define quality objectives and measurements that shall be included in the business plan and used to deploy the quality policy. NOTE Quality objectives should address customer expectations and be achievable within a defined time period.
  88. 92. 5.4.2 Quality management systems planning Top management shall ensure that a) the planning of the quality management system is carried out in order to meet the requirements given in 4.1, as well as the quality objectives, and b) the integrity of the quality management system is maintained when changes to the quality management system are planned and implemented .
  89. 94. 5.5 Responsibility, authority and communication 5.5.1 Responsibility and authority Top management shall ensure that the responsibilities and authorities are defined and communicated within the organisation.
  90. 95. 5.5.1.1 Responsibility for quality Managers with responsibility and authority for corrective action shall be promptly informed of products or processes which do not conform to requirements. Personnel responsible for product quality shall have the authority to stop production to correct quality problems. Production operations across all shifts shall be staffed with personnel in charge of, or delegated responsibility for, ensuring product quality.
  91. 96. 5.5.2 Management representative Top management shall appoint a member of management who, irrespective of other responsibilities, shall have responsibility and authority that includes a) ensuring that processes needed for the quality management system are established, implemented and maintained, b) reporting to top management on the performance of the quality management system and any need for improvement, and c) ensuring the promotion of awareness of customer requirements throughout the organisation. NOTE The responsibility of a management representative can include liaison with external parties on matters relating to the quality management system.
  92. 97. Clause No 5.5.2 <ul><li>Promoting of awareness of customer requirement throughout the organisation. </li></ul>MR
  93. 98. 5.5.2.1 Customer representative Top management shall designate personnel with responsibility and authority to ensure that customer requirements are addressed. This includes selection of special characteristics, setting quality objectives and related training, corrective and preventive actions, product design and development.
  94. 99. 5.5.3 Internal communication Top management shall ensure that appropriate communication processes are established within the organisation and that communication takes place regarding the effectiveness of the quality management system.
  95. 101. 5.6 Management review 5.6.1 General Top management shall review the organisation’s quality management system, at planned intervals, to ensure its continuing suitability,adequacy and effectiveness. This review shall include assessing opportunities for improvement and the need for changes to the quality management system, including the quality policy and quality objectives. Records from management reviews shall be maintained (see 4.2.4).
  96. 102. Clause No 5.6.1 <ul><li>Maintaining records from management review </li></ul>MR <ul><li>Management review includes all requirements of the Quality Management System and its performance trends </li></ul>MR
  97. 103. 5.6.1.1 Quality management system performance These reviews shall include all requirements of the quality management system and its performance trends as an essential part of the continual improvement process . Part of the management reviews shall be the monitoring of quality objectives, and the regular reporting and evaluation of the cost of poor quality(see 8.4.1 and 8.5.1). These results shall be recorded to provide, as a minimum, evidence of the achievement of - the quality objectives specified in the buisness plan, and - customer satisfaction with product supplied.
  98. 104. Clause No 5.6.1.1 <ul><li>Recording the results of review of customer satisfaction of the product </li></ul>MR <ul><li>Part of the management review includes : </li></ul>MR <ul><li>monitoring of quality objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>regular reporting and evaluation of the cost of the poor quality. </li></ul><ul><li>quality objectives specified in the Business Plan. </li></ul><ul><li>customer satisfaction with product supplied : </li></ul>
  99. 105. 5.6.2 Review input The input to management review shall include information on a) results of audits, b) customer feedback, c) process performance and product conformity, d) status of preventive and corrective actions, e) follow-up actions from previous management reviews, f) changes that could affect the quality management system, and g) recommendations for improvement.
  100. 106. 5.6.2.1 Review input- Supplemental Input to management review shall include an analysis of actual and potential field-failures and their impact on quality, safety or the environment.
  101. 107. Clause No 5.6.2 and 5.6.2.1 <ul><li>Management review includes : </li></ul>MR <ul><li>Results of audits </li></ul><ul><li>Customer feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Process performance and product conformity. </li></ul><ul><li>Status of preventive and corrective action </li></ul><ul><li>Follow up actions previous management reviees. </li></ul><ul><li>Changes that could effect the quality management system. </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendation for improvement. </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of actual and potential field failures and their impact on quality, safety or the environment. </li></ul>
  102. 108. 5.6.3 Review output The output from the management review shall include any decisions and actions related to a) improvement of the effectiveness of the quality management system and its processes, b) improvement of product related to customer requirements, and c) resource needs.
  103. 109. Clause No 5.6.3 <ul><li>The management review output includes : </li></ul>MR <ul><li>improvement of the effectiveness of the quality management system and its processes. </li></ul><ul><li>improvement of product related to customer requirements, and </li></ul><ul><li>resource needs. </li></ul>
  104. 111. 6 RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 6.1 Provision of resources The organisation shall determine and provide the resources needed a) to implement and maintain the quality management system and continually improve its effectiveness, and b) to enhance customer satisfaction by meeting customer requirements.
  105. 113. 6.2 Human resources 6.2.1 General Personnel performing work affecting product quality shall be competent on the basis of appropriate education, training, skills and experience.
  106. 115. Clause No 6.2.1 <ul><li>The personnel performing work effecting product quality are competent on the basis of appropriate education, training, skills and experience. </li></ul>ALL
  107. 116. 6.2.2 Competence, awareness and training The organisation shall a) determine the necessary competence for personnel performing work affecting product quality, b) provide training or take other actions to satisfy these needs, c) evaluate the effectiveness of the actions taken, d) ensure that its personnel are aware of the relevance and importance of their activities and how they contribute to the achievements of the quality objectives, and e) maintain appropriate records of education, training, skills and experience (see 4.2.4) .
  108. 117. Clause No 6.2.2 <ul><li>Determining the necessary competence for personnel performing work affecting product quality </li></ul>HRD <ul><li>Providing training or taking other actions to satisfy the competency needs. </li></ul>HRD <ul><li>Evaluating the effectiveness of the training and other actions taken. </li></ul>HRD <ul><li>Ensuring that personnel are aware of the relevance and importance of their activities and how they contribute to the achievement of the quality objectives. </li></ul>ALL <ul><li>Maintaining records of education, training, skills and experience. </li></ul>HRD
  109. 118. 6.2.2.1 Product design skills The organisation shall ensure that personnel with product design responsibility are competent to achieve design requirements and are skilled in applicable tools and techniques. Applicable tools and techniques shall be identified by the organisation.
  110. 119. 6.2.2.2 Training The organisation shall establish and maintain documented procedures for identifying training needs and achieving competence of all personnel performing activities affecting product quality. Personnel performing specific assigned tasks shall be qualified, as required, with particular attention to the satisfaction of customer requirements.. NOTE 1 This applies to all employees having an affect on quality at all levels of the organisation. NOTE 2 An example of the customer specific requirements is the application of digitized mathematically based data.
  111. 120. Clause No 6.2.2.2 <ul><li>Identifying training needs and achieving competence of all personnel performing activities affecting product quality </li></ul>HRD
  112. 121. 6.2.2.3 Training on the job The organisation shall provide on-the-job training for personnel in any new or modified job affecting product quality, including contract or agency personnel. Personnel whose work can affect quality shall be informed about the consequences to the customer of nonconformity to quality requirements.
