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Generic Business ModelTypes for Enterprise MashupIntermediariesSYSTEMATIC THOUGHT LEADERSHIP FOR INNOVATIVE BUSINESSVolker...
Generice Business Model Types  Executive Summary                                                                          ...
Agenda  1.      Motivation and Problem Scope  2.      Research Approach: Design Science applied  3.      Related Work and ...
Motivation  “Yes, we can!“ - From Automation to Peer Production                                                        Pro...
Motivation  Research Question                    Which features have to be provided by Enterprise Mashup Intermediaries   ...
Agenda  1.      Motivation and Problem Scope  2.      Research Approach: Design Science applied  3.      Related Work and ...
Research Approach  Design Science applied         of the Problem                                                          ...
Agenda  1.      Motivation and Problem Scope  2.      Research Approach: Design Science applied  3.      Related Work and ...
Enterprise Mashups  Enterprise Mashup Stack and User Roles*                                                               ...
Enterprise Mashups  Interaction Agent Model*  Three Agent Roles well known from Electronic Markets and Service-Oriented  A...
Business Models  Business Model Hierarchry*   1      Business Model Concept                                               ...
Business Models  Business Model Hierarchry*                                                                               ...
Agenda  1.      Motivation and Problem Scope  2.      Research Approach: Design Science applied  3.      Related Work and ...
Interaction Phase Model  Overview                                                                                         ...
Interaction Phase Model  Knowledge and Intentions Phase© SAP 2009 / Generic Business Model Types for Enterprise Mashup Int...
Interaction Phase Model  Contract (Design) and Settlement Phase© SAP 2009 / Generic Business Model Types for Enterprise Ma...
Agenda  1.      Motivation and Problem Scope  2.      Research Approach: Design Science applied  3.      Related Work and ...
Demonstration  Multi-Case Studies                                  Case 1: StrikeIron                                     ...
Demonstration  Multi-Case Studies (Context)  Intermediary                                     StrikeIron                  ...
Demonstration  Multi-Case Studies (Knowledge and Intentions Phase)  Intermediary                                     Strik...
Demonstration  Multi-Case Studies (Contract and Settlement Phase)  Intermediary                                     Strike...
Demonstration  Generic Business Model Types   1      Business Model Concept                                               ...
Agenda  1.      Motivation and Problem Scope  2.      Research Approach: Design Science applied  3.      Related Work and ...
Conclusion and Outlook      Interaction Phase Model for classifying Business Model Types for      Enterprise Mashup Interm...
Future Work  Enterprise Mashup Platform as a Marketplace   1      Business Model Concept                                  ...
Future Work  SAP Research RoofTop Marketplace PrototypeKnowledge                               Intentions                 ...
Thank you!     Contact     Volker Hoyer     =mcminstitute, University of St. Gallen and     SAP Research Center St. Gallen...
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Generic Business Model Types for Enterprise Mashup Intermediaries

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The huge demand for situational and ad-hoc applications desired by the mass of business end users led to a new kind of Web applications, well-known as Enterprise Mashups. Users with no or limited programming skills are empowered to leverage in a collaborative manner existing Mashup components by combining and reusing company internal and external resources within minutes to new value added applications. Thereby, Enterprise Mashup environments interact as intermediaries to match the supply of providers and demand of consumers. By following the design science approach, we propose an interaction phase model artefact based on market transaction phases to structure required intermediary features. By means of five case studies, we demonstrate the application of the designed model and identify three generic business model types for Enterprise Mashups intermediaries (directory, broker, and marketplace). So far, intermediaries following a real marketplace business model don’t exist in context of Enterprise Mashups and require further research for this emerging paradigm.

