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  • 1. Consciousness and Drugs
  • 2. Consciousness
    • Selective Attention
        • Focusing/conscious awareness on a particular stimulus
        • “ Cocktail party phenomenon”
    • Selective Inattention
        • “ Inattentional blindness” (or, ‘gorillas in the midst’)
        • We also divert our attention from information that (while relevant) might be emotionally upsetting
  • 3. Sleep
    • Circadian rhythm
        • Cyclical biological process revolving around daily cycles of light and dark
        • During periods of darkness, pineal gland produces sleep-inducing hormones (melatonin) that diminish during the day
  • 4. Sleep Stages
  • 5. Sleep
    • Sleep patterns
        • Infants sleep 2/3 of every day; Adults sleep about 1/3
    • Sleep deprivation
        • Reduces functioning of immune system and concentration
        • Increases production of stress hormones (cortisol) which create body fat
        • Rats deprived of sleep die after two weeks
  • 6. Sleep
    • Common sleep disorders
        • Insomnia
        • Narcolepsy
        • Sleep apnea
        • Night terrors
        • Sleepwalking, sleepeating
        • Teeth grinding
  • 7. Sleep
    • Insomnia
        • Chronic inability to fall asleep, stay asleep, or feel fully rested
        • Affects ~6% of men and ~15% of women
        • “ Treatments”
          • Many sleeping pills significantly disrupts sleep patterns
          • Modify sleep schedule so that you get up and go to sleep at roughly the same times each day
          • Maintain exercise regime, relax half an hour before bed, avoid bright lights         
  • 8. Sleep
    • Narcolepsy
        • Excessive daytime sleepiness and/or sudden, uncontrollable lapses into sleep during the day
        • Sudden loss of muscle tone, can lead to collapse, and REM sleep
        • Currently no known cure
  • 9. Sleep
    • Sleep apnea
        • Repeatedly choking and gasping during sleep
        • Can occur 300-500 times per night, often with no recollection of waking up
        • Soft tissue in the back of the throat relaxes, causing airway blockage
        • Disrupts sleep rhythms, less time in deep, restorative sleep (lack of REM sleep), leads to diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, stroke, weight gain
        • Treatments
            • Surgery to remove sagging or excess tissue in throat
            • Pressurized oxygen mask (CPAP) to keep airway open
  • 10.  
  • 11.  
  • 12. Sleep
    • Lifestyle changes that can help sleep apnea
        • Lose weight. Even a small amount of weight loss can open up throat and improve apnea symptoms
        • Quit smoking. Smoking increases inflammation and fluid retention in throat and upper airway
        • Avoid alcohol, sleeping pills, and sedatives as they relax muscles in the throat and interfere with breathing
        • Maintain regular sleep hours.   Apnea episodes decrease with plenty of sleep.
  • 13. Sleep
    • Night terrors
        • Sit up in bed with terrified screams and thrashing around
        • Ends abruptly and individual returns to sleep often with no recollection of what happened
        • Usually occurs during Stage 4 sleep
            • Note: nightmares occur during REM sleep
        • Typically affects children
            • As we grow older and spend less time in Stage 4 sleep, night terrors diminish
  • 14. Sleep
    • Sleepeating
        • Individual is unaware of their behavior
        • Roaming the house, particularly the kitchen, eating large quantities of food (as well as non-food items)
        • Food consumed tend to be high in sugar/fat
            • Odd combinations (potato chips with peanut butter, butter and hot dogs)
        • Affects ~1-3% of population
  • 15. Sleep
    • Sleepeating
        • Often a symptom of a larger underlying issue
        • High correlation with eating disorders and other anxiety disorders
        • Treatments
            • Stress management
            • Therapy
            • Limit caffeine and alcohol consumption
            • Benzodiazapines (to reduce motor function at night)
  • 16. Altered States
    • More altered states of consciousness
        • Meditation
        • Hypnosis
        • Drug-induced states
  • 17. Drugs
    • Definitions
        • Tolerance
        • Dependence
          • Physical and psychological
        • Withdrawal
  • 18. Drugs
    • Depressants
        • Alcohol, barbiturates/tranquilizers, morphine/heroin (opiates)
        • Creates disinhibition, slows neural processing, interferes processing of STM to LTM
    • Stimulants
        • Methamphetamine, caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, ecstasy
        • Temporarily excite neural activity
    • Hallucinogens
        • LSD, marijuana
        • Distort perceptions and evoke sensory images