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Units 37 39
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Units 37 39
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Units 37 39
Units 37 39
Units 37 39
Units 37 39
Units 37 39
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Units 37 39
Units 37 39
Units 37 39
Units 37 39
Units 37 39
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Units 37 39
Units 37 39
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Units 37 39
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  • 1. Social Psychology
  • 2. Attitudes
    • Tendency to evaluate stimuli with some degree of favor or disfavor
    • 3 components of an attitude
        • Affective
        • Behavioral
        • Cognitive
  • 3. Theory of Planned Behavior
    • Change specific attitude toward a behavior
    • Emphasize subjective norms
    • Increase perceived behavioral control
  • 4. Persuasion
    • The deliberate attempt to change attitudes
    • Components of persuasion
        • Source – speakers more persuasive when credible
        • Message – fear appeals can be effective but often backfire
        • Attitude strength – stronger attitudes harder to change
  • 5. Persuasion
    • Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)
        • How do characteristics of the message influence persuasion?
        • Two routes through which people are persuaded:
          • Central route – involves inducing recipient of a message to think carefully and weigh the arguments (systematic processing)
          • – leads to more enduring attitude change
          • Peripheral route – persuasion depends on nonmessage factors
  • 6. Persuasion
    • Elaboration Likelihood Model (con’t)
        • Use central route to change attitudes when:
          • Recipient’s attitude strength is strong
          • Recipient motivated to think about message arguments
          • Recipient knowledgeable about the message source
        • Receiver carefully attends to message
        • Using distractions (glitzy campaigns, jingles) to impede
        • rational and conscious message processing will only
        • cause annoyance
  • 7.  
  • 8. Persuasion
    • Elaboration Likelihood Model (con’t)
        • Use peripheral route to change attitudes when:
          • Recipient not likely to engage in high-effort cognitive thought processing (superficial processing)
          • Attitude is weak
        • Recipient will not carefully consider the pros/cons of the issue or message
        • Use of distractions does not capitalize on rational
        • thought processes
  • 9.  
  • 10. Persuasion
    • Requests that shift from small to large:
    • “ Foot-in-the-Door”
      • Small request first get compliance then larger request
    • “ Low-Balling”
      • Reasonable request first get compliance reveal hidden costly details (i.e., mistaken price suddenly discovered)
  • 11. Persuasion
    • Requests that shift from large to small:
    • “ Door-in-the-Face”
      • Unreasonable first request immediate smaller request
    • “ That’s-Not-All”
      • Large request discount/bonus immediately follows
  • 12.
    • Scarcity – Rare things are highly valued (Home Shopping network, “Limited Time Only”/“Supplies Limited” sales)
    • Reciprocity – First the source gives you something. Once you accept it, you may feel obligated to give something back
    • Comparison rule – When others stop and stare, so do you (“salting the collection plate”, etc.)
    Other Types of Influence
  • 13. Persuasion
    • Fear appeals
        • Arousing fear in order to facilitate a particular behavioral outcome can be useful
        • Two components
          • The threat – perceived susceptibility : convince recipient they are vulnerable
          • – perceived negativity : convince consequences are negative
          • Recommended response
          • – perceived self-efficacy : convince recipient they are capable of enacting the recommended response
          • – perceived response efficacy : convince the recipient the response actually works
  • 14. The Self
    • Social Comparison Theory (Festinger, 1954)
      • We compare own attributes with similar others
      • People are motivated to know (1) if they are correct and (2) their ability level
      • Upward social comparison – “Better off others”
      • Downward social comparison – “Worse off others”
    •          
  • 15. The Self
    • Cognitive Dissonance Theory
        • Perceived discrepancy between an attitude and a behavior
        • Leads to state of psychological tension similar to anxiety
        • Individual motivated to either change the attitude, behavior, or perception of inconsistent information
    • Festinger & Carlsmith (1959)
        • Monotonous task experiment ($1 vs. $20)
  • 16.
    • Festinger & Carlsmith (1959)
        • Participants performed boring motor coordination task for 30 minutes
        • Experimenter asked if subject would introduce study to next participant (a confederate) to make $
        • Subjects given either $1 or $20 to tell next subject the boring experiment was fun
        • Afterward, subject filled out a survey to assess how they really felt about the experiment
        • Those paid $20 to lie evaluated the study as much less favorable than those only paid $1….why?
    The Self
  • 17. The Self
    • Festinger & Carlsmith (1959)
        • In the $20 condition, the dissonance (lying about a boring task) was weaker – they know why they lied
        • In the $1 condition, dissonance is higher because subjects could not justify their behavior on external grounds
            • Only option to reduce dissonance is to modify attitude toward the task – “I guess it was kind of interesting.”
