Chapter 06 General Anatomy And Physiology
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Chapter 06 General Anatomy And Physiology

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  • LEARNING MOTIVATION (WHY?) As a practitioner in the professional world of cosmetology, the services you perform will, almost without exception, affect the bones, muscles, and nerves of the body. It is absolutely essential that you understand the basic anatomy and physiology of the human body in order to perform all services safely and effectively. Think about it. When cutting hair, you must understand the contours of the head and its bone structure. When applying makeup, you must perform contouring based on the bone and muscle structure of the face. When giving a scalp treatment, you must understand the circulatory system in order to achieve maximum stimulation of the scalp. When applying massage techniques to any part of the body, such as the head, face, neck, shoulders, hands, arms, feet, and lower legs, you must understand how the muscular system and the nerves of the body actually function. So, while studying the anatomy and physiology of the body may not seem like the most interesting or romantic part of your training, it is clearly an integral part of your training and will contribute greatly to your success in the field of appearance enhancement. Your knowledge and understanding of this important subject will also gain your clients’ trust and confidence in your credibility. As with all other subjects studied in this course, this will increase the revenues you generate in the salon. In today’s lesson we will learn that the cell is the basic structure from which all other body structures are made. We will cover all the organ systems, the organs, body tissues, and cells. Cells are composed of atoms or groups of atoms, which are made up of even smaller, submicroscopic particles called protons, neutrons, and electrons. Let’s take a closer look at cells.
  • CELLS The basic unit of all living things, including bacteria, plants and animals. Cells carry out all life processes and reproduce. There are trillions in the human body varying in size, shape, and purpose. COMPOSITION: Made of protoplasm, a colorless, jelly-like substance, in which protein, fats, carbohydrates, mineral salts, and water are present. (Visualize the white of a raw egg.) NUCLEUS: The dense, active protoplasm found in the center of cells; plays an important part in cell reproduction and metabolism. CYTOPLASM: All the protoplasm of a cell except that which is in the nucleus; the watery fluid that contains food materials necessary for growth, reproduction, and self-repair of the cell. CENTROSOME: Small, round body in the cytoplasm; controls the transportation of substances in and out of cells, and affects reproduction of cells. CELL MEMBRANE: The cell wall; a delicate protoplasmic material that encloses a living plant or animal cell, and permits soluble substances to enter and leave the cell.
  • CELL REPRODUCTION/DIVISION: Cell reproduction is called mitosis . Adequate supply of food Adequate supply of oxygen Adequate supply of water Elimination of waste Proper temperature Without these conditions and if there is a presence of toxins or pressure, growth and health of the cells are impaired. Most body cells are capable of growth and self-repair during their life cycle.
  • Anabolism. This is constructive metabolism; the process of building up larger molecules from smaller ones; the body stores water, food, and oxygen for when they are needed for growth and repair. Catabolism. The phase of metabolism that involves breaking down of complex compounds within the cells into smaller ones, often resulting in the liberation of energy to perform functions such as muscular effort, secretions, or digestion. The simultaneous activity of anabolism and catabolism creates homeostasis (the maintenance of normal, internal stability in organism). CELL METABOLISM: The complex chemical process taking place in living organisms whereby the body cells are nourished and supplied with the energy needed to carry out their activities. There are two phases.
  • TISSUES: A collection of similar cells that perform a particular function. Body tissues are composed of 60% to 90% water. There are five types. CONNECTIVE TISSUE: Serves to support, protect, and bind together other tissues of the body; examples: bone, cartilage, ligament, tendon, fascia (which separates muscles), and fat or adipose tissue. EPITHELIAL TISSUE: Protective covering on body surfaces, such as the skin, mucous membranes, linings of the heart, digestive and respiratory organs, and glands. LIQUID TISSUE: Carries food, waste products, and hormones by means of the blood and lymph. MUSCULAR TISSUE: Contracts and moves various parts of the body. NERVE TISSUE: Carries messages to and from the brain, and controls and coordinates all body functions.
  • ORGANS: See Table 6-1. Groups of tissues designed to perform a specific function. BRAIN: Controls the body. EYES: Control vision. HEART: Circulates the blood. KIDNEYS: Excrete waste products of metabolism. LUNGS: Supply oxygen to the blood. LIVER: Removes toxic products of digestion. SKIN: Forms external protective covering of the body. STOMACH/INTESTINES: Digests food.
  • MUSCULAR: Covers, shapes, and supports the skeleton tissue; also contracts and moves various parts of the body; consists of muscles. NERVOUS: Controls and coordinates all other systems and makes them work harmoniously and efficiently; consists of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. REPRODUCTIVE: Responsible for processes by which plants and animals produce offspring. RESPIRATORY: Enables breathing, supplying the body with oxygen and eliminating carbon dioxide as a waste product; consists of the lungs and air passages. SKELETAL: Physical foundation of the body; consists of the bones and movable and immovable joints.
  • SKELETAL SYSTEM: The physical foundation of the body. Composed of 206 bones. BONE COMPOSITION: Connective tissue about one-third animal matter and two-thirds mineral matter. Cells and blood are animal matter; calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate are mineral matter. OSTEOLOGY: Osteology is the scientific study of bones, and their structure and functions. Os is the technical term for bone. PRIMARY FUNCTION OF SKELETAL SYSTEM Give shape and support to body. Protect internal structures and organs. Serve as attachments for muscles. Act as levers to produce body movement. Help produce white and red blood cells (a function of bone marrow). Store minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and sodium. JOINTS: The connection between two or more bones of the skeleton. Movable, such as elbows, knees, and hips. Immovable, such as the pelvis or skull, allowing little or no movement. PARTS OF THE SKULL Cranium. An oval, bony case that protects the brain. Facial skeleton. Made up of 14 bones.
