Roots of independence

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Roots of independence

  1. 1. The Wars of Independence in Spanish America “The Roots of Independence” Viceroyalties => Nation-states
  2. 2. Viceroyalties => Nation-states
  3. 3. Events and situations that prompted theindependence movements in Spanish America: In Spain and Europe: • The Bourbon reforms (18th century) • Napoleon’s invation of Spain (1808) In America: • Tupac Amaru’s uprising (1780) • The protest in Socorro (1781) • Creole discontent
  4. 4. First phase of the independence movements(1810-1815):Caracas (Viceroyalty of New Granada ->Venezuela,Columbia, Ecuador) - Simón BolívarBuenos Aires (Viceroyalty of Río de La Plata -> Argentina,Uruguay, Paraguay) - José de San Martín Dolores (Viceroyalty of New Spain -> Mexico) - Miguel Hidalgo and José María Morelos
  5. 5. Portraits by Gil de Castro (19th century)
  6. 6. Manuel Hidalgo by Juan O”Gorman
  7. 7. Meanwhile in Spain…In 1812 the cortes (parliament) of Cádiz proclaimeda liberal constitutionIn 1814 Ferdinand VII returns to the Spanish throneand reestablishes the absolute monarchyIn 1820 Ferdinand VII embraces the liberalconstitution
  8. 8. Second phase of the Spanish American Independence(1816-1821):New Colombia (Venezuela, New Granada [Colombiaand Panama], Ecuador) and Upper Perú (Bolivia)Argentina, Chile, Perú and EcuadorMéxico and Central America (Guatemala, Nicaragua,El Salvador, Honduras and Costa Rica)
  9. 9. And what happened in the other Spanish Americancolonies?Which was the last country to achieve independenceand when did it happen?Which country never achieved independence?
  10. 10. Epic of Bolívar (1930) by Fernando Leal

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