  • 18. The Self
    • Self-Affirmation Theory (Steele, 1988)
      • People strive to think of themselves in positive terms
      • People experience tension whenever they do something that violates these self-ideals
      • To reduce tension, simply reestablish positive self image, global self-esteem, decency, or adequacy
          • How does this differ from Cognitive Dissonance Theory?
  • 19. The Self
    • Halo effect
      • When we consider a person good (or bad) in one category, we are likely to make a similar evaluation of them in other categories
      • Dissonance avoidance?
        • Attributing someone as good at one thing and bad at another would make an overall evaluation difficult
        • Advertisers (i.e., toward iPod customers)
        • Hollywood stars
  • 20. The Self
    • Fundamental Attribution Error (Ross, 1977)
      • Attribute events which happen to other people to their internal states (mood, personality, motivations) but attribute events involving ourselves to external influences
      • Especially true when we know little about the other person
      • Examples?
  • 21. Conformity
    • Why do we conform?
        • Maintain group cohesion
        • Fear of being ridiculed or excluded
        • Normative influence – Adopting group consensus to be liked/to belong to the group
        • Informational influence – Adopting group consensus to be right in the eyes of outgroup others
  • 22.
    • Zimbardo’s (1971) Stanford Prison Experiment
        • 2 groups
          • “ Prisoners” picked up by California police on a Saturday
          • morning, deloused, chained, and jailed
          • “ Guards” wore uniforms, given billy clubs, whistles, and
          • instructed to maintain order in the prison
        • Experiment cancelled after only a few days as guards became progressively sadistic/abusive
    Conformity
  • 23.  
  • 24. Conformity
    • Milgram’s Obedience Experiments (1963)
      • Participants told study was about the effect of punishment on learning – really about conformity to authority
      • Paired associates task, with shock as punishment
      • Confederate was the “learner” in other room, participant was the “teacher” who administered the shocks
      • Shocking apparatus had 15v to 450v (lethal)
      • The more mistakes the confederate makes, the higher the shock the participant is asked to give
  • 25. Conformity
    • Results:
      • 65% of participants “killed” the victim
      • What determined such obedience to authority?
          • participant heard by victim but not seen
          • prestigious location (Yale laboratory)
          • high social status of “expert” authority figure
          • authority figure present to push participant to continue
      • When participants in same room, only 30% lethally shocked victim
  • 26. Groups
    • Social facilitation
        • Individual performance (esp. competitive tasks) is altered due to the presence of others
            • Performance improves on simple or familiar tasks
            • Performance may not improve on complex or new tasks
  • 27. Groups
    • Social loafing
        • Individual effort decreases as size of group increases
        • Influenced by:
          • Diffusion of responsibility
          • Decreased evaluation apprehension
          • Group productivity illusion (“They’re doing fine”)
          • Personal interest toward task
          • Level of identification with the group
  • 28. Groups
    • Deindividuation
        • In a crowd, people:
          • Lose sense of self/less self-aware
          • Experience sense of anonymity
          • Become more impulsive
          • Become less rational and more suggestible
          • Behave in more extreme ways
  • 29.  
  • 30.
    • Stereotypes
        • Generalizations about the "typical" characteristics of members of a group (can be + or -)
        • “The cowboy and the Indian” are American stereotypes
    • Prejudice
        • Unreasonable feelings/opinions (negative attitudes) regarding racial, religious, or national groups
    • Discrimination
        • Treatment (action) toward others based on class or category rather than individual merit
    Perceiving Groups
  • 31.
    • Mere Exposure Effect (Zajonc, 1968)
      • The more we are exposed to something, the more we come to like it
      • “ Familiarity breeds liking”
      • There is some benefit to simply hanging around or being near someone you’re interested in!
    Close Relationships
  • 32. Close Relationships
    • Sternberg’s 7 Types of Love
      • - Non Love (absence of commitment, intimacy, or passion)
      • - Empty Love (commitment but no intimacy or passion)
      • - Infatuation (passion but no commitment or intimacy)
      • - Companionate (commitment and intimacy but no passion)
      • - Fatuous (commitment and passion but no intimacy)
      • - Romantic (intimacy and passion but no commitment)
      • - Consummate (intimacy, passion, and commitment)
  • 33.  
  • 34. Close Relationships
    • Attachment Theory (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991)
        • Closeness/intimacy processes key in the development and maintenance of trust and security
        • Types of Attachment
          • Secure
          • Preoccupied
          • Dismissing-Avoidant
          • Fearful-Avoidant
  • 35.  

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