  113. 122. Clause No 6.2.2.3 <ul><li>Providing on the job training for personnel in any new or modified job affecting the product quality including contract or agency personnel. </li></ul>ALL <ul><li>Informing personnel whose work could affect quality about the consequences to the customer of non conformity to quality requirements </li></ul>
  114. 123. 6.2.2.4 Employee motivation and empowerment The organisation shall have a process to motivate employees to achieve quality objectives, to make continual improvements, and to create an environment to promote innovation. The process shall include the promotion of quality and technological awareness througout the whole organisation . The organisation shall have a process to measure the extent to which its personnel are aware of the relevance and importance of their activities and how they contribute to the achievement of the quality objectives (See 6.2.2 d).
  115. 124. Clause No 6.2.2.4 <ul><li>Motivating employees to achieve quality objectives, to make continual improvements ; and to create an environment to promote innovation. </li></ul>ALL <ul><li>Promoting quality and technological awareness throughout the whole organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Measuring the extent to which personnel are aware of their relevance and importance of their activities and how they contribute to the achievement of the quality objectives. </li></ul>
  116. 125. 6.3 Infrastructure The organisation shall determine, provide and maintain the infrastructure needed to achieve conformity to product requirements. Infrastructure includes, as applicable a) building, workspace and associated utilities, b) process equipment (both hardware and software), and c) supporting services (such as transport or communication).
  117. 126. 6.3.1 Plant, facility and equipment planning The organisation shall use a multidisciplinary approach (see 7.3.1.1) for developing plant, facility and equipment plans. Plant layouts shall optimize material travel, handling and value added use of floor space, and shall facilitate synchronous material flow. Methods shall be developed and implemented to evaluate and monitor the effectiveness of existing operations. NOTE These requirements should focus on lean manufacturing principles and the link to the effectiveness of the quality management system.
  118. 127. Clause No 6.3.1 <ul><li>Using multi disciplinary approach for developing plant facility and equipment plans. </li></ul>PED <ul><li>Evaluating and monitoring the effectiveness of existing operations </li></ul>PED <ul><li>Optimising material flow, handling and value added use of floor space and facilitating synchronous material flow of plant layouts </li></ul>PED
  119. 128. 6.3.2 Contingency plans The organisation shall prepare contingency plans to satisfy customer requirements in the event of an emergency such as utility interruptions, labour shortages, key equipment failure and field returns.
  120. 129. Clause No. 6.3.2 <ul><li>Multi skilling of personnel </li></ul>ALL <ul><li>Stocking of spares of key equipment and monitoring their inventory levels </li></ul>PM, DM
  121. 130. 6.4 Work environment The organisation shall determine and manage the work environment needed to achieve conformity to product requirements.
  122. 131. Clause No. 6.4 <ul><li>Managing work environment needed to achieve conformity to product requirements. </li></ul>WS, PS, MFG., LC, MX, PM, QA, DM
  123. 132. 6.4.1 Personnel safety Product safety and means to minimize potential risks to employees shall be addressed by the organisation, especially in the design and development process and in manufacturing process activities.
  124. 133. Clause No. 6.4.1 <ul><li>Minimising potential risks to employees in process design and development process and manufacturing process activities </li></ul>PED, WS, PS, MFG., MX, PM, QA, QM, LC
  125. 134. 6.4.2 Cleanliness of premises The organisation shall maintain its premises in a state of order, cleanliness and repair consistent with the product and manufacturing process needs.
  126. 135. Clause No. 6.4.2 <ul><li>Maintaining premises in a state of order, cleanliness and repair consistent with the product and manufacturing process needs. </li></ul>WS, PS, MFG., MX, PM, QA, DM, LC
  127. 136. 7 PRODUCT realisation 7.1 Planning of product realisation The organisation shall plan and develop the processes needed for product realisation. Planning of product realisation shall be consistent with the requirements of the other processes of the quality management system (see 4.1). In planning product realisation, the organisation shall determine the following, as appropriate: Contd. a) quality objectives and requirements for the product, b) the need to establish processes, documents, and provide resources specific to the product,
  128. 137. c) required verification, validation, monitoring, inspection and test activities specific to the product and the criteria for product acceptance; d) records needed to provide evidence that the realisation processes and resulting product meet requirements(see 4.2.4). The output of this planning shall be in a form suitable for the organisation’s method of operations. NOTE 1 A document specifying the processes of the quality management system (including the product realisation processes) and the resources to be applied to a specific product,project or contract,can be referred to as a quality plan. Contd.
  129. 138. NOTE 2 The organisation may also apply the requirements given in 7.3 to the development of product realisation processes. NOTE Some customers refer to project management or advanced product quality planning as a means to achieve product realisation. Advanced product quality planning embodies the concept of error prevention and continual improvement as contrasted with error detection, and is based on a multidisciplinary approach. Contd.
  130. 139. 7.1.1 Planning of product realisation - Supplemental Customer requirements and references to its technical specifications shall be included in the planning of product realisation as a component of the quality plan.
  131. 141. 7.1.2 Acceptance criteria Acceptance criteria shall be defined by the organisation and, where required, approved by the customer. For attribute data sampling, acceptance criteria shall be zero defects (see 8.2.3.1).
  132. 142. 7.1.3 Confidentiality The organisation shall ensure the confidentiality of customer-contracted products and projects under development, and related product information .
  133. 143. Clause No 7.1, 7.1.1 and 7.1.3 Contd…. <ul><li>Planning the product realisation. </li></ul>PED <ul><li>Determining the following as appropriate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>quality objectives and requirements for the product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the need to establish processes, documents and resources specific to product. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>required verification, validation, monitoring, inspection and test activities specific to the product and the criteria for product acceptance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>records needed to provide evidence that the realisation processes and resulting product meet requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>including customer requirements and referencing to its technical specifications as a component of the quality plan. </li></ul>
  134. 144. Contd…. <ul><li>defining the acceptance criteria. </li></ul><ul><li>ensuring confidentiality of customer – contracted product and projects under development, and related product information. </li></ul>
  135. 145. 7.1.4 Change control The organisation shall have a process to control and react to changes that impact product realisation. The effects of any change, including those changes caused by any supplier, shall be assessed, and verification and validation activities shall be defined, to ensure compliance with customer requirements. Changes shall be validated before implementation . For proprietary designs, impact on form, fit and function (including performance, and / or durability) shall be reviewed with the customer so that all effects can be properly evaluated.
  136. 146. When required by the customer, additional verification / identification requirements, such as those required for new product introduction, shall be met. Note 1 Any product realisation change affecting customer requirements requires notification to, and agreement from, the customer. Note 2 The above requirement applies to product and manufacturing process changes. Contd.
  137. 148. Clause No. 7.1.4 <ul><li>Controlling, reacting to and validation of changes that impact product realisation before implementation. </li></ul>PED
  138. 149. 7.2 Customer- related processes 7.2.1 Determination of requirements related to the product. The organisation shall determine a) requirements specified by the customer, including the requirements for delivery and post delivery activities. b) requirements not stated by the customer but necessary for specified or intended use, where known. c) statutory and regulatory requirements related to the product, and d) any additional requirements determined by the organisation.
  139. 150. Note 1 Post delivery activities include any after sales product service provided as part of the customer contract or purchase order . Note 2 This requirement includes recycling, environmental impact and characteristics identified as a result of the organisation’s knowledge of the product and manufacturing processes(see 7.3.2.3). Note 3 Compliance to items c) includes all applicable government, safety and environmental regulations, applied to acquisition, storage, handling, recycling, elimination or disposal of materials. Contd.
