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  • Statistics show that there is alcohol consumption among teens; therefore, they should be familiar with what alcohol can do to the body and behavior.
    As you move through each of these effects, take time to solicit examples from the students. An example of slower reaction time/reflexes might involve a person that has been drinking trying to catch a ball. Hand-eye coordination might not be as quick for someone who has been drinking. So someone who has been drinking might not catch the ball when it is thrown to them as easily as they would otherwise. Since alcohol irritates the lining of the stomach and intestinal lining, nausea and vomiting are common occurrences. There is a danger of choking on vomit, which could cause death by asphyxiation if the person is unconscious. Lowered reasoning ability might involve someone taking risks that they normally would not take. For example, they may leave a party with a stranger.
    Graphic Reference:
    Cool Archive-Free Clipart, Fonts, Icons [online]. 2005. [cited 4 July 2005] Available online at URL: http://www.coolarchive.com
  • The characteristics of poor motor skills can be seen in a task as simple as walking. Alcohol will decrease the ability of a person to walk in a straight line and might even cause him/her to fall. Poor motor skills might also lead to driving accidents.
    Alcohol acts as a depressant and slows the heart rate. It also interferes with normal contraction and rhythm of the heartbeat. These effects are thought to be major reasons for sudden death among alcoholics.(6) Increased blood pressure, or hypertension, is associated with chronic drinking and usually goes away two to three weeks after drinking has stopped. Mood swings might be noticed, with anxiety and restlessness being at the top of the list.
    Lower inhibitions might lead a teen to do things he or she would not normally do, which could put them in a compromising or dangerous situation. Risky behavior, such as unprotected sex, might result. They might also have poor judgment.
  • When alcohol is consumed at a faster rate than the liver can absorb, it moves into areas of high water content in the body, for example, the brain. It can cause mental confusion and memory loss. Drinking causes some people to “not remember” their evening. In larger doses, alcohol can affect the medulla oblongata, which is responsible for basic survival functions, such as heart rate and breathing. Respiratory arrest occurs when a person stops breathing.
  • Chronic use of alcohol can lead to long term effects on the body. As synapses and transmitters are affected in the nervous system, loss of sensation in hands and feet occur.
    The muscles of the body become weak, and lungs have a greater chance for infection as the immune system becomes less responsive.
    The liver receives blood directly from the intestines, which is the major site for absorption of alcohol. The liver breaks down the alcohol; however, the products that are produced during this process are toxic to the liver. This can cause liver damage in the form of inflammation or cirrhosis (scarring of the liver).(5,6)
    Graphic Reference:
    Cool Archive-Free Clipart, Fonts, Icons [online]. 2005. [cited 4 July 2005] Available online at URL: http://www.coolarchive.com
  • Although sexual desire is enhanced, impotence could be a long term result with the use of alcohol.
    Alcohol affects all parts of the brain and can result in brain cell damage. Loss of memory occurs with impairment of the hippocampus, which is the part of the brain responsible for storing new memories. Damage to the cerebral cortex will lead to lack of coordination while damage to the cerebellum will affect mood. Finally, damage to the brain stem may result in lack of normal body functions and regulations, such as breathing, heart rate and body temperature.
    Long term affects of heavy drinking may interfere with the mitochondria of the heart cells. These are the energy producing organelles and without proper energy, the heart does not function as normal. Hypertension is also a problem for the chronic drinker and could possibly lead to a stroke.
    The esophagus normally contracts and relaxes allowing food to move to the stomach. Alcohol inhibits this contraction which allows stomach acids to move into the esophagus causing irritation. It might also be a factor in gastritis. Scientist are currently undergoing studies to determine if alcohol or bacteria are the major cause of ulcers in alcoholics.(5,6)
  • A picture is worth a thousand words. In this diagram, students can see just how much the body is affected by the use of alcohol.
    Graphic used with permission from:
    Beaware. Alcohol [online]. [Cited 20 June 2005]. Available at URL: http://www.beaware.org.au/school/alcohol.asp
  • This is a continuation of the study on brain activity of teens drinking alcohol. Recall tests were done and the results were clear that alcohol does effect recall. School and life are based on recall.
    Study published and permission granted for use in this PowerPoint by Susan Brown.
    Brown SA, Tapert SF, Granholm E, Delis DC (2000). Neurocognitive functioning of adolescents: effects of protracted alcohol use. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. 24 (2): 164-171. [Cited 20 June 2005].
  • Now that we know the effects of alcohol on our brain and body, how is alcohol measured in the body?
    Blood alcohol level or concentration is associated with the rate at which alcohol is metabolized by the liver. The higher the alcohol level in the blood, the more intoxicated a person will be. As the liver removes the alcohol from the blood and processes it, the blood alcohol level will drop. Here are some factors that effect BAL:
    Weight: The larger a person, the lower the blood alcohol level will be for a given amount of alcohol consumed.
    Amount of food and water in the stomach: Food will slow the absorption of the alcohol into the blood stream, resulting in a lower blood alcohol level.
    Carbonated alcoholic beverages: Carbonation speeds up the absorption of alcohol into the blood stream.
    Gender: Females tend to be smaller than males and also have a higher fat concentration in body tissues. More fat means less water. Alcohol is soluble in water, so in males the alcohol is more evenly distributed throughout the body creating a lower blood alcohol level. A woman will have a higher blood alcohol level after consuming the same amount of alcohol.