  • BONES OF THE CRANIUM: Cranium is the oval, bony case that shapes the top of the head and protects the brain. Occipital bone. Forms lower back part of cranium. Parietal bones. Form the sides and top of cranium (crown). Frontal bone. Forms the forehead. Temporal bones. Form the sides of the head in ear region. BONES OF THE FACE Nasal bones (2). Form the bridge of the nose. Two lacrimal bones. Small, thin bones located at front inner wall of orbits (eye sockets). Two zygomatic bones. Also called malar; from the prominence of the cheeks. Maxillae (2) Upper jaw bones that join to form whole upper jaw. Mandible (1) Lower jawbone; largest and strongest bone of the face; forms lower jaw.
  • BONES OF THE NECK Hyoid bone. U-shaped bone located in front part of throat. Cervical vertebrae. Seven bones of the top part of the vertebral column located in neck region. BONES OF THE TRUNK/TORSO Thorax. The chest; an elastic bony cage that serves as the protective framework for the heart, lungs, and other delicate internal organs. Ribs. Twelve pairs of bones forming the wall of the thorax. Scapula. One of a pair of shoulder blades; large, flat, triangular bones of the shoulder. Sternum. The breastbone; flat bone that forms the ventral (front) support of the ribs. Clavicle. Collarbone; bone that joins the sternum and scapula.
  • BONES OF THE ARM AND HAND Humerus. Uppermost and largest bone of arm; extends from elbow to shoulder. Ulna. Inner and larger bone of the forearm, attached to the wrist and located on little finger side. Radius. Smaller bone on thumb side of forearm. Carpus. The wrist; flexible joint composed of eight small, irregular bones, held together by ligaments. Metacarpus. Bones of the palm; consists of five long, slender bones between the carpus and the phalanges. Phalanges. Bones of the fingers and toes; consists of three in each finger and two in the thumb for a total of 14.
  • BONES OF THE LEG AND FOOT. Foot is made up of 26 bones: 7 tarsal bones (talus, calcaneous, navicular, 3 cuneiform bones, and the cuboid); 5 metatarsal bones; and 14 phalanges, which make up the toes. Each toe has three phalanges except the big toe which has two. Femur. A heavy, long bone that forms the leg above the knee. Tibia. The larger of the two bones that form the leg below the knee. The tibia may be visualized as a “bump” on the big-toe side of the ankle. Fibula. The smaller of the two bones that form the leg below the knee. It may be visualized as a “bump” on the little-toe side of the ankle. Patella. Also called the accessory bone; forms the knee cap joint. Ankle joint. Make up of three bones. It is formed by the tibia, fibula, and talus. Talus. Ankle bone of the foot.
  • TYPES OF MUSCULAR TISSUE Striated. Striped; skeletal or voluntary tissues, that are controlled by the will; they create heat and energy during muscle contraction, assist in maintaining body’s posture, and protect some internal organs. Examples are facial, arm, and leg muscles. Skeletal muscles comprise about 23% of a woman’s body weight and about 40% of a man’s body weight. Nonstriated. Involuntary, visceral, or smooth muscles; they function automatically, without conscious thought or will; found in the internal organs such as the digestive or respiratory system. Cardiac. Heart muscle found only in the heart. They power the action that pumps blood throughout the body. Cardiac muscles are also involuntary because they cannot be consciously controlled.
  • Massage. By hand or electric vibrator. Electric current. High-frequency and faradic current. Light rays. Infrared and ultraviolet rays. Heat rays. Heating lamps and caps. Moist heat. Steamers and steamed towels. Nerve impulses. Through the nervous system. Chemicals. Certain acids and salts.
  • EPICRANIUS OR OCCIPITO-FRONTALIS Occipitalis — back part. Frontalis — front part. Raises the eyebrows and wrinkles the forehead.
  • Auricularis superior. Draws ear upward. Auricularis anterior. Draws ear forward. Auricularis posterior. Draws ear backward.
  • Masseter and temporalis. These muscles coordinate in opening and closing the mouth; referred to as the chewing muscles.
  • Platysma. Broad muscle that extends from the chest and shoulder muscles to the side of the chin; depresses lower jaw and lip as in sadness. Sternocleidomastoideus. Extends from collar and chest bones to temporal bone in back of ear; depresses and rotates head as in nodding.
  • Orbicularis oculi. Ring muscle of the eye socket; allows us to close our eyes. Corrugator. Muscle beneath frontalis and orbicularis oculi; draws the eyebrow down and in and wrinkles the forehead vertically.
  • Procerus. Covers the bridge of the nose; lowers eyebrows; causes wrinkles across bridge of nose. Other nasal muscles. Contract and expand the openings of the nostrils.
  • Buccinator. Cheek muscle between upper and lower jaw; compresses cheeks and expels air between lips. Depressor labii inferioris. Also known as quadratus labii inferioris; lowers the lower lip and draws it to one side as in expressing sarcasm. Levator anguli oris. Also known as caninus; raises the angle of the mouth and draws it inward. Levator labii superioris. Also known as quadratus labii superioris; surrounds lip; elevates upper lip; dilates nostrils as in expressing distaste. Mentalis. Elevates lower lip and raises and wrinkles skin of the chin.
  • Orbicularis oris. Flat band around upper and lower lips that compresses, contracts, puckers, and wrinkles the lips. Risorius. Draws the corner of the mouth out and back, as in grinning. Triangularis. Extends alongside the chin; pulls down corner of mouth. Zygomaticus major and minor. Muscles extending from zygomatic bone to angle of the mouth; elevate lip, as in laughing.
