Units 30+31


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Units 30+31

  1. 1. Personality
  2. 2. Personality <ul><li>Psychodynamic Perspective (Freud) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasizes sexuality and unconscious motives as root of personality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Everything rooted from the expression/repression of the sex drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neurotic symptoms caused by psychological traumas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emotions resulting from trauma expressed indirectly via weak/vague behaviors that are meaningful </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When a patient is made aware of the meanings of these symptoms (via hypnosis, free association), unexpressed emotions are released </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Personality <ul><li>Psychodynamic Perspective (Freud) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free association often impaired by unconscious resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Such resistance opposes recovery of critical memories into consciousness (“repression”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most repressions are sexual in nature and date back to early childhood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repressed thoughts/memories/impulses trigger anxiety when brought forth and are therefore continually pushed into unconscious </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Three basic subsystems of personality – “The psyche” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Id </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most primitive portion of personality; contains all biological urges, reservoir of sexual and aggressive energy; “pleasure principle” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Superego </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conscious parental voice; represents internalized rules of parents/society, often conflicts with the Id </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ego </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attempts to balance Id and Superego via “reality principle” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Personality
  5. 6. Psychosocial Stages of Personality Development (Freud)
  6. 7. Personality <ul><li>Defense mechanisms (Freud) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regression </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reaction Formation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Projection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rationalization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Displacement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Denial </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sublimation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Passive aggression </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 9. Personality <ul><li>Jung </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The unconscious contains more than repressed thoughts and feelings (“ collective unconscious ”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ego - Conscious component at center of individuality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The persona - Represents social roles that unconsciously influence behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The “shadow” - Formed out of parts of self repressed by persona </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anima/animus – Unconscious masculine/feminine traits, dominant role formed when ego solidifies a gender role </li></ul></ul>
  8. 11. Personality <ul><li>Humanistic Perspective (Rogers) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central feature of personality is the self-concept </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If self-concept is + we tend to act/perceive world as + </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If self-concept is – we fall short of “ideal” self and feel dissatisfied and unhappy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People are basically good and self-actualizing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To nurture growth in others, 3 conditions required: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Being genuine, accepting, and empathic </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Criticisms? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 12. Personality <ul><li>Personality traits vs. states </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trait = enduring/stable aspects of personality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>States = temporary/situationally induced </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 13. Personality <ul><li>Trait Perspectives of Personality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eysenck’s 3-factor model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extraversion – sociable, assertive, sensation-seeking </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neuroticism – tendencies toward anxiety or fear </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Psychoticism – impulsivity, aggressive, egocentric, antisocial </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Personality assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Observation (interviews) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personality inventories/surveys (MMPI) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Projective tests (Rorschach, TAT) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 14. Personality <ul><li>Trait Perspectives of Personality (con’t) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“Big 5 Model” includes Eysenck's traits of extroversion and neuroticism but expanded psychoticism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O.C.E.A.N. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>O pen to experiences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>C onscientiousness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E xtroversion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A greeableness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>N euroticism </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 15. <ul><li>Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) </li></ul>Shyness, inhibition Si Introversion Overactive, excited, impulsive Ma Hypomania Bizarre thoughts, withdrawn Sc Schizophrenia Guilt feelings, tendency to worry Pt Psychasthenia Suspiciousness, delusions of persecution Pa Paranoia Gender role-based interests Mf Masculinity Disregard for social standards Pd Psychopathy Exaggeration of symptoms Hy Hysteria Pessimism, hopelessness D Depression Concern with bodily functions Hs Hypochondriasis What it purports to measure Abbreviation Scale Clinical Scales of the MMPI