  140. 151. Clause No 7.2.1 <ul><li>Determination of requirements related to the product including </li></ul>PED <ul><li>requirements specified by the customer, including the requirement for delivery and post delivery activities. </li></ul><ul><li>requirements not stated by the customer but necessary for specified or intended use where known. </li></ul><ul><li>statutory and regulatory requirements related to the product, and </li></ul><ul><li>any additional requirements determined by the organisation. </li></ul>
  141. 152. 7.2.1.1 Customer designated special characteristics The organisation shall demonstrate conformity to customer requirements for designation, documentation and control of special characteristics.
  142. 153. Clause No. 7.2.1.1 <ul><li>Designating, documentation and control of special characteristics. </li></ul>PED
  143. 154. 7.2.2 Review of requirements related to the product The organisation shall review the requirements related to the product. This review shall be conducted prior to the organisation’s commitment to supply a product to the customer (e.g. submission of tenders, acceptance of contracts or orders, acceptance of changes to contracts or orders) and shall ensure that a) product requirements are defined, b) contract or order requirements differing from those previously expressed are resolved, and c) the organisation has the ability to meet the defined requirements. Records of the results of the review and actions arising from the review shall be maintained (see 4.2.4).
  144. 155. Where the customer provides no documented statement of requirement, the customer requirements shall be confirmed by the organisation before acceptance. Where product requirements are changed, the organisation shall ensure that relevant documents are amended and that relevant personnel are made aware of the changed requirements. NOTE In some situations, such as internal sales, a formal review is impractical for each order. Instead the review can cover relevant product information such as catalogues or advertising material. Contd.
  145. 156. Clause No. 7.2.2 <ul><li>Reviewing requirements related to the product as per procedure. </li></ul>PED, BD <ul><li>Recording results of such reviews. </li></ul>PED, BD
  146. 157. 7.2.2.1 Review of requirements related to the produuct - Supplemental Waiving the requirement stated in 7.2.2 for a formal review (see note) shall require customer authorisation..
  147. 158. 7.2.2.2 Organisation manufacturing feasibility The organisation shall investigate, confirm and document the manufacturing feasibility of the proposed products in the contract review process, including risk analysis.
  148. 159. Clause No. 7.2.2.2 <ul><li>Investigating, conforming and documenting the manufacturing feasibility including risk analysis, as per procedure. </li></ul>PED, BD
  149. 160. 7.2.3 Customer communication The organisation shall determine and implement effective arrangements for communicating with customers in relation to a) product information, b) enquiries, contracts or order handling, including amendments, and c) customer feedback, including customer complaints.
  150. 162. Clause No. 7.2.3 <ul><li>Determining and implementing effective arrangements for communication with customers, as per procedure. </li></ul>PED, BD
  151. 163. 7.2.3.1 Customer communication – Supplemental The organisation shall have the ability to communicate necessary information, including data, in a customer -specified language and format (e.g. computer-aided design data, electronic data exchange).
  152. 164. 7.3 Design and development NOTE The requirements of 7.3 include product and manufacturing process design and development, and focus on error prevention rather than detection.
  153. 165. 7.3.1 Design and development planning The organisation shall plan and control the design and development of product. During the design and development planning, the organisation shall determine a) the design and development stages, b) the review, verification and validation that are appropriate to each design and development stage, and c) the responsibilities and authorities for design and development. The organisation shall manage the interfaces between different groups involved in design and development to ensure effective communication and clear assignment of responsibility. Planning output shall be updated, as appropriate, as the design and development progresses.
  154. 166. Clause No. 7.3.1 <ul><li>Planning and controlling the process design and development of product, as per procedure. </li></ul>PED, BD
  155. 167. 7.3.1.1 Multidisciplinary approach The organisation shall use a multidisciplinary approach to prepare for product realisation, including - development / finalization and monitoring of special characteristics, - development and review of FMEAs including actions to reduce potential risks, and - development and review of control plans. NOTE A multidisciplinary approach typically includes the organisation’s design, manufacturing, engineering, quality, production and other appropriate personnel.
  156. 168. Clause No 7.3.1.1 <ul><li>Using multi disciplinary approach for : </li></ul>PED <ul><li>finalisation and monitoring of special characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>development and review of FMEAs. </li></ul><ul><li>development and review of control plans. </li></ul>
  157. 169. 7.3.2 Design and development inputs Inputs relating to product requirements shall be determined and records maintained (see 4.2.4). These inputs shall include a) functional and performance requirements, b) applicable statutory and regulatory requirements, c) where applicable, information derived from previous similar designs, and d) other requirements essential for design and development. These inputs shall be reviewed for adequacy. Requirements shall be complete, unambiguous and not in conflict with each other. NOTE Special characteristics (see 7.2.1.1) are included in this requirement.
  158. 170. 7.3.2.1 Product design input The organisation shall identify, document and review the product design inputs requirements, including the following : - Customer requirements (contract review) such as special characteristics (see 7.3.2.3), identification, traceability and packaging; - Use of information; the organisation shall have a process to deploy information gained from previous design projects, competitor analysis, supplier feedback, internal input, field data, and other relevant sources, for current and future projects of a similar nature; - Targets for product quality, life, reliability, durability, maintainability, timing and cost.
  159. 171. 7.3.2.2 Manufacturing process design input The organisation shall identify, document and review the manufacturing process design input requirements, including - product design output data, - targets for productivity, process capability and cost, - customers requirements, if any, and - experience from previous developments. NOTE The manufacturing process design includes the use of error-proofing methods to a degree appropriate to the magnitude of the problems and commensurate with the risks encountered.
  160. 172. 7.3.2.3 Special characteristics The organisation shall identify special characteristics (see 7.3.3 d) and - include all special characteristics in the control plan, - comply with customer specified definitions and symbols, and - identify process control documents including drawings, FMEAs, control plans, and operator instructions with the customer’s special characteristic symbol or the organisation’s equivalent symbol or notation to include those process steps that affect special characteristics. NOTE Special characteristics can include product characteristics and process parameters.
  161. 173. Clause No 7.3.2, 7.3.2.2 and 7.3.2.3 Contd…. <ul><li>Determining and maintaining records of the inputs relating to product requirements, including : </li></ul>PED <ul><li>functional & performance requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>applicable statutory and regulatory requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>process design output data. </li></ul><ul><li>targets for productivity, process capability and cost </li></ul><ul><li>customer requirements, if any </li></ul><ul><li>experience from previous developments. </li></ul>
  162. 174. Contd…. <ul><li>Reviewing the adequacy of the inputs. </li></ul>PED <ul><li>Identifying special characteristics. </li></ul>PED
  163. 175. 7.3.3 Design and development output The outputs of design and development shall be provided in a form that enables verification against the design and development input and shall be approved prior to release. Design and development outputs shall a) meet the input requirements for design and development, b) provide appropriate information for purchasing, production and for service provision, c) contain or reference product acceptance criteria, and d) specify the characteristics of the product that are essential for its safe and proper use.
  164. 176. 7.3.3.1 Product design outputs - Supplemental The product design output shall be expressed in terms that can be verified and validated against product design input requirements. The product design output shall include - design FMEA, reliability results, - product special characteristics and specifications, - product error-proofing, as appropriate, - product definition including drawings or mathematically based data, - product design reviews results, and - diagnostic guidelines where applicable.
  165. 177. 7.3.3.2 Manufacturing process design output The manufacturing process design output shall be expressed in terms that can be verified against manufacturing process design input requirements and validated. The manufacturing process design output shall include - specifications and drawings, - manufacturing process flow chart / layout, - manufacturing process FMEAs, - control plan (see 7.5.1.1), - work instructions, - process approval acceptance criteria, - data for quality, reliability, maintainability and measurability, - results of error-proofing activities, as appropriate, and - methods of rapid detection and feedback of product / manufacturing process nonconformities.