  • MUSCLES ATTACHING ARMS TO BODY • Latissimus dorsi. Broad, flat, superficial muscle covering the back of the neck and upper and middle region of the back, controlling the shoulder blade and the swinging movements of the arm. • Pectoralis major and minor. Cover front of chest; assist in swinging movements of arm. • Serratus anterior. Muscle of the chest that assists in breathing and in raising the arm. • Trapezius. Muscle that covers the back of the neck and upper and middle region of the back; rotates and controls swinging movements of the arm.
  • MUSCLES OF SHOULDER AND ARM Deltoid. Large, thick, triangular-shaped muscles that cover the shoulder joint and allow the arm to extend outward and to the side of the body. Biceps. Two-headed muscle producing the contour of the front and inner side of the upper arm; lifts forearm, flexes elbow and turns palm outward. Triceps. Three-headed muscle that covers entire back of upper arm and extends forearm. Pronator. Found in forearm and turns hand inward so palm faces downward. Supinator. Found in forearm and turns hand outward and palm upward. Flexors. Bend and flex the wrist, draw hand up, and close fingers toward forearm. Extensors. Straighten wrist, hand and fingers to form a straight line.
  • MUSCLES OF HAND Abductor. Found at base of each digit; separates fingers. Adductor. Found at base of each digit; draws fingers together.
  • LOWER LEG & FOOT MUSCLES. You will use the knowledge of the muscles of the foot and leg during a pedicure. The muscles of the foot are small and provide proper support and cushioning for the foot and leg. Extensor digitorum longus. Bends the foot up and extends the toes. Tibialis anterior. Covers the front of the shin. It bends the foot upward and inward. Peroneus longus. Covers the outer side of the calf and inverts the foot and turns it outward. Peroneus brevis. Originates on the lower surface of the fibula. It bends the foot down and out. Gastrocnemius. Attached to the lower rear surface of the heel and pulls the foot down. Soleus. Originates at the upper portion of the fibula and bends the foot down. The muscles of the feet include the extensor digitorum brevis, abductor hallucis, flexor digitorum brevis, and abductor. The foot muscles move the toes and help maintain balance while walking and standing.
  • NERVOUS SYSTEM: Responsible for coordinating the many activities performed inside and outside the body. Every square inch of the human body is supplied with fine fibers known as nerves ; there are over 100 billion nerve cells, known as neurons , in the body. NEUROLOGY. The scientific study of the structure, function, and pathology of the nervous system. The nervous system is one of the most important systems of the body; controls and coordinates the functions of all other systems, making them work harmoniously and efficiently.
  • DIVISIONS OF NERVOUS SYSTEM: Principal parts are the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. Cerebrospinal system. Also known as the central nervous system . Consists of the brain, spinal cord, spinal nerves, and cranial nerves. It controls consciousness and all mental activities, voluntary functions of the five senses (seeing, hearing, feeling, smelling, and tasting), and voluntary muscle actions, including all body movements and facial expressions. Peripheral nervous system. Made up of sensory and motor nerve fibers that connect the peripheral (outer) parts of the body to the central nervous system. It has both sensory and motor nerves that carry messages to and from the central nervous system. Autonomic nervous system. Controls the involuntary muscles; regulates the action of the smooth muscles, glands, blood vessels, and heart.
  • BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD Brain is largest mass of tissue in body. Average weight is 44 to 48 ounces. Brain contains 12 pairs of cranial nerves, all of which originate in the brain and reach various parts of the head, face, and neck. Spinal cord originates in brain and is enclosed and protected by spinal column. Thirty-one pairs of spinal nerves extend from spinal cord to muscles and skin of trunk and limbs.
  • NERVE CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION Neuron or nerve cell. Primary structural unit of nervous system; composed of cell body and nucleus. Dendrites. Tree-like branching of nerve fibers extending from the nerve cells that receive impulses from other neurons. Axon and axon terminal. Send impulses to other neurons, glands, muscles. Nerves. Long, whitish cords made up of bundles of fibers held together by connective tissue, through which impulsesa are transmitted.
  • TYPES OF NERVES Sensory (afferent) nerves. Carry impulses or messages from sense organs to the brain, where sensations of touch, cold, heat, sight, hearing, taste, smell, pain, and pressure are experienced. Motor (efferent) nerves. Carry impulses from brain to muscles; the transmitted impulses produce movement. Mixed nerves. Contain both sensory and motor fibers and have the ability to both send and receive messages. Reflex. Automatic response to a stimulus that involves movement of an impulse from a sensory receptor along an afferent nerve to the spinal cord, and a responsive impulse along an efferent neuron to a muscle causing a reaction (example: the quick removal of a hand from a hot object). Reflexes do not have to be learned.
  • NERVES OF HEAD, FACE AND NECK Fifth cranial, trifacial, trigeminal nerve. Largest of cranial nerves; chief sensory nerve of face, and motor nerve of muscles that control chewing. Has three branches: ophthalmic; mandibular; maxillary Fifth cranial branches Auriculotemporal nerve. Affects external ear and skin above temple. Infraorbital nerve. Affects skin of lower eyelid, side of nose, upper lip, mouth. Infrarochlear nerve. Affects membrane of skin of the nose. Mental nerve. Affects skin of lower lip and chin. Nasal nerve. Affects the point and lower side of the nose. Supraorbital nerve. Affects skin of forehead, scalp, eyebrows, and upper eyelids. Supratrochlear nerve. Affects skin between eyes and upper side of nose. Zygomatic nerve. Affects muscles of upper part of cheek.
