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  • 1. Motivation, Emotion, and Stress
  • 2. Motivation
    • What are motives?
        • Needs or desires that prompts an individual into action and directs behavior
        • Reflects biological or psychosocial needs
  • 3.
    • Stimulus motives
        • Based on needs to interact with environment
          • Curiosity
          • Intellectual activity
          • Entertainment
    • Secondary motives
        • Based on group acceptance
          • Approval
          • Individual achievement
  • 4. Motivation
    • Intrinsic motivation
      • Internal drives to perform a task for its own sake
        • More open to demands of the task
        • Individual is more willing/eager to learn
        • Enjoyment of the task often serves as the reward
    • Extrinsic motivation
        • Money, good grades, other “external” rewards
        • “Carrot on a stick”
        • Can produce good outcomes (in the short-term)
  • 5. Motivation
    • Physiological motives
        • Based on the body’s need for survival
          • Hunger
          • Thirst
          • Sleep
          • Pain avoidance
  • 6. Motivation
    • Many goals/motivations in life are to achieve and maintain (physical, mental, emotional) homeostasis
        • Approach-approach conflict
        • Avoidant-avoidant conflict
        • Approach-avoidant conflict
  • 7. Motivation
    • Behaviorist perspective
        • Drives arise from unfulfilled needs
        • Drive-reduction theory
          • We do things in order to satiate our needs/reduce drives
        • Behaviors (including motivation) governed by stimuli in environment
  • 8. Motivation and Maslow
  • 9. Eating
    • Homeostasis
        • State of equilibrium/body’s set-point
        • Hypothalamus involved with regulation
    • Lateral hypothalamus – “on” switch for eating
        • Stimulation = eating induced
        • Damage/lesions = immediately lose desire to eat
    • Ventromedial hypothalamus – “off” switch for eating
        • Stimulation = inhibition of eating (satiety center activated)
        • Damage/lesions = leads to overeating, satiety center receives no “off” message
  • 10.  
  • 11. Eating
    • What influences hunger?
        • Palatability/taste preferences
        • Variety – exposure to same/different foods
        • Presence of others – bigger group = eat more
    • Eating disorders
        • Anorexia Nervosa
        • Bulimia
        • Orthorexia Nervosa
        • Pica?
  • 12. Sexual Motivation
    • Kinsey (1948)
        • “ Father of sexology”
        • Explored motives for widely varied human sex practices
        • Surveyed 5,000 men and over 6,000 women
        • The Kinsey Report had a profound impact on social awareness of sexuality in the 1950s
  • 13. Psychosocial Motivation
    • Esteem motivation
        • The need to view one’s self in a positive light
        • Self-enhancement motives
        • Self-consistency motives
    • Achievement motivation
        • To do well, succeed, avoid failure
        • Take pleasure in completing difficult/challenging tasks
        • Often highly motivated to avoid failure
  • 14. Emotion
    • What is emotion?
        • “ Affect”
        • Mood, feeling, preferences
        • Is this a good definition?
  • 15. Emotion
    • Limbic system
      • Plays a role in transferring information into memory
      • Hippocampus – main location for this transfer
      • Amygdala – strongly implicated in attaching emotional significance to stimuli/information/events
  • 16.  
  • 17. Emotion
    • Cognitive level
        • Having conscious sense of emotion (i.e., being afraid)
        • Emotions are perceived as having some level of (un)pleasantness and strength
        • Over 400 words in the English language refer to emotions
  • 18. Emotion
    • Physiological level
        • Emotions contribute to changes in heart rate, blood pressure, etc. (i.e, physiological arousal)
        • Some physiological changes too small to notice
          • Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) - measures fluctuations in electrical conductivity of the skin that occur when sweat glands increase activity
          • Polygraph - "lie detector" - used to measure subtle variations in muscle tension, heart rate, etc.
  • 19. Emotion
    • Behavioral Level
        • Facial expressions of emotion - smiling, frowning, clenching fists
        • “ Facial-feedback” hypothesis
        • Ekman showed photos to people and asked them to identify what emotion was being expressed
          • People from different cultures recognize common facial features
          • 6-7 basic emotions
        • Use of facial expression to convey emotion appears to be innate (Ekman)
  • 20.  
  • 21. Theories of Emotion
    • 1) James-Lange theory of emotion
        • Subjective emotions arise from physiological arousal (emotion is the result of behavior)
        • “ I yelled (behavior) which got my adrenaline pumping (physiological arousal) and this intensified my anger (emotion).”
        • Therefore, controlling behavior controls emotions
            • Make yourself smile and you will be happy!
  • 22.  
  • 23.
    • 2) Cannon-Bard theory of emotion
        • Emotions and physiological arousal often occur simultaneously
        • The arousal of one emotion often the same as arousal of another emotion
            • People cry when happy or when sad (same behavior) yet these emotional states are markedly different (different emotions)
    Theories of Emotion
  • 24.  