  166. 178. Clause No 7.3.3 and 7.3.3.2 Contd…. <ul><li>Providing process design and development output including </li></ul>PED <ul><li>meeting the input requirements for process design and development. </li></ul><ul><li>providing information for purchasing and production. </li></ul><ul><li>referencing product acceptance criteria. </li></ul><ul><li>specifying the characteristics of the product that are essential for its safe and proper use. </li></ul><ul><li>specifications and drawings. </li></ul><ul><li>manufacturing process flow chart. </li></ul>
  167. 179. Contd…. <ul><li>manufacturing process FMEA. </li></ul><ul><li>control plan. </li></ul><ul><li>work instructions. </li></ul><ul><li>process approval acceptance criteria. </li></ul><ul><li>data for quality, reliability, maintainability and measurability </li></ul><ul><li>results and error proofing activities and </li></ul><ul><li>methods of rapid detection and feed back of product/ manufacturing process non conformities. </li></ul>
  168. 180. 7.3.4 Design and development review At suitable stages, systematic reviews of design and development shall be performed in accordance with planned arrangements (see 7.3.1) a) to evaluate the ability of the results of design and development to meet requirements, and b) to identify any problems and propose necessary actions, Participants in such reviews shall include representatives of functions concerned with the design and development stage(s) being reviewed. Records of the results of the reviews and any necessary actions shall be maintained (see 4.2.4) NOTE These reviews are normally coordinated with the design phases and should includes manufacturing process design and development
  169. 181. Clause No 7.3.4 <ul><li>Systematic reviews of process design and development at suitable stages in accordance with planned arrangements. </li></ul>PED <ul><li>Records of results of process design and development reviews and any necessary actions. </li></ul>PED
  170. 182. 7.3.4.1 Monitoring Measurements at specified stages of design and development shall be defined, analysed and reported with summary results as an input to management review. NOTE These measurements include quality risks, costs, lead-times, critical paths and others, as appropriate.
  171. 183. Clause No 7.3.4.1 <ul><li>Defining, analysing and reporting with summary results as an input to management review of measurement at specified stages of process design and development. </li></ul>PED
  172. 184. 7.3.5 Design and development verification Verification shall be performed in accordance with planned arrangements (see 7.3.1) to ensure that the design and development outputs have met the design and development input requirements. Records of the results of the verification and any necessary actions shall be maintained (see 4.2.4).
  173. 185. Clause No 7.3.5 <ul><li>Verifying the process design and development in accordance with the planned arrangements to ensure that the process design and development output have met the process design and development input requirements.. </li></ul>PED <ul><li>Recording of the results of verification and any necessary action taken of the process design and development. </li></ul>PED
  174. 186. 7.3.6 Design and development validation Design and development validation shall be performed in accordance with planned arrangements (see 7.3.1) to ensure that the resulting product is capable of meeting the requirements for the specified application or intended use, where known. Wherever practicable, validation shall be completed prior to the delivery or implementation of the product. Records of the results of validation and any necessary actions shall be maintained (see 4.2.4). NOTE 1. The validation process normally includes an analysis of field reports for similar products. NOTE 2. The requirements of 7.3.5 and 7.3.6 above apply to both product and manufacturing processes.
  175. 187. Clause No 7.3.6 <ul><li>Validation of process design and development in accordance with planned arrangements to ensure that the resulting product is capable of meeting the requirements for the specified application or intended use. </li></ul>PED <ul><li>Recording the results of validation and any actions taken of process design and development. </li></ul>PED
  176. 188. 7.3.6.1 Design and development validation - Supplemental Design and development validation shall be performed in accordance with customer requirements including programme timing.
  177. 189. Clause No 7.3.6.1 <ul><li>Validation of process design and development in accordance with customer requirement including programme timing. </li></ul>PED
  178. 190. 7.3.6.2 Prototype programme When required by the customer, the organisation shall have a prototype programme and control plan. The organisation shall use, wherever possible, the same suppliers, tooling and manufacturing processes as will be used in production. All performance testing activities shall be monitored for timely completion and conformity to requirements. While services may be outsourced, the organisation shall be responsible for the outsourced services, including technical leadership .
  179. 191. 7.3.6.3 Product approval process The organisation shall conform to a product and manufacturing process approval procedure recognised by the customer. NOTE Product approval should be subsequent to the verification of the manufacturing process. This product and manufacturing process approval procedure shall also be applied to suppliers.
  180. 192. Clause No 7.3.6.3 <ul><li>Product and manufacturing process approval as recognised by the customer. </li></ul>PED <ul><li>Product and manufacturing process approval of suppliers. </li></ul>PED
  181. 193. 7.3.7 Control of design and development changes Design and development changes shall be identified and records maintained. The changes shall be reviewed, verified and validated, as appropriate, and approved before implementation. The review of design and development changes shall include evaluation of the effect of the changes on constituent parts and product already delivered. Records of the results of the review of changes and any necessary actions shall be maintained (see 4.2.4). NOTE Design and development changes include all changes during the product programme life(see 7.1.4).
  182. 195. Clause No 7.3.7 <ul><li>Identifying and recording process design and development changes </li></ul>PED <ul><li>Reviewing, verifying and validating the changes before implementing during process designing and development. </li></ul>PED <ul><li>Recording the results of the review of changes and any necessary action during process designing and development. </li></ul>PED
  183. 196. 7.4 Purchasing 7.4.1 Purchasing process The organisation shall ensure that purchased product conforms to specified purchase requirements. The type and extent of control applied to the supplier and the purchased product shall be dependent upon the effect of the purchased product on subsequent product realisation or the final product. The organisation shall evaluate and select suppliers based on their ability to supply products in accordance with the organisation’s requirements. Criteria for selection, evaluation, and re-evaluation shall be established. Records of the results o evaluations and any necessary actions arising from the evaluation shall be maintained. (see 4.2.4)
  184. 197. NOTE 1 Purchased products above include all products and services that affect customer requirements such as sub-assembly, sequencing, sorting, rework and calibration services. NOTE 2 When there are mergers, acquisitions or affiliations associated with suppliers, the organisation should verify the continuity of the supplier’s quality management system and its effectiveness. Contd.
  185. 198. Clause No 7.4.1 <ul><li>Records of the results of evaluation and any necessary action arising from the evaluation of the suppliers. </li></ul>PUR, RML, BOP, QA
  186. 199. 7.4.1.1 Regulatory compliance All purchased products or materials used in product shall conform to applicable regulatory requirements.
  187. 200. Clause No 7.4.1.1 <ul><li>Ensuring all purchased products or materials used in product conform to applicable regulatory requirements. </li></ul>PUR, RML, BOP
  188. 201. 7.4.1.2 Supplier quality management system development The organisation shall perform supplier quality management system development with the goal of supplier conformity with this Technical Specification. Conformity with ISO 9001:2000 is the first step in achieving this goal. NOTE The prioritisation of suppliers for development depends upon, for example, the supplier’s quality performance and the importance of the product supplied. Unless otherwise specified by the customer, suppliers to the organisation shall be third party registered to ISO 9001:2000 by an accredited third party certification body.