  • Seventh cranial nerve. Chief motor nerve of face; emerges near the lower part of ear; its divisions and branches supply and control muscles of facial expression and extend to muscles of neck. Posterior auricular nerve. Affects muscles behind ear at base of skull. Temporal nerve. Affects muscles of temple, side of forehead, eyebrow, eyelid, and upper part of cheek. Zygomatic nerve. Affects muscles of the part of the cheek. Buccal nerve. Affects muscles of the mouth. Mandibular nerve. Affects the muscles of the chin and lower lip. Cervical nerves. Affects side of the neck and the platysma muscle. Cervical nerves. Originate at the spinal cord, and their branches supply the muscles and scalp at the back of the head and neck. Greater occipital. Located at back of head; affects scalp as far up as top of head. Lesser occipital. Located at base of skull; affects scalp and muscles of this region. Greater auricular. Located at side of neck; affects external ear, and area in front and back of ear. Cervical cutaneous. Located at side of neck; affects front and side of neck as far down as breastbone.
  • Nerves of arm and hand Ulnar. With its branches, supplies the little finger side of arm and palm of hand. Radial. With its branches, supplies thumb side of arm and back of hand. Median. Smaller nerve than ulnar and radial nerves. With its branches, supplies arm and hand. Digital. With its branches, supplies all fingers of the hand.
  • Nerves of lower leg and foot Tibial Nerve. A division of the sciatic nerve, passes behind the knee. It subdivides and supplies impulses to the knee, the muscles of the calf, the skin of the leg, and the sole, heel, and underside of the toes. Common peroneal nerve. A division of the sciatic nerve, extends from behind the knee to wind around the head of the fibula to the front of the leg where it divides into two branches. Deep peroneal nerve. Also known as the anterior tibial nerve; it extends down the front of the leg, behind the muscles. It supplies limpules to these muscles of the first and second toes. Superficial peroneal nerve. Also known as the musculo-cutaneous nerve; it extends down the leg, just under the skin, supplying impulses to the muscles of the skin of the leg, as well as the skin and toes on the top of the foot, where it is called the dorsal or dorsal cutaneous nerve. Saphenous nerve. Supplies impulses to the skin of the inner side of the leg and foot. Sural nerve. Supplies impulses to the skin on the outer side and back of the foot and leg. Dorsal nerve. Supplies impulses to the skin on the top of the foot.
  • BLOOD-VASCULAR SYSTEM: Consists of heart and blood vessels (arteries, capillaries, and veins) for circulation of blood. LYMPH-VASCULAR (LYMPHATIC) SYSTEM: Consists of lymph glands and vessels through which lymph circulates. Lymph is derived from blood and is gradually shifted back into bloodstream. HEART: Heart is a muscular, conical-shaped organ about the size of a closed fist. It weighs approximately 9 ounces and is located in the chest cavity. • Pericardium. Membrane that encloses the heart. • Resting heart rate. Normally about 72 to 80 beats per minute.
  • CHAMBERS AND VALVES OF HEART INTERIOR Right and left atrium (also called auricle ). Upper, thin-walled chambers. Right and left ventricle. Lower thick-walled chambers. Valves. Allow blood to flow in only one direction. Atria. When heart contracts and relaxes, the blood flows in, traveling from the atria to the ventricles; it is then driven out to be distributed throughout the body.
  • BLOOD CIRCULATION: The blood is in constant and continuous circulation from leaving the heart upon returning to the heart. Pulmonary circulation. Brings blood from heart to lungs to be purified. Systemic or general circulation. Carries blood from heart throughout body and back to heart as follows: Blood flows from body into right atrium. From right atrium, blood flows through the tricuspid valve into right ventricle. Right ventricle pumps blood to lungs where it releases waste gases and receives oxygen; blood is then oxygen rich. Oxygen-rich blood returns to heart, entering left atrium. From left atrium, blood flows through the mitral valve into left ventricle. Blood then leaves left ventricle and travels to all body parts.
  • BLOOD VESSELS: Arteries, capillaries, and veins are tube-like in construction. They transport blood to and from the heart and then to various body tissues. Arteries. Thick-walled muscular and elastic tubes that carry pure blood from heart to capillaries. The largest artery is the aorta. Capillaries. Minute, thin-walled vessels that connect smaller arteries to veins; provide tissues with nourishment and elimination of waste products. Veins. Thin-walled blood vessels; less elastic than arteries. Contain cup-like valves to prevent backflow, and carry impure blood from capillaries back to heart; located closer to outer surface of body than arteries are.
  • THE BLOOD: Nutritive fluid circulating through the circulatory system; approximately 80% water. Composed of red and white corpuscles, platelets, plasma, and hemoglobin. Sticky, salty fluid Normal temperature of 98.6 degrees F Makes up 1/20th of body weight About 8 to 10 pints in adult vessels Bright red in arteries Dark red in veins (except pulmonary). Color change is due to exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen as blood passes through lungs and circulates through body.
  • BLOOD COMPOSITION Red corpuscles (red blood cells). Also known as erythrocytes ; produced in red bone marrow; contain hemoglobin (a complex iron protein that gives the blood its bright red color); carry oxygen to cells. White corpuscles (white blood cells). Also called leucocytes ; destroy disease-causing germs. Blood platelets. Smaller than red blood cells; important to clotting. Plasma. Fluid part of the blood; straw-like in color; about 90% water and contains proteins, sugars, and oxygen; carries food and secretions to cells and carbon dioxide from cells.
  • CHIEF FUNCTIONS OF BLOOD Carries water, oxygen, food, and secretions to cells. Carries away carbon dioxide and waste, to be eliminated through lungs, skin, kidneys, and large intestine. Helps equalize body temperature. Clots to close injured minute blood vessels and prevent excessive blood loss.
