PROJECT IN SCIENCE Earthquake VolcanoSubmitted to: Submitted by: Mrs. Myra M. Pareñas Josh Matthew E. Hernandez Science VI Grade VI
TABLE OF CONTENTS Earthquake Photos of Earthquake Latest Earthquake Information Seismological Observation and Earthquake Prediction Division Latest Earthquakes in the World - Past 7 days Philippine Fault Zone Maps Effects of Earthquake Types of Volcano Parts of Volcano Volcanic Eruption Effects of Volcanic Eruption Safety Tips Before and After the Volcano Erupt
An earthquake is the shaking and trembling that results from the sudden movement of part of the Earth’s crust. The most common cause of earthquakes is faulting. During faulting, energy is released. Rocks continue to move until the energy is used up.
PHIVOLCS Earthquake Bulletins of latest seismic events in thePhilippines are listed below. The event parameters (hypocenter, time andmagnitude) are determined using incoming data from the PhilippineNational Seismic NetworkPhilippine Standard Time (PST) is eight hours ahead of CoordinatedUniversal Time (UTC). (PST = UTC + 8H) UTC is the time standard forwhich the world regulates clocks and time.Earthquakes in this list with their date and time underlined in blue havereported felt intensities. Intensity ratings are based on thePHIVOLCSEarthquake Intensity Scale.Magnitudes in the list are color-coded: below magnitude 5.0 (M < 5.0)are in black, magnitudes 5.0 but below 6.0 (5.0 ≤ M < 6.0) arein blue, magnitudes 6.0 and above (M ≥ 6.0) are in red.
SEISMOLOGICAL OBSERVATION AND EARTHQUAKE PREDICTIONDATE - TIME DIVISION LATITUDE LONGITUDE DEPTH MAGNITUDE LOCATION(PST) ` ( °N ) ( °E ) ( km ) ( Ms )02 Nov 2011 - 08:06 PM 19.38 120.19 023 2.9 138 km N 19° W of Laoag City01 Nov 2011 - 07:22 PM 10.08 126.14 014 3.0 032 km N 03° W of General Luna(Siargao) 31 Oct 2011 - 03:29 AM 13.68 121.71 020 2.6 028 km S 23° E of Lucena City30 Oct 2011 - 11:36 PM 16.06 119.92 033 3.3 012 km S 31° W of Alaminos (Pangasinan)30 Oct 2011 - 07:42 PM 18.91 120.87 029 3.2 085 km N 21° E of Laoag City30 Oct 2011 - 06:33 PM 13.08 121.24 035 2.3 038 km S 10° E of Calapan (OrientalMindoro)30 Oct 2011 - 04:54 PM 07.70 124.54 019 3.0 067 km N 34° E of Cotabato City30 Oct 2011 - 01:09 PM 04.94 125.34 172 3.8 131 km S 08° E of General Santos City30 Oct 2011 - 09:08 AM 12.41 120.87 009 3.7 048 km S 13° E of Sablayan (OccidentalMindoro)29 Oct 2011 - 09:38 PM 13.70 120.40 034 2.8 017 km S 80° E of Looc (Lubang)29 Oct 2011 - 03:32 PM 13.73 120.47 094 2.6 024 km N 89° E of Looc (Lubang)29 Oct 2011 - 10:46 AM 09.23 125.60 002 3.2 032 km N 11° E of Butuan City26 Oct 2011 - 06:44 PM 20.88 121.78 033 4.2 012 km N 37° W of Itbayat (Batanes)26 Oct 2011 - 06:28 PM 07.28 121.94 007 3.7 039 km N 23° W of Zamboanga City
LATEST EARTHQUAKES IN THE WORLD - PAST7 DAYS Based on USGS
PHILIPPINE FAULT ZONE MAPS Large-scale digital mapping of the Philippine fault zone based on aerial photograph interpretation: The 1,200-km-long Philippine fault zone (PFZ) is a major tectonic feature that transects the whole Philippine archipelago from northwestern Luzon to southeastern Mindanao. This arc-parallel, left-lateral strike slip fault is divided into several segments and has been the source of large-magnitude earthquakes in recent years, such as the 1973 Ragay Gulf earthquake (M 7.0), 1990 Luzon earthquake (Mw 7.7) (Figure 1), and 2003 Masbate earthquake (Ms 6.2). The high seismic risk posed by this fault zone requires a large-scale active faults map, a fundamental data set for seismic hazard mitigation.
LARGE-SCALE DIGITAL MAPPING OF THE PHILIPPINE FAULT ZONE BASED ON AERIALPHOTOGRAPH INTERPRETATION:Since 2003, Kyoto University and PHIVOLCS-DOST have beenmapping the Philippine Fault. At present, approximately 90% ofon-land-stretch of the PFZ has been mapped. This delineationis based on interpretation of available large-scale (at least1:30,000) aerial photographs. In areas where there are noavailable aerial photographs, various satellite images are used tomap the fault zone. The identified surface traces of the PFZ arethen plotted onto 1:50,000 topographic maps published byNAMRIA and compiled using commonly used GeographicInformation System (GIS) platforms such as MapInfoProfessional and Generic Mapping Tool (GMT). These activefaults maps are now available on this website and upon requestto PHIVOLCS-DOST (Figure 2: example of active faults map).