  189. 202. Clause No 7.4.1.2 <ul><li>Performing supplier quality management system development with the goal of supplier conformity with ISO/TS 16949 : 2002. </li></ul>QA, PUR, RML, BOP <ul><li>Suppliers are third party registered to ISO 9001 : 2002 by an accredited third party certification body. </li></ul>QA, PUR, RML, BOP
  190. 203. 7.4.1.3 Customer approved sources Where specified by the contract (e.g. customer engineering drawing, specification), the organisation shall purchase products, materials or services from approved sources. The use of customer designated sources, including tool / gauge suppliers, does not relieve the organisation of the responsibility for ensuring the quality of purchased products.
  191. 204. Clause No 7.4.1.3 <ul><li>Purchasing products, materials or services from sources approved by the customer where specified by contract such as customer engineering drawing, specifications etc. </li></ul>PUR, RML, BOP, PED
  192. 205. 7.4.2 Purchasing information Purchasing information shall describe the product to be purchased, including where appropriate a) requirements for approval of product, procedures, processes and equipment, b) requirements for qualification of personnel, and c) quality management system requirements. The organisation shall ensure the adequacy of specified purchase requirements prior to their communication to the supplier.
  193. 206. Clause No 7.4.2 <ul><li>Purchasing information describe the product to be purchased, including where appropriate </li></ul>PUR, BOP, RML, PED <ul><li>requirements for approval of product, procedures and equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>requirements for qualification of personnel. </li></ul><ul><li>quality management system requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>Adequacy of specified product requirements prior to their communication to the supplier. </li></ul>PUR, RML, BOP, PED
  194. 207. 7.4.3 Verification of purchased product The organisation shall establish and implement the inspection or other activities necessary for ensuring that purchased product meets specified purchase requirements. Where the organisation or its customer intends to perform verification at the supplier’s premises, the organisation shall state the intended verification arrangements and method of product release in the purchasing information.
  195. 208. 7.4.3.1 Incoming product quality The organisation shall have a process to assure the quality of purchased product (see 7.4.3) utilising one or more of the following methods: - receipt of, and evaluation of, statistical data by the organisation; - receiving inspection and / or testing such as sampling based on performance; - second or third party assessments or audits of supplier sites, when coupled with records of acceptable delivered product quality; - part evaluation by a designated laboratory; - another method agreed with the customer.
  196. 209. Clause No 7.4.3.1 <ul><li>Receiving inspection as per laid down procedures. </li></ul>QA
  197. 210. 7.4.3.2 Supplier monitoring Supplier performance shall be monitored through the following indicators: - delivered product quality, - customer disruptions including field returns, - delivery schedule performance (including incidents of premium freight), - special status customer notifications related to quality or delivery issues. The organisation shall promote supplier monitoring of the performance of their manufacturing processes.
  198. 213. Clause No 7.4.3.2 <ul><li>Monitoring of supplier performance including product quality, customer disruptions, delivery and special status customer notifications related to quality or delivery issues. </li></ul>PUR, RML, SC <ul><li>Promoting supplier monitoring of the performance of their processes </li></ul>PUR, RML, SC, QA
  199. 214. 7.5 Production and service provision 7.5.1 Control of production and services provision. The organisation shall plan and carry out production and service provision under controlled conditions. Controlled conditions shall include, as applicable a) the availability of information that describes the characteristics of the product, b) the availability of work instructions, as necessary, c) the use of suitable equipment, d) the availability and use of monitoring and measuring devices, e) the implementation of monitoring and measurement, and f) the implementation of release, delivery and post- delivery activities.
  200. 215. Clause No 7.5.1 <ul><li>Carrying out production under controlled conditions, including : </li></ul>PS, WS, MFG., LC <ul><li>availability of information that describes the characteristics of the product. </li></ul><ul><li>availability of the work instructions </li></ul><ul><li>use of suitable equipment </li></ul><ul><li>availability and use of monitoring and measuring devices </li></ul><ul><li>implementation of monitoring and measurement </li></ul><ul><li>implementation of release, delivery and post delivery activities. </li></ul>
  201. 216. 7.5.1.1 Control plan The organisation shall - develop control plans (see Annex A) at the system, sub system, component and / or material level for the product supplied, including those for processes producing bulk materials as well as parts, and - have a control plan for pre-launch and production that takes into account the design FMEA and manufacturing process FMEA outputs, The control plan shall - list the controls used for the manufacturing process control, Contd.
  202. 217. - include methods for monitoring of control exercised over special characteristics (see 7.3.2.3) defined by both the customer and the organisation, - include the customer required information, if any, and - initiate the specified reaction plan (see 8.2.3.1) when the process becomes unstable or not statistically capable. Control plans shall be reviewed and updated when any change occurs affecting product, manufacturing process, measurement, logistics, supply sources of FMEA (see 7.1.4). NOTE Customer approval may be required after review or update of the control plan. Contd.
  203. 219. Clause No 7.5.1.1 <ul><li>Control plan, including initiating the specified reaction plan when the process becomes unstable or not statistically capable. </li></ul>PED <ul><li>Reviewing and updating control plans when any change occurs effecting product, manufacturing process, measurement, logistics, supplier sources or FMEA. </li></ul>PED, PS, WS, MFG., LC, MX, QA, QAS, RML, PUR, BOP, SC
  204. 220. 7.5.1.2 Work instructions The organisation shall prepare documented work instructions for all employees having responsibilities for the operation of processes that impact product quality. These instructions shall be accessible for use at the work station. These instructions shall be derived from sources such as the quality plan, the control plan and the product realisation process.
  205. 221. Clause No 7.5.1.2 <ul><li>Documented work instructions for employees having responsibilities for the operation of processes that impact product quality. </li></ul>WS, PS, MFG., LC, MX, QA, PM, DM <ul><li>Accessibility of these work instructions for use at work station. </li></ul>
  206. 222. 7.5.1.3 Verification of job set-ups Job set-ups shall be verified whenever performed, such as an initial run of a job, material changeover, job change. Work instructions shall be available for set-up personnel. The organisation shall use statistical methods of verification where applicable. NOTE Last off- part comparisons are recommended.
  207. 223. Clause No 7.5.1.3 <ul><li>Verification of job set up as per laid down procedure </li></ul>PS, WS, MFG., LC <ul><li>Availability of work instructions for set up personnel. </li></ul>PS, WS, MFG., LC <ul><li>Use of statistical methods for verification of job set ups where applicable </li></ul>PS, WS, MFG., LC
  208. 224. 7.5.1.4 Preventive and predictive maintenance The organisation shall identify key process equipment and provide resources for machine / equipment maintenance and develop an effective planned total preventive maintenance system. As a minimum, this system shall include the following: - planned maintenance activities, - packaging and preservation of equipment, tooling and gauging, - availability of replacement parts for key manufacturing equipment, - documenting, evaluating and improving maintenance objectives. The organisation shall utilise predictive maintenance methods to continually improve the effectiveness and the efficiency of production equipment.
  209. 225. Clause No 7.5.1.4 Contd…. <ul><li>Following preventive and predictive maintenance procedure </li></ul>PM <ul><li>Preventive maintenance plan </li></ul>PM <ul><li>Implementing preventive maintenance plan. </li></ul>PM <ul><li>Packaging and preservation of equipment, tooling and gauging </li></ul>PM, DM, QA <ul><li>Availability of replacement parts for key manufacturing equipment </li></ul>PM
  210. 226. Contd…. <ul><li>Documentation, evaluation and improving maintenance objectives </li></ul>PM <ul><li>Utilising predictive maintenance methods to continually improve the effectiveness and the efficiency of production equipments </li></ul>PM
  211. 227. 7.5.1.5 Management of production tooling The organisation shall provide resources for tool and gauge design, fabrication and verification activities. The organisation shall establish and implement a system for production tooling management including: Contd. - maintenance and repair facilities and personnel, - storage and recovery, - set-up,
  212. 228. - tool-change programmes for perishable tools, - tool design modification documentation, including engineering change level, - tool modification and revision to documentation, - tool identification, defining the status, such as production, repair or disposal. The organisation shall implement a system to monitor these activities if any work is outsourced. NOTE This requirement also applies to the availability of tools for vehicle service parts. Contd.