  • LYMPH-VASCULAR SYSTEM: Also called lymphatic system ; aids blood system; consists of lymph spaces, lymph vessels, lymph glands, and lacteals. Lymph is circulated through the lymphatic vessels and filtered by the lymph nodes. Filtering helps fight infection. PRIMARY FUNCTIONS • Carry nourishment from blood to body cells. • Act as a defense against invading bacteria. • Remove waste material from body cells to the blood. • Provide a suitable fluid environment for cells.
  • ARTERIES OF HEAD, FACE, AND NECK Common carotid arteries. Main sources of blood supply to head, face, and neck; located on either side of neck and divide into internal and external carotid arteries. Internal division. Supplies brain, eye sockets, eyelids, and forehead. External division. Supplies superficial parts of head, face, and neck. Superficial temporal artery. Continuation of the external carotid artery; supplies blood to muscles on front, side, and top of head. Occipital artery. Supplies blood to skin and muscles of the scalp and back of head up to crown. Posterior auricular artery. Supplies the scalp, the area behind and above ear, and skin behind ear.
  • Facial. Also known as external maxillary artery: supplies blood to lower region of face, mouth, and nose. Submental artery. Supplies blood to chin and lower lip. Inferior labial artery. Supplies blood to the lower lip. Angular artery. Supplies blood to side of nose. Superior labial artery. Supplies blood to upper lip and region of nose.
  • Superficial temporal artery. A continuation of the external carotid artery; supplies blood to muscles of the front, side, and top of head. Frontal artery. Supplies blood to forehead and upper eyelids. Parietal artery. Supplies blood to side and crown of head. Transverse facial artery. Supplies blood to skin and masseter. Middle temporal artery. Supplies blood to temples. Anterior auricular artery. Supplies blood to front part of ear.
  • Branches from external carotid artery: Occipital artery. Supplies blood to skin and muscles of scalp and back of head up to crown. Posterior auricular artery. Supplies blood to scalp, area behind and above ear and skin behind ear. Branches from internal carotid artery: Supraorbital artery. Supplies blood to upper eyelid and forehead. Infraorbital artery. Supplies blood to muscles of the eye.
  • VEINS OF HEAD, FACE, AND NECK Internal jugular. Most important veins of face and neck are parallel to arteries with the same name. The blood returns to the heart from the head, face, and neck through these two principal veins. External jugular
  • BLOOD SUPPLY FOR ARM AND HAND Ulnar arteries. Supply the little finger side of arm and palm of hand. Radial arteries. Supply the thumb side of arm and back of hand. Most important veins are located almost parallel to arteries with the same names; veins lie nearer to surface of arms and hands than arteries.
  • BLOOD SUPPLY FOR FOOT AND LEG. There are several major arteries that supply blood to the lower leg and foot. Popliteal artery. Divides into two separate arteries known as the anterior tibial and posterior tibial. Anterior tibial. Goes to the foot and becomes the dorsalis pedis. Dorsalis pedis. Supplies the foot with blood. As in the arm and hand, the important veins of the lower leg and foot are almost parallel with the arteries and take the same names.
  • ENDOCRINE SYSTEM (GLANDS): Specialized organs that affect growth, development, sexual activities, and health of the entire body. Glands are specialized organs that remove certain constituents from the blood to convert them into new compounds. EXOCRINE OR DUCT GLANDS: Sweat and oil glands of the skin and intestinal glands. ENDOCRINE OR DUCTLESS GLANDS: Secrete hormones directly into bloodstream and influence welfare of body. Hormones such as insulin, adrenaline, and estrogen stimulate functional activity or secretion in other parts of the body.
  • DIGESTIVE SYSTEM: Also called gastrointestinal system ; responsible for changing food into nutrients and waste. DIGESTION: The process of converting food into a form that can be assimilated by the body. The process takes about 9 hours. DIGESTIVE ENZYMES: Chemicals that change food into a form capable of being used by the body. Digestive process takes about 9 hours.
  • EXCRETORY SYSTEM: Includes kidneys, liver, skin, intestines, lungs; responsible for purifying the body by eliminating waste matter. The metabolism of body cells forms various toxic substances that, if retained, could poison the body. KIDNEYS: Excrete urine. LIVER: Discharges bile. SKIN: Eliminates perspiration. LARGE INTESTINE: Evacuates decomposed and undigested food. LUNGS: Exhale carbon dioxide. Body cell metabolism forms toxic substances that might poison the body if not eliminated.
  • RESPIRATORY SYSTEM: Situated in chest cavity and protected by ribs; enables breathing and consists of the lungs and air passages; is protected on both sides by ribs. DIAPHRAGM: Muscular partition that controls breathing, separates chest (thorax) from the abdominal region; helps control breathing. LUNGS: Spongy tissues composed of microscopic cells that take in air, which is exchanged for carbon dioxide during one breathing cycle.
  • SUMMARY AND REVIEW: You should be able to see how the study of the anatomy and physiology of the body will be of importance to you in the salon daily. As you study all the various subjects, you will need to understand the applicable anatomy to apply your skills most effectively. When cutting and styling hair, knowledge of the bone structure of the head will aid you correctly sectioning for accuracy. When giving massage services, you will need to massage from the insertion to the origin of the muscles so you strengthen rather than stretch them. Your understanding and application of proper nutrition and health will aid you in your professional work by reducing strain and fatigue. Good personal health is a result of all the body’s systems working together. Early signs of illness, disease or poor health can often be observed through the hair and nails since they are appendages of the skin. You will want to watch for dull, lifeless hair or nails that peel, become thin or change color. Clearly, an understanding of the human body is important to both you and your clients’ well-being and health. Let’s review. • Define anatomy, physiology, and histology. ANSWER: Anatomy is the study of the structures of the human body that can be seen with the naked eye and what it is made up of; the science of the structure of organisms or of their parts. Physiology is the study of the functions and activities performed by the body’s structures. Histology is the study of the science of the minute structures of organic tissues; microscopic anatomy.