    Graphic Reference:
    Cool Archive-Free Clipart, Fonts, Icons [online]. 2005. [cited 4 July 2005] Available online at URL: http://www.coolarchive.com
  • Drinking may be a personal choice, but it affects more than just you.
    For example strangers may be affected through accidents.
    Statistics from the US Department of Transportation include:
    Alcohol was involved in 39% of fatal crashes in 1997.
    About 3 in every 10 Americans will be involved in an alcohol-related crash in their lifetime.
    In 1997, the highest rates for fatal crashes while intoxicated involved persons 21-24 years of age.
    One third of all pedestrians 16 years or older killed in traffic crashes in 1997 were intoxicated.(6)
    Drinking lowers inhibitions and increases risky behavior. Teens might engage in unprotected sex while under the influence, which could lead to unplanned pregnancy. If a woman drinks while pregnant, it could lead to fetal alcohol syndrome.
    Graphic Reference:
    Microsoft Office Clipart 2002. [cited 23 June, 2005].
  • Now that we have discussed the effects of alcohol on your body, as well as others around you, we can discuss FAS.
    The fetus is fed through the placenta so every time the mother drinks, the alcohol is passed to the baby. Fetal exposure to alcohol can impair the development of the corpus callosum, which divides the brain into left and right halves, and lead to smaller brain size. The brain is developing all through the pregnancy so there is no safe time to drink.
    There may also be some developmental delays, poor coordination, hyperactivity and abnormal facial features. The child’s IQ could also be lower.
    There is no known safe amount of alcohol consumption during pregnancy; therefore, no alcohol consumption is recommended.(5)
    Students will gain a greater understanding of FAS through research on Web sites in the next activity.

Transcript

  • 1. A Small Dose of Alcohol – 2/16/04 An Introduction To The Health Effects of Alcohol A Small Dose of ™ Alcohol
  • 2. A Small Dose of Toxicology A Small Dose of Alcohol – 2/16/04 What Is This? CH H H OHC H H (CH3-CH2-OH)
  • 3. A Small Dose of Toxicology A Small Dose of Alcohol – 2/16/04 Ethanol CH H H OH Ethyl Alcohol C H H
  • 4. A Small Dose of Toxicology A Small Dose of Alcohol – 2/16/04 Methanol CH H H OH Methyl Alcohol
  • 5. A Small Dose of Toxicology A Small Dose of Alcohol – 2/16/04 Alcohol  Alchemist of the 16th century saw alcohol as the essence from distillation.  The middle of the 18th century alcohol took on its current meaning of the intoxicating ingredient of many common beverages. Historical Awareness
  • 6. A Small Dose of Toxicology A Small Dose of Alcohol – 2/16/04 “Alcohol is the number one drug of choice among our Nation’s youth. Yet the seriousness of this issue does not register with the general public or policymakers.” Enoch Gordis, M.D. Director, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Current Views
  • 7. A Small Dose of Toxicology A Small Dose of Alcohol – 2/16/04 Production of Alcohol Fermentation – Sugar to Alcohol and Carbon dioxide C6H12O6→ 2(CH3-CH2-OH) + 2CO2
  • 8. A Small Dose of Toxicology A Small Dose of Alcohol – 2/16/04 Alcohol: Effects on the Body and Behavior Sherri Garcia Full Circle Advertising: A Look at Teen Alcohol Use and Fetal Alcohol Syndrome CDC’s 2005 Science Ambassador Program
  • 9. A Small Dose of Toxicology A Small Dose of Alcohol – 2/16/04 Short-term Effects(5,6) • Slower reaction times/reflexes • Heavy sweating • Blurry vision • Nausea and vomiting • Lowered reasoning ability
  • 10. A Small Dose of Toxicology A Small Dose of Alcohol – 2/16/04 Short-term Effects (cont.)(5,6) • Poor motor coordination • Slower heart rate/breathing rate • Increased blood pressure • Anxiety/restlessness • Lower inhibition
  • 11. A Small Dose of Toxicology A Small Dose of Alcohol – 2/16/04 • Mental confusion • Memory loss • Coma • Death from respiratory arrest Short-term Effects (cont.)(5,6)
  • 12. A Small Dose of Toxicology A Small Dose of Alcohol – 2/16/04 Long-term Effects(5,6) • Nervous system • Muscles • Lungs • Liver
  • 13. A Small Dose of Toxicology A Small Dose of Alcohol – 2/16/04 Long-term Effects (cont.)(5,6) • Sexual organs • Brain • Heart • Esophagus/stomach
  • 14. A Small Dose of Toxicology A Small Dose of Alcohol – 2/16/04
  • 15. A Small Dose of Toxicology A Small Dose of Alcohol – 2/16/04 Studies on Teen Drinking
  • 16. A Small Dose of Toxicology A Small Dose of Alcohol – 2/16/04 Blood Alcohol Level: What’s It All About?(6) Blood alcohol level (BAL) depends on: –Weight –Amount of food and water in stomach –Carbonated alcoholic beverages –Gender
  • 17. A Small Dose of Toxicology A Small Dose of Alcohol – 2/16/04 Drinking is a Personal Choice but Who Else is Affected? • Friends and family • Strangers • Unborn babies – Fetal alcohol syndrome
  • 18. A Small Dose of Toxicology A Small Dose of Alcohol – 2/16/04 What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome? • When mother drinks, baby drinks • Alcohol disrupts brain development • Your turn to research!