  213. 229. Clause No 7.5.1.5 Contd…. <ul><li>Following tooling maintenance procedure. </li></ul>DM <ul><li>Tooling maintenance plan </li></ul>DM <ul><li>Implementing tooling maintenance plans </li></ul>DM <ul><li>Tool change programme for perishable tools </li></ul>DM <ul><li>Documentation of changes/ modification in tool design </li></ul>DM
  214. 230. Contd…. <ul><li>Revision to documentation when modification in tools is carried out </li></ul>DM <ul><li>Identification of tools including status such as production, repair or disposal </li></ul>DM
  215. 231. 7.5.1.6 Production scheduling Production shall be scheduled in order to meet customer requirements, such as just-in-time supported by an information system that permits access to production information at key stages of the process and is order driven.
  216. 232. Clause No 7.5.1.6 <ul><li>Following the production planning procedure. </li></ul>MX, WS, PS, MFG., LC
  217. 233. 7.5.1.7 Feedback of information from service A process for communication of information on service concerns to manufacturing, engineering and design activities shall be established and maintained. NOTE The intent of the addition of “service concerns” to this sub-clause is to ensure that the organisation is aware of non-conformities that occur external to its organisation.
  218. 234. 7.5.1.8 Servicing agreement with customer When there is a servicing agreement with the customer, the organisation shall verify the effectiveness of - any organisation service centers, - any special purpose tools or measurement equipment, and - the training of service personnel.
  219. 236. 7.5.2 Validation of processes for production and service provision The organisation shall validate any processes for production and service provision where the resulting output cannot be verified by subsequent monitoring or measurement. This includes any processes where deficiencies become apparent only after the product is in use or the service has been delivered. Validation shall demonstrate the ability of these processes to achieve planned results. The organisation shall establish arrangements for these processes including, as applicable Contd.
  220. 237. a) defined criteria for review and approval of the processes, b) approval of equipment and qualification of personnel, c) use of specific methods and procedures, d) requirement for records (see 4.2.4), and e) revalidation. Contd.
  221. 238. Clause No 7.5.2 <ul><li>Validation of all processes to demonstrate ability of these processes to achieve planned results, including : </li></ul>WS, PS, MFG., LC <ul><li>defined criteria for review and approval of the process </li></ul><ul><li>approval of equipment and qualification of personnel </li></ul><ul><li>use of specific methods and procedures </li></ul><ul><li>requirement of records </li></ul><ul><li>revalidation </li></ul>
  222. 239. 7.5.2.1 Validation of processes for production and service provision-supplemental The requirements of 7.5.2 shall apply to all processes for production and service provision.
  223. 240. 7.5.3 Identification and traceability Where appropriate, the organisation shall identify the product by suitable means throughout product realisation. The organisation shall identify the product status with respect to monitoring and measurement requirements. Where traceability is a requirement, the organisation shall control and record the unique identification of the product (see 4.2.4).
  224. 241. NOTE In some industry sectors, configuration management is a means by which identification and traceability are maintained. NOTE inspection and test status is not indicated by the location of product in the production flow unless inherently obvious, such as material in an automated production transfer process. Alternatives are permitted, if the status is clearly identified, documented, and achieves the designated purpose. Contd.
  225. 243. 7.5.3.1 Identification and traceability-supplemental The words “where appropriate” in 7.5.3 above, shall not apply.
  226. 244. 7.5.4 Customer property The organisation shall exercise care with customer property while it is under the organisation’s control or being used by the organisation. The organisation shall identify,verify,protect and safeguard customer property provided for use or incorporation into the product. If any customer property is lost, damaged or otherwise found to be unsuitable for use, this shall be reported to the customer and records maintained (see 4.2.4) NOTE Customer property can include intellectual property. NOTE Customer-owned returnable packaging is included in this clause.
  227. 245. Clause No 7.5.4 <ul><li>Identifying, verifying, protecting and safe guarding customer property. </li></ul>MX, DM, PED <ul><li>Reporting to the customer and maintaining record of any customer property which is lost, damaged or otherwise found to be unsuitable for use. </li></ul>MX, DM, PED
  228. 246. 7.5.4.1 Customer owned production tooling Customer-owned tools, manufacturing, test, inspection tooling and equipment shall be permanently marked so that the ownership of each item is visible, and can be determined.
  229. 247. Clause No 7.5.4.1 <ul><li>Permanently marking the ownership of customer owned tooling. </li></ul>DM
  230. 248. 7.5.5 Preservation of product The organisation shall preserve the conformity of product during internal processing and delivery to the intended destination. This preservation shall include identification, handling, packaging, storage and protection. Preservation shall also apply to the constituent parts of a product.
  231. 249. Clause No 7.5.5 <ul><li>Identification, handling, packaging, storage and protection of product during internal processing and delivery. </li></ul>MX
  232. 250. 7.5.5.1 Storage and inventory In order to detect deterioration, the condition of product in stock shall be assessed at appropriate planned intervals. The organisation shall use an inventory management system to optimize inventory turns over time and assure stock rotation, such as “first in first out” (FIFO). Obsolete product shall be controlled in a similar manner to nonconforming product.
  233. 252. Clause No 7.5.5.1 <ul><li>Assessing the condition of product in stock at planned intervals to detect deterioration. </li></ul>MX <ul><li>Optimising inventory turns </li></ul>MX <ul><li>First In First Out </li></ul>MX <ul><li>Controlling obsolete products in a similar manner to non conforming products </li></ul>MX
  234. 253. 7.6 Control of monitoring and measuring devices The organisation shall determine the monitoring and measurement to be undertaken and the monitoring and measuring devices needed to provide evidence of conformity of product to determined requirements (see 7.2.1). The organisation shall establish processes to ensure that monitoring and measurement can be carried out and are carried out in a manner that is consistent with the monitoring and measurement requirements. Where necessary to ensure valid results, measuring equipment shall Contd.
  235. 254. a) be calibrated or verified at specified intervals, or prior to use, against measurement standards traceable to international or national measurement standards; where no such standards exist, the basis used for calibration or verification shall be recorded; b) be adjusted or re-adjusted as necessary; c) be identified to enable the calibration status to be determined; d) be safeguarded from adjustments that would invalidate the measurement result; e) be protected from damage and deterioration during handling, maintenance and storage. Contd. Contd.
  236. 255. In addition, the organisation shall assess and record the validity of the previous measuring results when the equipment is found not to conform to requirements. The organisation shall take appropriate action on the equipment and any product affected. Records of the results of calibration and verification shall be maintained (see 4.2.4). When used in the monitoring and measurement of specified requirements, the ability of computer software to satisfy the intended application shall be confirmed. This shall be undertaken prior to initial use and reconfirmed as necessary. NOTE See ISO 10012-1 and ISO 10012-2 for guidance. NOTE A number or other identifier traceable to the device calibration record meets the intent of requirement c ) above. Contd.