  • • Define anatomy, physiology, and histology. ANSWER: Anatomy is the study of the structures of the human body that can be seen with the naked eye and what it is made up of; the science of the structure of organisms or of their parts. Physiology is the study of the functions and activities performed by the body’s structures. Histology is the study of the science of the minute structures of organic tissues; microscopic anatomy. • Why is the study of anatomy, physiology, and histology important to the cosmetologist? ANSWER: An overview of human anatomy and physiology will enable you to understand how the human body functions as an integrated whole; recognize deviations from the norm; determine a scientific basis for the proper application of services and products; perform a professional makeup application that might otherwise be difficult without a knowledge of facial bones and muscle structure; provide shampoos, scalp manipulations, haircuts, and style designs aided by your knowledge of head contours, bones, and muscle structure; create a style, based on your knowledge of facial bones and muscle structure, that will enhance your client’s facial structure; recognize the motor nerve points, facial bones, and muscle structure when performing a facial; perform manipulations involving the face, hand, arms, shoulders, neck, feet, and lower legs safely and effectively as a result of your understanding of bones, muscles, nerves and circulation.
  • Name and describe the basic structures of a cell. ANSWER: Nucleus is the dense, active protoplasm found in the center of cells; plays an important part in cell reproduction and metabolism. Cytoplasm is all the protoplasm of a cell except that which is in the nucleus; the watery fluid that contains food materials necessary for growth, reproduction, and self-repair of the cell. Centrosome is a small, round body in the cytoplasm; controls the transportation of substances in and out of cells, and affects reproduction of cells. Cell membrane is the cell wall; a delicate protoplasmic material that encloses a living plant or animal cell, and permits soluble substances to enter and leave the cell. Explain cell metabolism and its purpose. ANSWER: The complex chemical process taking place in living organisms whereby the body cells are nourished and supplied with the energy needed to carry out their activities. Anabolism: This is constructive metabolism; the process of building up larger molecules from smaller ones; the body stores water, food, and oxygen for when they are needed for growth and repair. Catabolism: The phase of metabolism that involves breaking down of complex compounds within the cells into smaller ones, often resulting in the liberation of energy to perform functions such as muscular effort, secretions, or digestion. The simultaneous activity of anabolism and catabolism creates homeostasis (the maintenance of normal, internal stability in organisms).
  • List and describe the functions of the five types of tissue found in the human body. ANSWER: Connective tissue serves to support, protect, and bind together other tissues of the body; examples: bone, cartilage, ligament, tendon, fascia (which separates muscles), and fat or adipose tissue. Epithelial tissue is a protective covering on body surfaces, such as the skin, mucous membranes, linings of the heart, digestive and respiratory organs, and glands. Liquid tissue carries food, waste products, and hormones by means of the blood and lymph. Muscular tissue contracts and moves various parts of the body. Nerve tissue carries messages to and from the brain, and controls and coordinates all body functions. What are organs? ANSWER: Groups of tissues designed to perform a specific function. List and describe the functions of the main organs found in the body. ANSWER: The brain controls the body; the eyes controls vision; the heart circulates the blood; the kidneys excrete water and waste products; the lungs supply oxygen to the blood; the liver removes toxic products of digestion; the skin forms external protective covering of the body; the stomach and intestines aid in digestion of food.
  • Name the 10 body systems and their main functions. ANSWER: Circulatory controls the steady circulation of the blood through the body by means of the heart and blood vessels. Digestive changes food into nutrients and wastes; consists of mouth, stomach, intestines, salivary and gastric glands, and other organs. Endocrine affects the growth, development, sexual activities, and health of the entire body; consists of specialized glands. Excretory purifies the body by the elimination of waste matter; consists of kidneys, liver, skin, intestines, and lungs. Integumentary serves as the protective covering and helps in regulating the body’s temperature; consists of skin, accessory organs such as oil and sweat glands, sensory receptors, hair, and nails. Muscular covers, shapes, and supports the skeleton tissue; also contracts and moves various parts of the body; consists of muscles. Nervous controls and coordinates all other systems and makes them work harmoniously and efficiently; consists of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. Reproductive is responsible for processes by which plants and animals produce offspring. Respiratory enables breathing, supplying the body with oxygen and eliminating carbon dioxide as a waste product; consists of the lungs and air passages. Skeletal is the physical foundation of the body; consists of the bones and movable and immovable joints.
  • List the primary functions of the bones. ANSWER: They give shape and support to the body; they protect various internal structures and organs; they serve as attachments for muscles and act as levers to produce body movements; they produce various blood cells in the red bone marrow; they store various minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and sodium. Name and describe the three types of muscular tissue found in the body. ANSWER: Striated : Striped; skeletal or voluntary tissue, which are controlled by the will; they create heat and energy during muscle contraction, assist in maintaining body’s posture, and protect some internal organs. Examples are facial, arm, leg muscles. Skeletal muscles comprise about 23% of a woman’s body weight and about 40% of a man’s body weight. Nonstriated : Involuntary, visceral, or smooth muscles; they function automatically, without conscious thought or will; found in the internal organs such as the digestive or respiratory system. Cardiac : Heart muscle found only in the heart. They power the action that pumps blood throughout the body. Cardiac muscles are also involuntary because they cannot be consciously controlled.