EFFECTS OF EARTHQUAKE Negative effects of earthquakes: Tremendous loss of life. Loss of property. Collapse of transport – roads, railways, ports, bridges. Fire, landslides, floods. Blocked roads Facilities disrupted – electricity, water, medical Tsunamis
EARTHQUAKE EFFECTS - GROUNDSHAKING Northridge, CA 1994
EARTHQUAKE EFFECTS -GROUND SHAKING Northridge, CA 1994
EARTHQUAKE EFFECTS - GROUNDSHAKING Loma Prieta, CA 1989 KGO-TV News ABC-7
EARTHQUAKE EFFECTS - GROUNDSHAKING Kobe, Japan 1995
EARTHQUAKE EFFECTS - GROUND SHAKING Kobe, Japan 1995
EARTHQUAKE EFFECTS - SURFACE FAULTING Landers, CA 1992
EARTHQUAKE EFFECTS - LIQUEFACTION Source: National Geophysical Data Center Niigata, Japan 1964
EARTHQUAKE EFFECTS - LIQUEFACTIONLiquefaction occurs when theearth shakes something likeJell-O – a lot of water in thesolid makes this happen. Inthe 1995 San Franciscoearthquake, the Marina areashook buildings to the groundbecause they were built on“fill” that was dumped into theBay to create land. Seattlealso has fill areas. Source: National Geophysical Data Center Niigata, Japan 1964
EARTHQUAKE EFFECTS - LANDSLIDES Source: National Geophysical Data Center Turn again Heights, Alaska,1964 (upper left ins Santa Cruz Mtns, California , 1989
EARTHQUAKE EFFECTS - FIRES Loma Prieta, CA 1989 KGO-TV News ABC-7
EARTHQUAKE EFFECTS - TSUNAMIS1957 Aleutian Tsunami Photograph Credit: Henry Helbush. Source: National Geophysical Data
WHAT IS A VOLCANO? Volcano- Areas of earth’s surface through which magma and volcanic gases pass Volcano comes from the Roman word Vulcan, which means “fire”
WHAT’S INSIDE A VOLCANO? Magma Chamber- molten rock that feeds a volcano Vents- cracks in the crust What is the difference between magma and lava?
WHY DOES THE PHILIPPINESHAVE MANY VOLCANOES?The Philippines sits on a unique tectonic setting ideal tovolcano formation. The archipelago is surrounded bysubducting plates as manifested by the trenches that arerelated to volcano formation.
VOLCANIC ERUPTION Effusive eruptions are characterised by outpourings of lava on to the ground. Hawaii Courtesy of www.swisseduc.ch
EXPLOSIVE ERUPTIONS Three products from an explosive eruption Ash fall Pyroclastic flow Pyroclastic surge Pyroclastic flows on Montserrat, buried the capital city.
VOLCANIC ERUPTION During a volcanic eruption lava, tephra (ash, lapilli, volca nic bombs and blocks), and various gases are expelled from avolcanic vent or fissure. Several types of volcanic eruptions have been distinguished by volcanologists. These are often named after famous volcanoes where that type of behavior has been observed. Some volcanoes may exhibit only one characteristic type of eruption during a period of activity, while others may display an entire sequence of types all in one eruptive series.
EFFECTS OF VOLCANIC ERUPTION POSITIVE EFFECTS NEGATIVE EFFECTS Ash add to the soil fertility – Loss of life farming Loss of property (economic loss) New minerals may be discovered Air Pollution (ash, smoke, gases, acid rain etc) Promotes Tourism Water pollution Research and education Lahars (mudflows with purposes. water) Geothermal Energy – Earthquakes renewable energy. Increase in temperature of the area
PROTECTIVE MEASURESBefore a Volcanic Eruption Add a pair of goggles and disposable breathing mask for each member of the family to your disaster supply kit. Stay away from active volcano sites.During a Volcanic EruptionThe following are guidelines for what to do if a volcano erupts in yourarea:Evacuate immediately from the volcano area to avoid flying debris,hot gases, lateral blast, and lava flow.Be aware of mudflows. The danger from a mudflow increases nearstream channels and with prolonged heavy rains. Mudflows can movefaster than you can walk or run. Look upstream before crossing abridge, and do not cross the bridge if mudflow is approaching.Avoid river valleys and low-lying areas.
PROTECTION FROM FALLING ASH Wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants.· Use goggles and war eyeglasses instead of contact lenses. Use a dust mask or hold a damp cloth over your face to help with breathing Stay away from areas downwind from the volcano to avoid volcanic ash. Stay indoors until the ash has settled unless there is a danger of the roof collapsing. Close doors, windows, and all ventilation in the house (chimney vents, furnaces, air conditioners, fans, and other vents. Clear heavy ash from flat or low-pitched roofs and rain gutters. Avoid running car or truck engines. Driving can stir up volcanic ash that can clog engines, damage moving parts, and stall vehicles. Avoid driving in heavy ash fall unless absolutely required. If you have to drive, keep speed down to 35 MPH or slower.
JOSH MATTHEW E. HERNANDEZ End of presentation Thank you very much….. Bagong Bayan Elementary School