Units 10+11+12
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Units 10+11+12

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Units 10+11+12 Units 10+11+12 Presentation Transcript

  • Developmental Psychology
  • Development
    • Developmental psychology
      • Studies maturation of human behavior over time
      • Recent shift from adolescent studies to lifespan research
    • Maturation
      • Individual growth and development
      • Biologically based
      • What is the interaction between hereditary and environment?
  • Development
    • Prenatal development
      • Fertilized ovum considered a fetus from 8 weeks after time of conception (until birth)
      • Exposure to teratogens (viruses, chemicals, drugs) during pregnancy can impair brain development
      • Congenital problems
        • Problems originating during fetal period (e.g., FAS)
        • Present at birth
  • Development
    • Infancy
      • Newborns have simple adaptive reflexes
        • Rooting reflex
        • Tonic neck reflex
        • Palmar grasp reflex
        • Plantar reflex
      • Motor reflexes develop during later critical periods
        • Smiling, turning head, rolling over, crawling, walking
  •  
  • Piaget
    • Assimilation
        • occurs when new experiences are incorporated into existing schema
    • Accommodation
        • occurs by changing existing schemas to accommodate new information
        • can be a more difficult process
  • Piaget
    • Stages of Cognitive Development
      • Cognitive schemas
      • Emphasized how children’s mental abilities progress qualitatively on a fixed sequence of stages
      • At each stage of development, children use a distinct type of thought to guide thinking
  • Piaget
    • Sensorimotor Stage (0 - 2 years)
      • Earliest stage
      • Child is completely egocentric
      • No sense that objects are separate from themselves
      • Thought and action virtually identical as child explores
      • Learning occurs through use of hands and mouth
      • Object permanence
        • The understanding an object continues to exist even when you can't see it or touch it
  • Piaget
    • Preoperational (2-7 years)
      • Conserving number, length, amount, area, weight, and volume is difficult
      • Perceptual impression chosen over logic
      • Putting self in another person’s place is difficult
      • Interrelating several ideas at once is difficult
      • Contradicting themselves is not a problem
      • Language acquisition and symbolic thinking
  • Piaget
    • Concrete Operational (7-11 years)
      • First true classification abilities appear
      • Thinking can be reversed and a sequence of changes can be held in the mind
      • Awareness of other people’s viewpoints
      • Awareness of changeable conditions develops
      • Appearance of systematic and logical reasoning
  •  
  • Piaget
    • Formal Operational (12+ years)
      • Ability to recombine groups into fewer or broader categories develops
      • Defining concepts using other abstract concepts is possible
      • Can use analogies to understand concepts
      • Independent, abstract thinking
      • Can think about thinking
  • Development
    • Critical periods
      • Genetically pre-determined maturation phases
      • Periods of extremely high sensitivity to stimuli from environment that shape future development
      • Victor of Aveyron/L'Enfant Sauvage (1799)
      • Calrson et al. (1987) visual deprivation in monkeys
  • Development
    • Imprinting
      • Duckling studies (Lorenz)
        • Hatching appears to be a critical period for ducklings
        • 1 st large moving object they see becomes imprinted as the mother
      • Early animal imprinting with humans = good pets
      • Harlow’s rhesus monkeys
  •  
  • Development
    • Parenting styles
        • Authoritative
        • Authoritarian
        • Permissive
        • Uninvolved
  • Development
    • How important are peers to child development?
        • Childhood friendships almost exclusively same-sex
        • Peer status
          • Rejected children
          • Neglected children
    • Preconventional morality
        • Follow moral rules to avoid punishment or obtain rewards
    • Conventional morality
        • Define what is right by the standards learned from others
        • Internal belief in the moral rules learned
    • Postconventional morality
        • Use of self-defined moral principles that may not match
        • conventional moral beliefs
        • Morals defined by one’s culture may be viewed as a social
        • contract and potentially fallible
    Kohlberg’s Levels of Moral Development
  • Kohlberg’s Moral Development Theory
  • Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages of Development
  • Methodology
    • Cross-sectional design
      • Studying separate groups at the same time
      • Sample of 8 th , 10 th , and 12 th graders
      • Be aware of potential confounds
    • Longitudinal design
      • Studying the same individuals/group over time
      • Sample of 8 th graders tested again in 10 th and 12 th grade
      • Be aware of attrition
  • Disorders
    • Pica
    • Dyslexia
    • Enuresis
    • Hyperactivity (ADD, ADHD)
    • Tourette’s Syndrome
  • Disorders
    • Autism
      • Extreme social withdrawal + impaired verbal/nonverbal communication skills
      • Physical condition linked to abnormal chemistry in brain
      • Asperger syndrome
        • Milder form of autism
        • Delayed motor development milestones, child may appear
        • to be somewhat clumsy
        • Lacks ability to reciprocate emotions in social settings
        • Intense preoccupation with narrow area of interest (phone
        • books, train schedules, etc.)
  • Death and Grief
    • 5 Stages of Grief (Kubler-Ross, 1977)
        • Denial
        • Bargaining/rationalization
        • Anger
        • Grief/sadness
        • Acceptance