  • Name and describe the three types of nerves found in the body. ANSWER: Sensory nerves carry impulses or messages from the sense organs to the brain, where sensations such as touch, cold, heat, sight, hearing, taste, smell, pain, and pressure are experienced. Called receptors and are located at the surface of the skin. Motor nerves carry impulses from the brain to the muscles. The transmitted impulses produce movement. Mixed nerves contain both sensory and motor fibers and have the ability to send and receive messages. Name and briefly describe the three types of blood vessels found in the body. ANSWER: Arteries: thick-walled, muscular, elastic tubes that carry pure blood away from the heart to the capillaries. Capillaries: minute, thin-walled blood vessels that connect the smaller arteries to the veins; they bring nutrients to the cells and carry away waste materials. Veins: thin-walled blood vessels that are less elastic than arteries; they contain cuplike valves that prevent back flow and carry impure blood from the various capillaries back to the heart; veins are located closer to the outer skin surface of the body than arteries are.
  • List and describe the components of blood. ANSWER: Red blood cells: produced in red bone marrow and contain hemoglobin; carry oxygen to the body cells. White blood cells: perform the function of destroying disease-causing germs. Platelets: contribute to the blood clotting process, which stops bleeding. Plasma: fluid part of the blood in which the red and white blood cells and blood platelets flow; it is about 90% water and contains proteins, sugars, and oxygen. Carries food and secretions to the cells and takes carbon dioxide away from the cells. Name and discuss the two types of glands found in the human body. ANSWER: Exocrine or duct glands which produce a substance that travels through small tube-like ducts; sweat and oil glands of the skin and intestinal glands belong to this group. Endocrine or ductless glands release secretions called hormones directly into the bloodstream, which in turn influence the welfare of the entire body. Hormones such as insulin, adrenaline, and estrogen stimulate functional activity or secretion in other parts of the body. List the organs of the excretory system and their function. ANSWER: Kidneys excrete urine; liver discharges bile; skin eliminates perspiration; large intestine evacuates decomposed and undigested food; lungs exhale carbon dioxide. Body cell metabolism forms toxic substances that might poison the body if not eliminated.

Chapter 06 General Anatomy And Physiology Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Milady’s Standard Cosmetology Cosmetology: General Anatomy and Physiology
  • 2. “ Remember, you can earn more money, but when time is spent, it is gone forever” Zig Ziglar
  • 3. Objectives
    • Explain the importance of anatomy and physiology to the cosmetology profession
    • Describe cells, their structure, and their reproduction
    • Define tissue and identify the types of tissues found in the body
    • Name the 10 main body systems and explain their basic functions
  • 4. Anatomy
    • Defined: The study of the structures of the human body that can be seen with the naked eye and what it is made of; the science of the structure of organisms or of their parts
  • 5. Physiology
    • Defined: The study of the functions and activities performed by the body’s structures
  • 6. Histology
    • Defined: The study of the science of the minute structures of organic tissues; microscopic anatomy
  • 7. Cells
    • Composition
    • Nucleus
    • Cytoplasm
    • Centrosome
    • Cell membrane
  • 8.
    • Cell reproduction and division
      • Adequate food supply
      • Adequate oxygen supply
      • Adequate water supply
      • Waste elimination
      • Proper temperature
    Cells
  • 9.
    • Cell metabolism
      • Anabolism
      • Catabolism
    Cells
  • 10. Tissues
    • Connective tissue
    • Epithelial tissue
    • Liquid tissue
    • Muscular tissue
    • Nerve tissue
  • 11. Organs
    • Brain
    • Eyes
    • Heart
    • Kidneys
    • Lungs
    • Liver
    • Skin
    • Stomach/intestines
  • 12.  
  • 13. Systems
    • Circulatory
    • Digestive
    • Endocrine
    • Excretory
    • Integumentary
  • 14.
    • Muscular
    • Nervous
    • Reproductive
    • Respiratory
    • Skeletal
    Systems
  • 15.  
  • 16. Skeletal System
    • Bone composition
    • Osteology
    • Primary function
    • Joints
    • Parts of skull
  • 17.
    • Bones of cranium
    • Bones of face
    Skeletal System
  • 18.
    • Bones of neck
    • Bones of trunk/torso
    Skeletal System
  • 19.
    • Bones of arm and hand
    Skeletal System
  • 20.
    • Bones of the leg and foot
    Skeletal System
  • 21. Muscular System
    • Myology: The study of the structure, function, and diseases of the muscles. Human body has over 600 muscles responsible for 40% of body’s weight; fibrous tissues with the ability to stretch and contract
  • 22. Muscular Tissue
    • Striated muscles
    • Nonstriated muscles
    • Cardiac muscles
  • 23. Muscle Parts
    • Origin
    • Insertion
    • Belly
  • 24. Stimulation of Muscles
    • Massage
    • Electric current
    • Light rays
    • Heat rays
    • Moist heat
    • Nerve impulses
    • Chemicals
  • 25. Scalp Muscles
    • Epicranius or occipito-frontalis
      • Occipitalis
      • Frontalis
      • Epicranial Aponeurosis
  • 26. Muscles of the Ear
    • Auricularis superior
    • Auricularis anterior
    • Auricularis posterior
  • 27. Muscles of Mastication
    • Masseter
    • Temporalis
  • 28. Neck Muscles
    • Platysma
    • Sternocleidomastoideus
  • 29. Eyebrow Muscles
    • Orbicularis oculi
    • Corrugator
  • 30. Muscles of the Nose
    • Procerus
    • Other nasal muscles
  • 31. Muscles of the Mouth
    • Buccinator
    • Depressor labii inferioris
    • Levator anguli oris
    • Levator labii superioris
    • Mentalis
  • 32.