  13. 16. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Flexible but indecisive Perceptive P Decisive, rigid Judging J Judge according to emotion Feeling F Judge according to logic/reason Thinking T Perception-oriented to internal cues Intuitive N Perception-oriented to external cues Sensate S Seeks social interaction Extraverted E Withdrawn from social interaction Introverted I Description Term
  14. 17. <ul><li>ENFJ (Extroverted feeling with intuiting): Easy speakers, idealize their friends, make good parents, but have a tendency to allow themselves to be used. They make good therapists, teachers, executives, and salespeople. </li></ul><ul><li>ENFP (Extroverted intuiting with feeling): These people love novelty and surprises, are big on emotions and expression. They also tend to feel self-conscious. They are good at sales, advertising, politics, and acting. </li></ul><ul><li>ENTJ (Extroverted thinking with intuiting): In charge at home, expect a lot from spouses/kids, like organization and structure and tend to make good executives and administrators. </li></ul><ul><li>ENTP (Extroverted intuiting with thinking): Lively, not humdrum. A little dangerous, especially economically. Good at analysis and make good entrepreneurs. They do tend to play “one-up-manship”. </li></ul><ul><li>ESFJ (Extroverted feeling with sensing): Like harmony, have strong ‘shoulds’ and ‘should-nots’. May be dependent, first on parents and later on spouses, wear their hearts on their sleeves and excel in service occupations involving personal contact. </li></ul><ul><li>ESFP (Extroverted sensing with feeling): Very generous and impulsive, have a low tolerance for anxiety. They make good performers, like public relations, and they love the phone. Tend to avoid scholarly pursuits, especially science. </li></ul><ul><li>ESTJ (Extroverted thinking with sensing): Responsible mates and parents and are loyal to the workplace. They are realistic, down-to-earth, orderly, and love tradition. </li></ul><ul><li>ESTP (Extroverted sensing with thinking): Action-oriented, often sophisticated, sometimes ruthless (&quot;James Bond“). As mates, they are exciting and charming, but have trouble with commitment. They make good promoters and entrepreneurs. </li></ul>
  15. 18. <ul><li>ISTJ (Introverted sensing with thinking): These are dependable pillars of strength. They often try to reform their mates and other people. They make good bank examiners, auditors, accountants, tax examiners, supervisors in libraries and hospitals, business, and phys. ed. teachers, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>ISTP (Introverted thinking with sensing): These people are action-oriented and fearless, and crave excitement. They are impulsive and dangerous to stop. They often like tools, instruments, and weapons, and often become technical experts. They are not interested in communications and are often incorrectly diagnosed as dyslexic or hyperactive. They tend to do badly in school. </li></ul><ul><li>INFJ (Introverted intuiting with feeling): Serious students and workers who want to contribute, are private and easily hurt. They make good spouses, but tend to be physically reserved. They make good therapists, ministers, and practitioners. </li></ul><ul><li>INFP (Introverted feeling with intuiting): Idealistic, self-sacrificing, and somewhat cool or reserved. They are very family and home oriented, but don't relax well. Work in psychology, architecture, and religion, but rarely in business. </li></ul><ul><li>INTJ (Introverted intuiting with thinking): The most independent of all types, love logic and ideas, and are drawn to scientific research. </li></ul><ul><li>INTP (Introverted thinking with intuiting): Faithful, preoccupied, and forgetful, these are the bookworms. They are good at logic and math and make good philosophers and theoretical scientists, but not writers or salespeople. </li></ul><ul><li>ISFJ (Introverted sensing with feeling): These people are service and work oriented. They may suffer from fatigue and tend to be attracted to troublemakers. They are good nurses, teachers, secretaries, general practitioners, librarians, middle managers, and housekeepers. </li></ul><ul><li>ISFP (Introverted feeling with sensing): They are shy and retiring, are not talkative, but like sensuous action. They like painting, drawing, sculpting, composing, dancing -- the arts generally -- and they like nature. They are not big on commitment. </li></ul>
  16. 19. <ul><li>Social-Cognitive Perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reciprocal determinism (Bandura) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personality constructed via interactions of: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1) Socio-environmental factors (modeling/conditioning) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2) Internal cognitive factors (self-regulation; meta-cognition) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3) Behavior (nature/frequency/intensity of action) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Personality
  17. 20. <ul><li>Social-Cognitive Perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Locus of control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internal locus of control – master of own fate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>External locus of control – life is determined by forces outside one’s control </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learned helplessness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Passive resignation” as a coping mechanism? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Often domain-specific (e.g., test performance, abusive relationships) </li></ul></ul></ul>Personality