  • 25.
    • 3) Schachter-Singer cognitive theory of emotion
        • Two components are necessary to experience emotion:
          • 1) physiological arousal
          • 2) cognitive labeling of the arousal
        • We don't automatically know when we are happy, angry, or jealous - instead we label our emotions by considering situational cues
        • Labeling depends on social settings and cultural norms
    Theories of Emotion
  • 26. Theories of Emotion
    • 3) Schachter-Singer cognitive theory of emotion (con’t)
        • Independent variables:
        • 1) Manipulating arousal through injections
        • 2) Manipulating labeling of emotion by placing subjects with confederates who are either “angry” or “happy”
        • Results:
            • Informed subjects reported no change in emotional state
            • Uninformed subjects happier w/happy confederate
            • Uninformed subjects angrier w/angry confederate
  • 27.  
  • 28. Emotion
    • Positive and negative affect
      • + affect processed in left frontal lobe
      • - affect processed in right frontal lobe
    • High inter-correlation within each type
      • People frequently experiencing one negative emotion (guilt) also more likely to feel others (anxiety, sadness, self-loathing)
  • 29. Emotion
    • Anger
      • “A short madness” vs. “Making a coward brave” (Virgil)
      • Anger can feel unpleasant but can also have pleasurable components
      • Anger shown to be an approach-oriented emotion
        • Anger creates EEG activity in left frontal lobe (location of positive affect?)
  • 30.  
  • 31. Emotion
    • Jealousy
      • Relationship jealousy
        • A reaction to a perceived threat (real or imagined) to a valued relationship or to its quality
      • “Normal” vs. “delusional” jealousy
      • Sexual jealousy leading cause of homicide and assault
        • This effect is cross-cultural (Daly & Wilson, 1988)
  • 32. Emotion
    • Jealousy (con’t)
      • Mate poaching?
        • 62% of men and 40% of women say they've attempted to entice another’s mate (“poachers”)
        • 47% of men and 32% of women report succumbing to such advances (“poachees”)
        • The more sexual equality in a culture, the closer women come to matching men in # of mate poaching attempts
        • Mate poachers reportedly more open to new experiences, highly sexual, more likely to be narcissistic, and prone to feelings of intense jealousy
  • 33. How do crazy people go through the forest?
  • 34. They use a psychopath! How do crazy people go through the forest?
  • 35. Emotion
    • Emotion regulation
      • Ability to intensify or maintain positive affect and practice “mood repair” when facing negative affect
      • Regulation can take place before/after emotion occurs
          • Reframing
          • Suppression
  • 36. Emotion
    • Emotion regulation (con’t)
      • Poor emotional regulation strongly associated with increased reactivity to stress
      • Disclosure leads to improved positive affect and better internalization of problems (Warner et al., 2006)
  • 37. Stress
    • What is stress?
        • The process by which we perceive and respond to events and environmental demands
            • Overstimulation + demands for change
            • Stressors
    • Holmes-Rahe Life Events Rating Scale
        • Measures stress related to 43 common life events
        • Includes both negative and positive life stressors
  • 38. Stress
    • Physiological effects
        • Impairs ability to focus and commit information to memory
        • Causes interference with hippocampus and prefrontal cortex activity
        • Chronic stress can lead to permanent cell death and reduction in hippocampus size
  • 39. Stress
    • Stress and physical health
        • Headaches, heart disease, stomach ulcers, depression, potential vulnerability to cancer(?)
    • Psychoneuroimmunology
        • Examines influence of psychosocial factors on functioning of immune system
        • Stress decreases body’s capacity to fight illness
  • 40. Stress
    • Personality and stress
        • Type “A” personality linked with higher incidence of stress-related heart disease
        • Optimism shown to be a crucial element in medical (and mental) recovery studies
        • Pessimism strong predictor of poor overall health, less positive coping behaviors, and reduced immune functioning
  • 41. Stress
    • Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
        • Classified as an anxiety/stress disorder
        • Delay of onset common (up to six months)
        • Enduring traumatic experience can lead to:
        • a) Recurrent flashback episodes
        • b) Exaggerated responses to loud noises/sudden touch
        • c) Inability to remember certain aspects of the trauma
        • d) Feelings of detachment
        • e) Frequent irritability/outbursts of anger
  • 42. Stress
    • Psychosomatic disorders
      • Real physical symptoms that begin, continue, or are made worse by mental or emotional factors
      • Stress in life literally translates to “a pain in the neck”
      • Demonstrates the influence of the mind over the body
      • Symptoms often greatly exacerbated by stress
          • Migraines, asthma, skin rashes/hives, frequent illness, aches, pain
  • 43. Stress
    • Hypochondria
        • Obsession that real (or imagined) physical symptoms are signs of a serious illness
        • Preoccupation with fears of becoming ill
        • Direct correlation between exaggeration of symptoms and reported levels of current stress
        • Typically chronic – tied to underlying mood disorders