Units 25 29


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Units 25 29

  1. 1. Motivation, Emotion, and Stress
  2. 2. Motivation <ul><li>What are motives? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Needs or desires that prompts an individual into action and directs behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reflects biological or psychosocial needs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Stimulus motives </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Based on needs to interact with environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Curiosity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual activity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Entertainment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary motives </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Based on group acceptance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Approval </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Individual achievement </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Motivation
  4. 4. Motivation <ul><li>Intrinsic motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal drives to perform a task for its own sake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More open to demands of the task </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Individual is more willing/eager to learn </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enjoyment of the task often serves as the reward </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Extrinsic motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Money, good grades, other “external” rewards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“Carrot on a stick” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can produce good outcomes (in the short-term) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Motivation <ul><li>Physiological motives </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Based on the body’s need for survival </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hunger </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thirst </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sleep </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pain avoidance </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Motivation <ul><li>Many goals/motivations in life are to achieve and maintain (physical, mental, emotional) homeostasis </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Approach-approach conflict </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avoidant-avoidant conflict </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Approach-avoidant conflict </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Motivation <ul><li>Behaviorist perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drives arise from unfulfilled needs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drive-reduction theory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We do things in order to satiate our needs/reduce drives </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviors (including motivation) governed by stimuli in environment </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Motivation and Maslow
  9. 9. Eating <ul><li>Homeostasis </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>State of equilibrium/body’s set-point </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus involved with regulation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Lateral hypothalamus – “on” switch for eating </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulation = eating induced </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Damage/lesions = immediately lose desire to eat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Ventromedial hypothalamus – “off” switch for eating </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulation = inhibition of eating (satiety center activated) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Damage/lesions = leads to overeating, satiety center receives no “off” message </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Eating <ul><li>What influences hunger? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Palatability/taste preferences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Variety – exposure to same/different foods </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Presence of others – bigger group = eat more </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Eating disorders </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anorexia Nervosa </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bulimia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Orthorexia Nervosa </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pica? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Sexual Motivation <ul><li>Kinsey (1948) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Father of sexology” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Explored motives for widely varied human sex practices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Surveyed 5,000 men and over 6,000 women </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Kinsey Report had a profound impact on social awareness of sexuality in the 1950s </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Psychosocial Motivation <ul><li>Esteem motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The need to view one’s self in a positive light </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-enhancement motives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-consistency motives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Achievement motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To do well, succeed, avoid failure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Take pleasure in completing difficult/challenging tasks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Often highly motivated to avoid failure </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Emotion <ul><li>What is emotion? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Affect” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mood, feeling, preferences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is this a good definition? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Emotion <ul><li>Limbic system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plays a role in transferring information into memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hippocampus – main location for this transfer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amygdala – strongly implicated in attaching emotional significance to stimuli/information/events </li></ul></ul>
  15. 17. Emotion <ul><li>Cognitive level </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Having conscious sense of emotion (i.e., being afraid) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emotions are perceived as having some level of (un)pleasantness and strength </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Over 400 words in the English language refer to emotions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 18. Emotion <ul><li>Physiological level </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emotions contribute to changes in heart rate, blood pressure, etc. (i.e, physiological arousal) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some physiological changes too small to notice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) - measures fluctuations in electrical conductivity of the skin that occur when sweat glands increase activity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Polygraph - &quot;lie detector&quot; - used to measure subtle variations in muscle tension, heart rate, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 19. Emotion <ul><li>Behavioral Level </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Facial expressions of emotion - smiling, frowning, clenching fists </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Facial-feedback” hypothesis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ekman showed photos to people and asked them to identify what emotion was being expressed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People from different cultures recognize common facial features </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6-7 basic emotions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of facial expression to convey emotion appears to be innate (Ekman) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 21. Theories of Emotion <ul><li>1) James-Lange theory of emotion </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subjective emotions arise from physiological arousal (emotion is the result of behavior) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ I yelled (behavior) which got my adrenaline pumping (physiological arousal) and this intensified my anger (emotion).” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Therefore, controlling behavior controls emotions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make yourself smile and you will be happy! </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 23. <ul><li>2) Cannon-Bard theory of emotion </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emotions and physiological arousal often occur simultaneously </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The arousal of one emotion often the same as arousal of another emotion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People cry when happy or when sad (same behavior) yet these emotional states are markedly different (different emotions) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Theories of Emotion