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Transcript of "Generic Business Model Types for Enterprise Mashup Intermediaries"

  1. 1. Generic Business ModelTypes for Enterprise MashupIntermediariesSYSTEMATIC THOUGHT LEADERSHIP FOR INNOVATIVE BUSINESSVolker Hoyer1 2 and Katarina Stanoevska-Slabeva21 SAP Research Center St. Gallen, Switzerland2 University of St. Gallen, =mcminstitute, Switzerland
  2. 2. Generice Business Model Types Executive Summary Design: Interaction Phase Model Business Needs Current discussion in the scientific Interaction Phase Model for community is limited on Enterprise Mashup Environments technical aspects Problem Statement Organization similar to communities and electronic Business models for these new markets. kinds of grassroots platforms Identification of three business model types (Discovery, broker, marketplace) Technology Trends Growing numbers of company internal and external Web-based Contribution to Knowledge Base resources based on open standards Scientific: Interaction Phase New upcoming tools to create ad- Model as an artefact hoc enterprise-class Practice: Guideline for applications without any designing Enterprise Mashup programming skills platforms© SAP 2009 / Generic Business Model Types for Enterprise Mashup Intermediaries / Page 2
  3. 3. Agenda 1. Motivation and Problem Scope 2. Research Approach: Design Science applied 3. Related Work and Objectives of the Solution 4. Design: Interaction Phase Model for Enterprise Mashup Intermediaries 5. Demonstration: Multi-Case Studies 6. Conclusion and Outlook© SAP 2009 / Generic Business Model Types for Enterprise Mashup Intermediaries / Page 3
  4. 4. Motivation “Yes, we can!“ - From Automation to Peer Production Productivity Automating Transactions Enabling collaboration and participation Adoption of ERP, CRM, SCM User assigned by management Users must comply with rules Often complex technolgy Enterprise investment Mashups Adoption of Web 2.0 tools User groups can form unexpectedly User engage in high degree of participation Technology investment often a Adoption of lighweight overly to existing infrastructure Corporate Technology 1990s 2009 Time An Enterprise Mashup is a Web-based resource that combines existing resources, “ be it content, data or application functionality, from more than one resource by empowering the actual end users to create individual information centric and situational applications”© SAP 2009 / Generic Business Model Types for Enterprise Mashup Intermediaries / Page 4
  5. 5. Motivation Research Question Which features have to be provided by Enterprise Mashup Intermediaries in order to match supply and demand? What generic business model types exist?© SAP 2009 / Generic Business Model Types for Enterprise Mashup Intermediaries / Page 5
  6. 6. Agenda 1. Motivation and Problem Scope 2. Research Approach: Design Science applied 3. Related Work and Objectives of the Solution 4. Design: Interaction Phase Model for Enterprise Mashup Intermediaries 5. Demonstration: Multi-Case Studies 6. Conclusion and Outlook© SAP 2009 / Generic Business Model Types for Enterprise Mashup Intermediaries / Page 6
  7. 7. Research Approach Design Science applied of the Problem Research Methods Identification Literature Preliminary study on the practical need Analysis Objectives of the Solution Analysis of Enterprise Mashups Interaction Model Business Model Literature Analysis Interaction Phase Model for Enterprise Mashup Intermediaries Artefact Design (Knowledge, Intentions, Contract/Design, Settlement) Literature Analysis Reference Modeling Generic Business Model Types (Directory, Broker, Marketplace) (Electronic Markets) Demonstration Artefact Application of Interaction Phase Multi-case (embedded) (StrikeIron, Seekda, ProgrammableWeb.com, iGoogle, IBM Mashup Center) Studies * Peffers, K., Tuunanen, T., Rothenberger, M., Chatterjee, S. (2008). A Design Science Research Methodology for Information Systems Research. Journal of Management Information Systems, 24,3, 45-77.© SAP 2009 / Generic Business Model Types for Enterprise Mashup Intermediaries / Page 7
  8. 8. Agenda 1. Motivation and Problem Scope 2. Research Approach: Design Science applied 3. Related Work and Objectives of the Solution 4. Design: Interaction Phase Model for Enterprise Mashup Intermediaries 5. Demonstration: Multi-Case Studies 6. Conclusion and Outlook© SAP 2009 / Generic Business Model Types for Enterprise Mashup Intermediaries / Page 8
