The driving force within individuals by which they attempt to achieve some goal in order to fulfill some needs or expectation.
Motivation is a psychological phenomenon.
Motivation is based on needs.
Goals are motivator.
Motivation is a continous process.
Motivation is related to a person in totality.
NATURE OF MOTIVATION
Motivation is an inner feeling which energizes a person to work more.
The emotions or desires of a person prompt him for doing a particular work.
There are unsatisfied needs of the person which disturb his equilibrium.
A person moves to fulfill his unsatisfied needs by conditioning his energies.
There are dormant energies in a person which are activated by canalizing them into actions.
WHY IS MOTIVATION NECESSARY?
KEY TO SUCCESS
PERSUADE TO WORK HARD
RESULT IN DEVELOPMENT
GET AN EXPERTISE IN FIELDS
GET BEST RESULTS OUT OF EMPLOYEES
“ Men are like tea leaves, when put into hard water, they give colors”.
which means that we only give best of us when we are motivated enough to do a specific task.
IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION Acceptability to change
Better Organizational Image
Better Industrial Relations
Utilization of Resources
TYPES OF MOTIVATION MOTIVATION POSITIVE MOTIVATION NEGATIVE MOTIVATION
POSITIVE MOTIVATION: Positive motivation is a type of motivation which results in making people to feel good about themselves and their achievements.
Positive motivation will make people feel accepted, appreciated and recognized for their efforts and hard work.
POSITIVE INCENTIVES REWARD PROMOTION RECOGNITION OF WORK
NEGATIVE MOTIVATION : Negative motivation aims at controlling the negative efforts of the work and seeks to create a sense of fear for the worker, which he has to suffer for lack of good performance.
CONT… PUNISHMENT LAY OFF DEMOTION
EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION INTRINSIC MOTIVATION
Stimulation that drives an individual to adopt or change a behavior for his or her own internal satisfaction or fulfillment . Intrinsic motivation is usually self-applied, and springs from a direct relationship between the individual and the situation. It is very important factor in the design of a learning or training course.
Motivation that comes from inside an individual.
Intrinsic Motivation is geared toward internal rewards and reinforcer's. We can celebrate our success when we do well and we can beat ourselves up when we don't.
Some examples of internal rewards are enjoyment, achievement, a sense of competence. Some examples of internal reinforcer's are "Shoulds", "Musts", & "Oughts", a guilty conscience, and Toxic Shame.
Drive to action that springs from outside influences instead of from one's own feelings.
motivation that comes from outside an individual.
Extrinsic Motivation is said to be less effective because it comes from outside the person. External reinforcer's, for instance, are usually in the form of control.
Some examples of external rewards are money, praise, awards, etc. Some examples of external reinforcer's are policy and procedures, disciplinary action, speeding tickets, boundary-setting, etc.
Drivers of human behavior related to the intrinsic nature of the work , but not necessarily to the surrounding circumstances or environment . Motivating factors include achievement, advancement, autonomy , personal growth, recognition , responsibility , and the work itself.
TECHNIQUES OF MOTIVATION
Financial Motivators:- Financial motivators are in monetary terms which are provided to motivate people for better performance.
Financial motivators may be in the form of more wages and salaries, bonuses, profit-sharing, leave with pay, medical reimbursements, company paid insurance o any other thing that may be given to employee for performance.
EXAMPLES Profit-sharing, Salary, Bonuses, Medical Reimbursements, insurance
Non-financial Motivators:- Individuals have various needs which they want to satisfy while working in the organisation.
These motivate people on individual basis and are better status, recognition, participation, job security, promotion.
EXAMPLES Recognition, Praise, Participation, Competition and Status
THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
CONTRIBUTION OF ROBERT OWEN
View – People were similar to machines.
A machine is looked properly, maintained well, performs efficiently, reliably, similarly people are likely to be more efficient.
Both needed to be looked after and cared for in order to function well. He introduced housing colony and a company shop for his workers in the premises of the work place.
MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
Maslow observed that every individual is governed by hierarchy of five needs namely
1. Physiological needs which is geared towards satisfying his basic needs such as that of hunger, thirst, sex, shelter etc.
2. Safety or security needs to protect him from physical and emotional harm.
3. Social needs for which people seek friends, social groups to satisfy their need for belongingness, affections, relatedness and an inherent need to be accepted by others.
4. Esteem needs which come into force once people have their need for belongingness satisfied. They then want to hold in high esteem and seek to attain status, power, and prestige in their own eyes as well amongst others. Need for esteem is of two types. Internal esteem calls for factors as autonomy, achievement, self-respect and external esteem factors such as attention, recognition.
5. Self-Actualization which is the need to become what one is capable of becoming. It is the realization of ones actual potential and true worth and seeks to accomplish self-actualization.
JEREMY BENTHAM’S “THE CARROT AND THE STICK APPROACH
Bentham’s view was that all people are self-interested and are motivated by the desire to avoid pain and find pleasure.
This metaphor relates, of course, to the use of rewards and penalties in order to induce desired behavior
It comes from the old story that to make a donkey move, one must put a carrot in front of him or dab him with a stick from behind.
Inducements in some form of 'carrot' such as bonus, better pay packages, motivate the workers to apply effort whilst penalties in the form of 'stick' such as fear of loosing job, demotions or regression of monetary benefits also force workers to perform.