  237. 256. Clause No 7.6 <ul><li>Control of monitoring and measurement devices as per procedure </li></ul>QA
  238. 257. 7.6.1 Measurement system analysis Statistical studies shall be conducted to analyse the variation present in the results of each type of measuring and test equipment system. This requirement shall apply to measurement systems referenced in the control plan. The analytical methods and acceptance criteria used shall conform to those in customer reference manuals on measurement systems analysis. Other analytical methods and acceptance criteria may be used if approved by the customer.
  239. 258. Clause No 7.6.1 <ul><li>Measurement system analysis to analyse the variation present in each type of measurement and test equipment, as per procedure. </li></ul>QA
  240. 259. 7.6.2 Calibration /verificationrecords Records of the calibration/ verification activity for all gauges, measuring and test equipment, needing to provide evidence of conformity of product to determined requirements, including employee and customer-owned equipment, shall include - equipment identification, including the measurement standard against which the equipment is calibrated, - revisions following engineering changes, - any out-of-specification readings as received for calibration / verification, - an assessment of the impact of out-of-specification condition, - statements of conformity to specification after calibration / verification, and - notification to the customer if suspect product or material has been shipped.
  241. 260. Clause No 7.6.2 <ul><li>Records of calibration/ verification for all gauges, measurement and test equipment, including : </li></ul>QA <ul><li>equipment identification. </li></ul><ul><li>revisions following engineering changes </li></ul><ul><li>any out of specification readings as received for calibration/ verification. </li></ul><ul><li>an assessment of out of specification condition </li></ul><ul><li>statement of conformity to specifications after calibration </li></ul><ul><li>notification to the customer if suspected product or material has been shipped </li></ul>
  242. 261. 7.6.3 Laboratory requirements 7.6.3.1 Internal laboratory An organisation’s internal laboratory facility shall have a defined scope that includes its capability to perform the required inspection, test or calibration services. This laboratory scope shall be included in the quality management system documentation. The laboratory shall and implement, as a minimum, technical requirements for Contd. - adequacy of the laboratory procedures, - competency of the laboratory personnel, - testing of the product,
  243. 262. - capability to perform these services correctly, traceable to the relevant process standard (such as ASTM, EN etc.), and - review of the related records. NOTE Accreditation to ISO/IEC 17025 may be used to demonstrate supplier in-house laboratory conformity to this requirement but is not mandatory. Contd.
  244. 263. Clause No 7.6.3.1 <ul><li>Internal laboratory facility as per laid down procedures. </li></ul>QA
  245. 264. 7.6.3.2 External laboratory External / commercial / independent laboratory facilities used for inspection, test or calibration services by the organisation shall have a defined laboratory scope that includes the capability to perform the required inspection, test or calibration, and either Contd. - there shall be evidence that the external laboratory is acceptable to the customer, or. - the laboratory shall be accredited to ISO/IEC 17025 or national equivalent.
  246. 265. NOTE 1 Such evidence may be demonstrated by customer assessment, for example, or by customer approved second party assessment that the laboratory meets the intent of ISO/IEC 17025 or national equivalent. NOTE 2 When a qualified laboratory is not available for a given piece of equipment, calibration services may be performed by the equipment manufacturer. In such cases, the organisation should ensure that the requirements listed in 7.6.3.1 have been met. Contd.
  247. 267. Clause No 7.6.3.2 <ul><li>Use of external laboratory facility in line with the procedure </li></ul>QA
  248. 268. 8 MEASUREMENT, ANALYSIS AND IMPROVEMENT 8.1 General The organisation shall plan and implement the monitoring, measurement, analysis and improvement processes needed a) to demonstrate conformity of the product, b) to ensure conformity of the quality management system, and c) to continually improve the effectiveness of the quality management system. This shall include determination of applicable methods, including statistical techniques, and the extent of their use.
  249. 269. Clause No 8.1 <ul><li>Planning and implementing the monitoring, measurement, analysis and improvement processes needed : </li></ul>PS, DM, WS, MFG., LC, PM, QA, MX, PED, PUR, RML, BOP, HRD, QAS <ul><li>to demonstrate conformity of the product </li></ul><ul><li>to ensure conformity of the quality management system </li></ul><ul><li>to continually improve the effectiveness of the quality management system. </li></ul>
  250. 270. 8.1.1 Identification of statistical tools Appropriate statistical tools for each process shall be determined during advance quality planning and included in the control plan.
  251. 271. Clause No 8.1.1 <ul><li>Determining appropriate statistical tools for each process during advance quality planning and their inclusion in the control plan. </li></ul>PED
  252. 272. 8.1.2 Knowledge of basic statistical concepts Basic statistical concepts, such as variation, control (stability), process capability and over adjustment shall be understood and utilised throughout the organisation..
  253. 275. Clause No 8.1.2 <ul><li>Understanding the basic statistical concepts throughout the organisation. </li></ul>HRD <ul><li>Utilising the statistical concept throughout the organisation. </li></ul>PS, DM, WS, MFG., LC, PM, QA, MX, PED
  254. 276. 8.2 Monitoring and measurement 8.2.1 Customer satisfaction As one of the measurements of the performance of the quality management system, the organisation shall monitor information relating to customer perception as to whether the organisation has met customer requirements. The methods for obtaining and using this information shall be determined. NOTE Consideration should be given to both internal and external customers.
  255. 277. Clause No 8.2.1 <ul><li>Monitoring customer satisfaction through information relating to customer perception as to whether the organisation meet customer requirements, as per procedure </li></ul>MR
  256. 278. 8.2.1.1 Customer satisfaction-supplemental Customer satisfaction with the organisation shall be monitored through continual evaluation of performance of the realisation processes. Performance indicators shall be based on objective data and include, but not be limited to: - delivered part quality performance, - customer disruptions including field returns, - delivery schedule performance (including incidents of premium freight), and - customer notifications related to quality or delivery issues. The organisation shall monitor the performance of manufacturing processes to demonstrate compliance with customer requirements for product quality and efficiency of the process.
  257. 279. Clause No 8.2.1.1 <ul><li>Monitoring customer satisfaction through continual evaluation of performance of the realisation processes, as per procedure. </li></ul>MR <ul><li>Monitoring performance of manufacturing processes to demonstrate compliance to customer requirements for product quality and efficiency of the process. </li></ul>PS, WS, MFG., LC
  258. 280. 8.2.2 Internal audit The organisation shall conduct internal audits at planned intervals to determine whether the quality management system a) Conforms to the planned arrangements (see7.1) to the requirements of this International Standard and to the quality management system requirements established by the organisation, and b) Is effectively implemented and maintained. An audit program shall be planned, taking into consideration the status and importance of the processes and areas to be audited, as well as the results of previous audits. The audit criteria, scope, frequency and methods shall be defined.
  259. 281. Selection of auditors and conduct of audits shall ensure objectivity and impartiality of the audit process. Auditors shall not audit their own work. The management responsible for the area being audited shall ensure that actions are taken without undue delay to eliminate detected non-conformities and their causes. Follow-up activities shall include the verification of the actions taken and the reporting of verification results (see 8.5.2). NOTE See ISO 10011-1, ISO 10011-2 and ISO 10011-3 for guidance.