  9. 9. Enterprise Mashups Enterprise Mashup Stack and User Roles* User Roles Compostion of Widgets End users run Mashups Mashup (Wiring) to enterprise-class Consume Mashup applications Personalize Mashup (e.g., change Enterprise Mashup Stack background color) Key users create Mashups Add pre-build widgets (from the catalogue) User-friendly Building Blocks Product List Connecting widgets by wiring their in-/out- ports Widget Provide graphical and simple user interaction mechanism OK Cancel Consultants create Widgets Abstracting from the complexity Binding generic User Interfaces to resources of the underlying resources Transforming and aggregating data (piping) Core Building Blocks Resource Developers implement the services Respresent actual content, data or Create and deploy services application functionality Make resources available (e.g., RSS Feeds, SAP Enterprise Encapsulated via well-defined Services) interfaces (APIs) * Hoyer, V., Stanoevska-Slabeva, K., Janner, T., Schroth, C. (2008). Enterprise Mashups: Design Principiles towards the Long Tail of User Needs. In Proceedings of the 2008 IEEE International Conference on Service Computing (SCC 2008).© SAP 2009 / Generic Business Model Types for Enterprise Mashup Intermediaries / Page 9
  10. 10. Enterprise Mashups Interaction Agent Model* Three Agent Roles well known from Electronic Markets and Service-Oriented Architectures (SOA) Provider implements and hosts a mashable component (Mashup, Widget, Resource) Intermediary mediates between providers and consumers (improving navigation, transparency and governance) Consumer is able to retrieve and compose Mashup components according to his individual needs * Hoyer, V., Stanoevska-Slabeva, K.: Towards a Reference Model for Grassroots Enterprise Mashup Environments, In: Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Verona, Italy, 2009© SAP 2009 / Generic Business Model Types for Enterprise Mashup Intermediaries / Page 10
  11. 11. Business Models Business Model Hierarchry* 1 Business Model Concept Definition What is a business model? Business Model Concept Conceptual Level Framework What components belong into a business model? 2 Business Model Types Business Model Type A Business Model Type B Taxonomy of business model types 3 Business Model Instances (view of a company) Instance Level Company A Company B Company C Company D Modelled instances Company A Company B Company C Company D Real world company * Osterwalder, A., Pigneur, Y., Tucci, C.L. (2005). Clarifying Business Models: Origins, Present, and Future of the Concept. Communications o fthe AIS, 15© SAP 2009 / Generic Business Model Types for Enterprise Mashup Intermediaries / Page 11
  12. 12. Business Models Business Model Hierarchry* MCM Business Model Concept 1 Business Model Concept Societal Environment Feature ofDefinition the specific Product is a business model? What Business Model Concept Conceptual Level Financial Flow Potential Value Chain Framework Customer into a Flow of Goods &What components belong Services business model? Feature of the Interaction Medium Model specific Phase 2 Business Model Types Business Model Type A Business Model Type B Taxonomy of business model types Multi-Case Studies 3 Business Model Instances (view of a company) Instance Level Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4 Case 5 Company A Company B Company C Company D Modelled instances Company A Company B Company C Company D Real world company * Osterwalder, A., Pigneur, Y., Tucci, C.L. (2005). Clarifying Business Models: Origins, Present, and Future of the Concept. Communications o fthe AIS, 15© SAP 2009 / Generic Business Model Types for Enterprise Mashup Intermediaries / Page 12
  13. 13. Agenda 1. Motivation and Problem Scope 2. Research Approach: Design Science applied 3. Related Work and Objectives of the Solution 4. Design: Interaction Phase Model for Enterprise Mashup Intermediaries 5. Demonstration: Multi-Case Studies 6. Conclusion and Outlook© SAP 2009 / Generic Business Model Types for Enterprise Mashup Intermediaries / Page 13