  20. 25. <ul><li>3) Schachter-Singer cognitive theory of emotion </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two components are necessary to experience emotion: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1) physiological arousal </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2) cognitive labeling of the arousal </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We don't automatically know when we are happy, angry, or jealous - instead we label our emotions by considering situational cues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Labeling depends on social settings and cultural norms </li></ul></ul></ul>Theories of Emotion
  21. 26. Theories of Emotion <ul><li>3) Schachter-Singer cognitive theory of emotion (con’t) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Independent variables: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1) Manipulating arousal through injections </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2) Manipulating labeling of emotion by placing subjects with confederates who are either “angry” or “happy” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Results: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Informed subjects reported no change in emotional state </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uninformed subjects happier w/happy confederate </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uninformed subjects angrier w/angry confederate </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 28. Emotion <ul><li>Positive and negative affect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>+ affect processed in left frontal lobe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- affect processed in right frontal lobe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High inter-correlation within each type </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People frequently experiencing one negative emotion (guilt) also more likely to feel others (anxiety, sadness, self-loathing) </li></ul></ul>
  23. 29. Emotion <ul><li>Anger </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“A short madness” vs. “Making a coward brave” (Virgil) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anger can feel unpleasant but can also have pleasurable components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anger shown to be an approach-oriented emotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anger creates EEG activity in left frontal lobe (location of positive affect?) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 31. Emotion <ul><li>Jealousy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship jealousy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A reaction to a perceived threat (real or imagined) to a valued relationship or to its quality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Normal” vs. “delusional” jealousy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual jealousy leading cause of homicide and assault </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This effect is cross-cultural (Daly & Wilson, 1988) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 32. Emotion <ul><li>Jealousy (con’t) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mate poaching? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>62% of men and 40% of women say they've attempted to entice another’s mate (“poachers”) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>47% of men and 32% of women report succumbing to such advances (“poachees”) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The more sexual equality in a culture, the closer women come to matching men in # of mate poaching attempts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mate poachers reportedly more open to new experiences, highly sexual, more likely to be narcissistic, and prone to feelings of intense jealousy </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 33. How do crazy people go through the forest?
  27. 34. They use a psychopath! How do crazy people go through the forest?
  28. 35. Emotion <ul><li>Emotion regulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to intensify or maintain positive affect and practice “mood repair” when facing negative affect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulation can take place before/after emotion occurs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reframing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suppression </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 36. Emotion <ul><li>Emotion regulation (con’t) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor emotional regulation strongly associated with increased reactivity to stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disclosure leads to improved positive affect and better internalization of problems (Warner et al., 2006) </li></ul></ul>
  30. 37. Stress <ul><li>What is stress? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The process by which we perceive and respond to events and environmental demands </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overstimulation + demands for change </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stressors </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Holmes-Rahe Life Events Rating Scale </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measures stress related to 43 common life events </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Includes both negative and positive life stressors </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 38. Stress <ul><li>Physiological effects </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Impairs ability to focus and commit information to memory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Causes interference with hippocampus and prefrontal cortex activity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chronic stress can lead to permanent cell death and reduction in hippocampus size </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 39. Stress <ul><li>Stress and physical health </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Headaches, heart disease, stomach ulcers, depression, potential vulnerability to cancer(?) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Psychoneuroimmunology </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examines influence of psychosocial factors on functioning of immune system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stress decreases body’s capacity to fight illness </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 40. Stress <ul><li>Personality and stress </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type “A” personality linked with higher incidence of stress-related heart disease </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Optimism shown to be a crucial element in medical (and mental) recovery studies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pessimism strong predictor of poor overall health, less positive coping behaviors, and reduced immune functioning </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 41. Stress <ul><li>Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Classified as an anxiety/stress disorder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Delay of onset common (up to six months) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enduring traumatic experience can lead to: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> a) Recurrent flashback episodes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> b) Exaggerated responses to loud noises/sudden touch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>c) Inability to remember certain aspects of the trauma </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>d) Feelings of detachment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e) Frequent irritability/outbursts of anger </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 42. Stress <ul><li>Psychosomatic disorders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Real physical symptoms that begin, continue, or are made worse by mental or emotional factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress in life literally translates to “a pain in the neck” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrates the influence of the mind over the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symptoms often greatly exacerbated by stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Migraines, asthma, skin rashes/hives, frequent illness, aches, pain </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 43. Stress <ul><li>Hypochondria </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Obsession that real (or imagined) physical symptoms are signs of a serious illness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Preoccupation with fears of becoming ill </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct correlation between exaggeration of symptoms and reported levels of current stress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Typically chronic – tied to underlying mood disorders </li></ul></ul></ul>