  260. 282. Clause No 8.2.2. Contd…. <ul><li>Conducting internal audits at planned intervals </li></ul>MR <ul><li>Planning of internal audits considering the status and importance of the processes and areas to be audited as well as results of previous audits </li></ul>MR <ul><li>Defining audit criteria, scope, frequency and methods. </li></ul>MR <ul><li>Selection of internal auditors and conduct of audits ensures objectivity and impartiability of the audit process </li></ul>MR
  261. 283. Contd…. <ul><li>Records of internal audits </li></ul>MR <ul><li>Taking actions without undue delay to eliminate detected non conformities during internal audit and their causes. </li></ul>ALL <ul><li>Verification of the actions taken and the reporting of verification results during follow up activities of the internal audits. </li></ul>MR
  262. 284. 8.2.2.1 Quality management system audit The organisation shall audit its quality management system to verify compliance with this Technical Specification and any additional quality management system requirements.
  263. 285. 8.2.2.2 Manufacturing process audit The organisation shall audit each manufacturing process to determine its effectiveness.
  264. 286. Clause No 8.2.2.2 <ul><li>Auditing of each manufacturing process to determine its effectiveness </li></ul>MR
  265. 287. 8.2.2.3 Product audit The organisation shall audit products at appropriate stages of production and delivery to verify conformity to all specified requirements, such as product dimensions, functionality, packaging, labeling, at a defined frequency.
  266. 288. Clause No 8.2.2.3 <ul><li>Auditing products at appropriate stages of production and delivery, at a defined frequency. </li></ul>MR
  267. 289. 8.2.2.4 Internal audit plans Internal audits shall cover all quality management related processes, activities and shifts, and shall be scheduled according to an annual plan. When internal / external non conformities or customer complaints occur, the audit frequency shall be appropriately increased. NOTE Specific checklists should be used for each audit.
  268. 290. Clause No 8.2.2.4 <ul><li>Internal audits cover all quality management related processes, activities and shifts. </li></ul>MR <ul><li>Scheduling the internal audits according to the annual plan. </li></ul>MR <ul><li>Appropriately increasing the frequency of internal audit when internal / external non conformities or customer complaint occur </li></ul>MR <ul><li>Using specific check lists for each internal audit </li></ul>MR
  269. 291. 8.2.2.5 Internal auditor qualification The organisation shall have internal auditors who are qualified to audit the requirements of this Technical Specification (see 6.2.2.2).
  270. 292. Clause No 8.2.2.5 <ul><li>Qualification of internal auditor. </li></ul>MR
  271. 293. 8.2.3 Monitoring and measurement of processes The organisation shall apply suitable methods for monitoring and, where applicable, measurement of the quality management system processes. These methods shall demonstrate the ability of processes to achieve planned results. When planned results are not achieved, correction and corrective action shall be taken,as appropriate, to ensure conformity of the product.
  272. 294. 8.2.3.1 Monitoring and measurement of manufacturing processes The organisation shall perform process studies on all new manufacturing (including assembly or sequencing) processes to verify process capability and to provide additional input for process control. The results of process studies shall be documented with specifications, where applicable, for means of production, measurement and test, and maintenance instruction. These documents shall include objectives for manufacturing process capability, reliability, maintainability and availability, as well as acceptance criteria. Contd.
  273. 295. The organisation shall maintain manufacturing process capability or performance as specified by the customer part approval process requirements. The organisation shall ensure that the control plan and process flow diagram are implemented, including, adherence to the specified - measurement techniques, - sampling plans, - acceptance criteria, and - reaction plans when acceptance criteria are not met. Significant process events, such as tool change or machine repair, shall be recorded. Contd. Contd.
  274. 296. The organisation shall initiate a reaction plan from the control plan for characteristics that are either not statistically capable or are unstable. These reaction plans shall include containment of product and 100% inspection as appropriate. A corrective action plan shall then be completed by the organisation, indicating specific timing and assigned responsibilities to assure that the process becomes stable and capable. The plans shall be reviewed with and approved by the customer when so required. The organisation shall maintain records of effective dates of process changes. Contd.
  275. 297. Clause No 8.2.3.1 Contd…. <ul><li>Performing process studies on all new manufacturing processes to verify process capabilities and to provide additional input for process control. </li></ul>PED <ul><li>Documenting results of above mentioned process studies including objectives for manufacturing process capability, reliability, maintainability, availability and acceptance criteria. </li></ul>PED
  276. 298. Contd…. Contd…. <ul><li>Specify, all process capability or performance requirement as defined by the customer part approval requirements, in the JBPS or other manufacturing process, standard/ work instructions as ncessaary. </li></ul>PED <ul><li>Maintaining manufacturing process capability or performance as specified by PED in JBPS or other manufacturing process standard/ work instruction. </li></ul>PS, WS, MFG., LC
  277. 299. Contd…. Contd…. <ul><li>Include all requirement of control plan and process flow diagram in JBPS or other manufacturing process standard/ work instruction, including : </li></ul>PED <ul><li>measurement technique </li></ul><ul><li>sampling plan </li></ul><ul><li>acceptance criteria </li></ul><ul><li>reaction plan when acceptance criteria are not met </li></ul><ul><li>Recording significant process events </li></ul>PS, WS, MFG., LC
  278. 300. Contd…. <ul><li>Initiating a reaction plan for characteristics that are either not statistically capable or are unstable, including containment of product and 100% inspection, as appropriate. </li></ul>PS, WS, MFG., LC <ul><li>Taking corrective action to assure that the process becomes stable and capable </li></ul>PS, WS, MFG., LC <ul><li>Maintaining records of effective dates of process changes </li></ul>PS, WS, MFG., LC
  279. 301. 8.2.4 Monitoring and measurement of product The organisation shall monitor and measure the characteristics of the product to verify that product requirements have been met. This shall be carried out at appropriate stages of the product realisation process in accordance with the planned arrangements (see 7.1). Evidence of conformity with the acceptance criteria shall be maintained. Records shall indicate the person(s) authorising release of product (see4.2.4). Product release and service delivery shall not proceed until all the planned arrangements (see7.1) have been satisfactorily completed, unless otherwise approved by a relevant authority, and where applicable by the customer.
  280. 302. NOTE When selecting product parameters to monitor compliance to specified internal and external requirements, the organisation determines the types of product characteristics, leading to - the types of measurement, - suitable measurement means, and - the capability and skills required. Contd.
  281. 304. Clause No 8.2.4 <ul><li>In process and final verification/ inspection of products as per procedure. </li></ul>QA, MX, PS, MFG, WS, LC <ul><li>Maintaining evidence of conformity of product with the acceptance criteria. </li></ul><ul><li>Records indicating the persons authorising release of products </li></ul>
  282. 305. 8.2.4.1 Layout inspection and functional testing A layout inspection and a functional verification to applicable customer engineering material and performance standards shall be performed for each product as specified in the control plans. Results shall be available for customer review. NOTE Layout inspection is the complete measurement of all product dimensions shown on the design records.
  283. 306. Clause No 8.2.4.1 <ul><li>Layout inspection and functional verification for each product as specified in the control plan. </li></ul>QA <ul><li>Records of results of layout inspection. </li></ul>QA
  284. 307. 8.2.4.2 Appearance items For organisation manufacturing parts designated by the customer as “appearance items”, the organisation shall provide <ul><li>- appropriate resources including lighting for evaluation, </li></ul><ul><li>- masters for color, grain, gloss, metallic, brilliance, texture, distinctness of image (DOI) as appropriate, </li></ul><ul><li>maintenance and control of appearance masters and evaluation equipment, and </li></ul><ul><li>verification that personnel making appearance evaluations are competent and qualified to do so. </li></ul>
  285. 308. Clause No 8.2.4.2 <ul><li>Providing : </li></ul><ul><li>appropriate lighting for evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>appearance masters </li></ul>QA, PS, MFG., WS, LC
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