  14. 14. Interaction Phase Model Overview Characteristics Organization similar to communities and electronic markets Permament loops between the converging design and runtime phases Real data sources© SAP 2009 / Generic Business Model Types for Enterprise Mashup Intermediaries / Page 14
  15. 15. Interaction Phase Model Knowledge and Intentions Phase© SAP 2009 / Generic Business Model Types for Enterprise Mashup Intermediaries / Page 15
  16. 16. Interaction Phase Model Contract (Design) and Settlement Phase© SAP 2009 / Generic Business Model Types for Enterprise Mashup Intermediaries / Page 16
  17. 17. Agenda 1. Motivation and Problem Scope 2. Research Approach: Design Science applied 3. Related Work and Objectives of the Solution 4. Design: Interaction Phase Model for Enterprise Mashup Intermediaries 5. Demonstration: Multi-Case Studies 6. Conclusion and Outlook© SAP 2009 / Generic Business Model Types for Enterprise Mashup Intermediaries / Page 17
  18. 18. Demonstration Multi-Case Studies Case 1: StrikeIron Case 2: Seekda Societal Environment Feature of the specific Product Case 3: Programableweb.com Societal Environment Feature of the Financial Flow specific Product Case 4: iGoogle Gadgets Value Chain Societal Environment Potential Feature of the Flow of Goods & Services Customer Financial Flow specific Product Case 5: IBM Mashup Center InteractionEnvironment Potential of the Societal Phase Value Chain Feature Customer Financial Flow specific Product Flow of Goods & Services Feature of the Interaction Phase Societal Environment Potential Value Chain Feature of the specific Medium Customer Flow of Goods & ServicesFinancial Flow specific Product Feature of the Interaction Phase Potential Value Chain specific Medium Customer Financial Flow Flow of Goods & Services Feature of the Interaction Phase Potential Value Chain specific Medium Customer Flow of Goods & Services Feature of the Interaction Phase specific Medium Feature of the specific Medium Multi-Case (embedded) Studies Unit of Analysis: Feature of the specific Product (Interaction Phase Model)© SAP 2009 / Generic Business Model Types for Enterprise Mashup Intermediaries / Page 18
  19. 19. Demonstration Multi-Case Studies (Context) Intermediary StrikeIron Seekda Programmable iGoogle IBM Mashup Web.com Gadgets Center General Information Owner StrikeIron University of John Musser Google IBM, Greenhouse Innsbruck Project Supported mashable Resources Resources (Web Resources (Web Widgets Resources, Widgets, components Services) Services, REST, Mashups etc.) # components (Mashups, 40 Resources 27813 Resources 1171 Resources > 50.000 Widgets 475 Resources, Widgets, Resources) 3731 Mashups 47 Widgets 107 Mashups Active 2002 – today 2006 – today 2005 – today 2006 – today 2008 – today Description Traditional Web crawler, EU Mashup intermediary Consumer-oriented Commercial intermediary (heavy reserach project Mashup platform Enterprise Mashup weight Web platform Services)© SAP 2009 / Generic Business Model Types for Enterprise Mashup Intermediaries / Page 19
  20. 20. Demonstration Multi-Case Studies (Knowledge and Intentions Phase) Intermediary StrikeIron Seekda Programmable iGoogle IBM Mashup Web.com Gadgets Center Knowledge Phase Component description Name, description, Name, provider, user Name, provider, Name, provider, Name, provider, features, benefits, ratings, tags, tags, ratings, data widget preview, popularity, version, price conditions availability added, licensing popularity, rating rating Aggregation of collegected Monitoring of Extensive analysis of - - Popularity information about performance and the availability (i.e., compponent‘s quality uptime response time) Browsing/ discovery of the Free text search, sort Free text search, Free text search, sort Free text search, sort Free text search sort, catalogue by categories most used, recently by categories, by categories, by categories, top found services, newest, most hottest, most users, ratings, most providers by country, popular, API newest popular, tag cloud tag cloud scorecard, Mashup matrix, tag clould Certification - - - - - Intentions Phase Components Annotations - Tagging, ratting, Tagging, rating, Tagging, rating, Tagging, rating, reviewing reviewing reviewing, sharing reviewing (Google contacts) Publication of Mashup - Online form to add Online form and API Adding of new Provider is able to components resources (URL) for to add a resource or widgets/ feeds (URL) specify the Please find the details in the paper. the crawling engine Mashup permission of a component Promotion of components - - - - -© SAP 2009 / Generic Business Model Types for Enterprise Mashup Intermediaries / Page 20