“ THEORY X AND THEORY Y” OF DOUGLAS MCGREGOR
Characteristics of 'X' Managers:
1. They assume employees to be lazy and will shirk work when ever given a chance.
2. They have to essentially be coerced, forced or threatened with dire consequences to make them show output.
3. They have tendency to stay away from responsibilities and will seek directions where ever necessary.
4. Employees put much importance to their own security over anything else and exhibit little ambition.
Characteristics of 'Y' Managers
1. 'Y' Managers view workers to be hard working and consider work as natural as play or rest.
2. They apply self-direction and self-control if they are committed to these goals.
3. They accept responsibilities and make efforts to solve all the problems in the organization
CONTRIBUTION OF RENSIS LIKERT
Likert developed a refined classification, breaking down organizations into four management systems.
1st System – Primitive authoritarian 2nd System – Benevolent authoritarian 3rd System – Consultative 4th System – Participative
FREDERICK HERZBERG’S MOTIVATION-HYGIENE THEORY
He stated that there are certain satisfiers and dissatisfiers for employees at work. Intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction, while extrinsic factors are associated with dissatisfaction.
He states that presence of certain factors in the organization is natural and the presence of the same does not lead to motivation. However, their nonpresence leads to demotivation.
In similar manner there are certain factors, the absence of which causes no dissatisfaction, but their presence has motivational impact.
CONTRIBUTIONS OF ELTON MAYO
The work of Elton Mayo is famously known as “Hawthorne Experiments.
He made some illumination experiments, introduced breaks in between the work performance and also introduced refreshments during the pause’s. On the basis of this he drew the conclusions that motivation was a very complex subject. It was not only about pay, work condition and morale but also included psychological and social factors.
The central conclusions drawn were :
People are motivated by more than pay and conditions.
The need for recognition and a sense of belonging are very important.
Attitudes towards work are strongly influenced by the group.
VROOM’S VALENCE X EXPECTANCY THEORY
The theory argues that the strength of a tendency to act in a specific way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual to make this simple, expectancy theory says that an employee can be motivated to perform better when their is a belief that the better performance will lead to good performance appraisal and that this shall result into realization of personal goal in form of some reward.
Therefore an employee is : Motivation = Valence x Expectancy. The theory focuses on three things : Efforts and performance relationship Performance and reward relationship Rewards and personal goal relationship
THE PORTER AND LAWLER MODEL
Actual performance in a job is primarily determined by the effort spent. But it is also affected by the person’s ability to do the job and also by individual’s perception of what the required task is.
So performance is the responsible factor that leads to intrinsic as well as extrinsic rewards.
CLAYTON ALDERFER’S ERG THEORY
Alderfer has tried to rebuild the hierarchy of needs of Maslow into another model named ERG i.e. Existence – Relatedness – Growth.
The existence group is concerned mainly with providing basic material existence.
The second group is the individuals need to maintain interpersonal relationship with other members in the group.
The final group is the intrinsic desire to grow and develop personally.
The major conclusions of this theory are :
In an individual, more than one need may be operative at the same time.
If a higher need goes unsatisfied than the desire to satisfy a lower need intensifies.
It also contains the frustration-regression dimension.
MCCLELLAND’S THEORY OF NEEDS
David McClelland has developed a theory on three types of motivating needs :
Basically people for high need for power are inclined towards influence and control. They are demanding in nature, forceful in manners and ambitious in life. They can be motivated to perform if they are given key positions or power positions.
In the second category are the people who are social in nature. They try to affiliate themselves with individuals and groups. They are driven by love and faith. They like to build a friendly environment around themselves. Social recognition and affiliation with others provides them motivation.
People in the third area are driven by the challenge of success and the fear of failure. Their need for achievement is moderate and they set for themselves moderately difficult tasks. They are analytical in nature and take calculated risks. Such people are motivated to perform when they see atleast some chances of success.
Instead of considering internal factors like impressions, feelings, attitudes and other cognitive behavior, individuals are directed by what happens in the environment external to them.
Skinner states that work environment should be made suitable to the individuals and that punishments actually leads to frustration and de-motivation.
GOAL SETTING THEORY OF EDWIN LOCKE
Instead of giving vague tasks to people, specific and pronounced objectives, help in achieving them faster.
The goal setting theory states that when the goals to be achieved are set at a higher standard than in that case employees are motivated to perform better and put in maximum effort.
COGNITIVE EVALUATION THEORY
As per these theory a shift from external rewards to internal rewards results into motivation. It believes that even after the stoppage of external stimulus, internal stimulus survives. It relates to the pay structure in the organization. Instead of treating external factors like pay, incentives, promotion etc and internal factors like interests, drives, responsibility etc, separately, they should be treated as contemporary to each other.
REASONS WE CAN’T MOTIVATE LACK OF DIRECTION
LACK OF FOCUS
LACK OF CONFIDENCE
REQUISITES TO MOTIVATE
NOT LAST IF NOT REPEATED
MOTIVATED TO MOTIVATE
MORALE- BUILDING FACTORS
LOYALTY TO EMPLOYEES
GOOD WORKING CONDITIONS
Ability to do what needs to be done, without influence from other people or situations. People with self motivation can find a reason and strength to complete a task , even when challenging, without giving up or needing another to encourage them.