    • Orbicularis oris
    • Risorius
    • Triangularis
    • Zygomaticus major and minor
    Muscles of the Mouth
  • 33. Muscles – Arms to Body
    • Latissimus dorsi
    • Pectoralis major and minor
    • Serratus anterior
    • Trapezius
  • 34. Shoulder and Arm Muscles
    • Deltoid
    • Biceps
    • Triceps
    • Pronator
    • Supinator
    • Flexors
    • Extensors
  • 35. Muscles of the Hand
    • Abductor
    • Adductor
  • 36. Muscles of the Lower Leg and Foot
    • Extensor digitorum longus
    • Tibialis anterior
    • Peroneus longus
    • Peroneus brevis
    • Gastrocnemius
    • Soleus
  • 37. Nervous System
    • Neurology defined: The scientific study of the structure, function, and pathology of the nervous system
  • 38. Divisions of the Nervous System
    • Cerebrospinal system
    • Peripheral nervous system
    • Autonomic nervous system
  • 39. The Brain and Spinal Cord
    • Brain is largest mass of body tissue
    • Average weight is 44 – 48 ounces
    • Twelve pairs of cranial nerves originate in the brain
    • Spinal cord originates in brain
    • Thirty-one pairs of spinal nerves extend from the spinal cord
  • 40. Nerve Cell Structure and Function
    • Neuron or nerve Cell
    • Dendrites
    • Axon and axon terminal
    • Nerves
  • 41. Types of Nerves
    • Sensory
    • Motor
    • Mixed
    • Reflex
  • 42. Nerves of Head, Face, and Neck
    • 5 th cranial, trifacial, trigeminal
  • 43. Nerves of Head, Face, and Neck
    • 7 th cranial
    • Cervical
  • 44. Nerves of Arm and Hand
    • Ulnar
    • Radial
    • Median
    • Digital
  • 45. Nerves of the Lower Leg and Foot
    • Tibial
    • Common peroneal
    • Deep peroneal
    • Superficial peroneal
    • Saphenous
    • Sural
    • Dorsal
  • 46. Circulatory System
    • Blood-vascular system
    • Lymph-vascular system
    • Heart
      • Pericardium
      • Resting Heart Rate
  • 47. Heart Chambers and Valves
    • Right and left atrium
    • Right and left ventricle
    • Valves
    • Atria
  • 48. Blood Circulation
    • Pulmonary circulation
    • Systemic or general circulation
  • 49. Blood Vessels
    • Arteries
    • Capillaries
    • Veins
  • 50. The Blood
    • Sticky, salty fluid
    • Temperature of 98.6 degrees F
    • 1/20 th of body weight
    • 8 – 10 pints in adults
    • Bright red in arteries
    • Dark red in veins (except pulmonary)
  • 51. Blood Composition
    • Red corpuscles
    • White corpuscles
    • Blood platelets
    • Plasma
  • 52. Blood Functions
    • Carries water, oxygen, food, secretions to cells
    • Carries away carbon dioxide and waste
    • Helps equalize body temperature
    • Clotting
  • 53. Lymph-Vascular Functions
    • Nourishment
    • Defense
    • Remove waste
    • Fluid environment
  • 54. Arteries of Head, Face, Neck
    • Common carotid
    • Internal division
    • External division
      • Superficial temporal artery
      • Occipital artery
      • Posterior auricular artery
  • 55. Facial Artery
    • Submental artery
    • Inferior labial artery
    • Angular artery
    • Superior labial artery
  • 56. Superficial Temporal Artery
    • Frontal artery
    • Parietal artery
    • Transverse facial artery
    • Middle temporal artery
    • Anterior auricular artery
  • 57. External/Internal Carotid Artery Branches
    • Occipital artery
    • Posterior auricular artery
    • Supraorbital artery
    • Infraorbital artery
  • 58. Veins of Head, Face, and Neck
    • Internal jugular
    • External jugular
  • 59. Blood Supply for Arm and Hand
    • Ulnar arteries
    • Radial arteries
  • 60. Blood Supply for Foot and Leg
    • Popliteal artery
    • Anterior tibial
    • Dorsalis pedis
  • 61. Endocrine System
    • Exocrine or duct glands
    • Endocrine or ductless glands
  • 62. Digestive System
    • Digestion
    • Digestive enzymes
  • 63. Excretory System
    • Kidneys
    • Liver
    • Skin
    • Large intestine
    • Lungs
  • 64. Respiratory System
    • Diaphragm
    • Lungs
  • 65. Integumentary System
    • The skin
    • Various accessory organs
      • Oil glands
      • Sweat glands
      • Sensory receptors
      • Hair
      • Nails
  • 66. Summary and Review
    • Define anatomy, physiology, and histology
  • 67. Summary and Review
    • Why is the study of anatomy, physiology, and histology important to the cosmetologist?
  • 68. Summary and Review
    • Name and describe the basic structure of a cell
    • Explain cell metabolism and its purpose
  • 69.
    • List and describe the functions of the five types of tissue found in the human body.
    • What are organs?
    • List and describe the functions of the main organs found in the body
    Summary and Review
  • 70.
    • Name the 10 body systems and their main functions
    Summary and Review
  • 71.
    • List the primary functions of bones
    • Name and describe the three types of muscular tissue found in the body
    Summary and Review
  • 72.
    • Name and describe the three types of nerves found in the body
    • Name and briefly describe the three types of blood vessels found in the body
    Summary and Review
  • 73.
    • List and describe the components of blood
    • Name and discuss the two types of glands found in the human body
    • List the organs of the excretory system and their function
    Summary and Review
  • 74. Congratulations!
    • You’ve just completed
    • one unit of study toward
    • program completion!