  21. 21. Demonstration Multi-Case Studies (Contract and Settlement Phase) Intermediary StrikeIron Seekda Programmable iGoogle IBM Mashup Web.com Gadgets Center Contract (Design) Phase Design and creation of an Sample application A Web Services - Individual Mashup It allows to create an individual working allows tesing of a invoker allows to test with several themes individual Mashup by environment/ application component a Web Service,; a and so-called Google adding widgets from real design gadgets (widgets) the catalogue. environment does can be added to the not exist environment Composition of mashable - - - - Widgets can be components wired, resources can be piped with each others. Composition matching - - - - - Settlement Phase Monitoring the consumption of - Long term database The popularity of Popularity based on Popularity based on mashable components and monitors the APIs is documented the consumer the consumer consumer behavior availability of the indirectly. consumption is consumption is Web Services. documented documented. Billing usage of mashable Commercial - - - - components agreements and sales conditions Management of the payment Online subscription - - - - with credit card payment© SAP 2009 / Generic Business Model Types for Enterprise Mashup Intermediaries / Page 21
  22. 22. Demonstration Generic Business Model Types 1 Business Model Concept Definition What is a business model? Interaction Phase Model Conceptual Level Framework What features are supported by an Mashup intermediary? 2 Business Model Types Directory Broker Marketplace Taxonomy of business model types 3 Business Model Instances (view of an Mashup intermediary) Instance Level ProgrammableWeb IBM Mashup Center Seekda StrikeIron Modelled instances Programmable IBM Seekda StrikeIron Real world intermediaries Web.Com Mashup Center© SAP 2009 / Generic Business Model Types for Enterprise Mashup Intermediaries / Page 22
  23. 23. Agenda 1. Motivation and Problem Scope 2. Research Approach: Design Science applied 3. Related Work and Objectives of the Solution 4. Design: Interaction Phase Model for Enterprise Mashup Intermediaries 5. Demonstration: Multi-Case Studies 6. Conclusion and Outlook© SAP 2009 / Generic Business Model Types for Enterprise Mashup Intermediaries / Page 23
  24. 24. Conclusion and Outlook Interaction Phase Model for classifying Business Model Types for Enterprise Mashup Intermediaries Three generic Business Model Types (Directory, Broker, Marketplace) Contribution to the Knowledge Base according to the three cycles of design science research as proposed by Hevner Scientific: Interaction Phase Model as an artefact Practice: Guideline for designing Enterprise Mashups environments (Platform as a Service, PaaS)© SAP 2009 / Generic Business Model Types for Enterprise Mashup Intermediaries / Page 24
  25. 25. Future Work Enterprise Mashup Platform as a Marketplace 1 Business Model Concept Definition What is a business model? Interaction Phase Model Conceptual Level Framework What features are supported by an Mashup intermediary? 2 Business Model Types Directory Broker Marketplace Taxonomy of business model types 3 Business Model Instances (view of an Mashup intermediary) Instance Level ProgrammableWeb IBM Mashup Center Seekda RoofTop Modelled instances Programmable IBM Seekda RoofTop Real world intermediaries Web.Com Mashup Center© SAP 2009 / Generic Business Model Types for Enterprise Mashup Intermediaries / Page 25
  26. 26. Future Work SAP Research RoofTop Marketplace PrototypeKnowledge Intentions Contract (Design) Settlement© SAP 2009 / Generic Business Model Types for Enterprise Mashup Intermediaries / Page 26
  27. 27. Thank you! Contact Volker Hoyer =mcminstitute, University of St. Gallen and SAP Research Center St. Gallen Blumenbergplatz 9 9000 St. Gallen Switzerland http://www.mcm.unisg.ch, http://www.sap.com/research ? Volker.Hoyer@sap.com, Katarina.Stanoevska@unisg.ch© SAP 2008 /Enterprise Mashups: Design Principles towards the Long Tail of User Needs / Page 27
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