Events and situations that prompted theindependence movements in Spanish America: In Spain and Europe: • The Bourbon reforms (18th century) • Napoleon’s invation of Spain (1808) In America: • Tupac Amaru’s uprising (1780) • The protest in Socorro (1781) • Creole discontent
First phase of the independence movements(1810-1815):Caracas (Viceroyalty of New Granada ->Venezuela,Columbia, Ecuador) - Simón BolívarBuenos Aires (Viceroyalty of Río de La Plata -> Argentina,Uruguay, Paraguay) - José de San Martín Dolores (Viceroyalty of New Spain -> Mexico) - Miguel Hidalgo and José María Morelos
Meanwhile in Spain…In 1812 the cortes (parliament) of Cádiz proclaimeda liberal constitutionIn 1814 Ferdinand VII returns to the Spanish throneand reestablishes the absolute monarchyIn 1820 Ferdinand VII embraces the liberalconstitution
Second phase of the Spanish American Independence(1816-1821):New Colombia (Venezuela, New Granada [Colombiaand Panama], Ecuador) and Upper Perú (Bolivia)Argentina, Chile, Perú and EcuadorMéxico and Central America (Guatemala, Nicaragua,El Salvador, Honduras and Costa Rica)
And what happened in the other Spanish Americancolonies?Which was the last country to achieve independenceand when did it happen?Which country never achieved independence?