Thejasree

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Thejasree

  1. 1. by- V.A.THEJASREE
  2. 2.  Introduction  Steps of catalytic reaction  Catalyst characterization  Chemical and surface properties  Catalyst activity testing  Recent trends.
  3. 3.  24% of GDP from Products made using catalysts (Food, Fuels, Clothes, Polymers, Drug, Agro- chemicals)  > 90 % of petro refining & petrochemicals processes use catalysts  90 % of processes & 60 % of products in the chemical industry  > 95% of pollution control technologies  Catalysis in the production/use of alternate fuels (NG,DME, H2, Fuel Cells, biofuels…)
  4. 4.  For discovery/use of alternate sources of energy/fuels/raw material for chemical industry  For Pollution control  For preparation of new materials (organic & inorganic-eg: Carbon Nanotubes)
  5. 5. Industrial catalysis-from 2000+ :-  Solid catalysts for biodiesel - solid acids, Hydroisom catalysts  Catalysts for carbon nanotubes - Fe (Ni)-Mo-SiO2 Fordeveloped-mainly improvementinperformancebynewsynthesismethods&useof promoters
  6. 6.  Green Chemistry is Catalysis due to:- Pollution control (air and waste streams; stationary and mobile) Clean oxidation/halogenation processes using O2,H2O2 (C2H4O, C3H6O) Avoiding toxic chemicals in industry (HF,COCl2 etc) Fuel cells (H2 generation)
  7. 7.  Catalysis in the Chemical Industry:  Hydrogen Industry(coal,NH3,methanol, FT, hydrogenations/ HDT, fuel cell)  Natural gas processing (SR,ATR,WGS,POX)  Petroleum refining (FCC, HDW, HDT, HCr, REF)  Petrochemicals ( monomers, bulk chemicals)  Fine Chem. ( pharma, agrochemical, fragrance, textile, coating, surfactants, laundry etc)  Environmental Catalysis ( auto exhaust, deNOx, DOC)
  8. 8. Steps of Catalytic Reaction:- - Diffusion of Reactants (Bulk to Film to Surface) - Adsorption - Surface Reaction - Desorption & Diffusion of Products
  9. 9. reactants products reactor catalyst support active site substrate adsorption reactiondesorption bed of catalyst particles porous carrier (catalyst support) product
  10. 10.  Bulk Physical Properties  Bulk Chemical Properties  Surface Chemical Properties  Surface Physical Properties  Catalytic Performance
  11. 11.  Elemental composition (of the final catalyst)  Thermal Analysis(DTA/TGA)  electron microscopy (SEM,TEM)  NMR/IR/UV-Vis Spectrophotometer  bulk & surface structure.  Texture :Surface area- porosity  Counting “Active” Sites: -Selective chemisorption (H2,CO,O2, NH3, Pyridine,CO2);Surface reaction (N2O)  Spectra of adsorbed species (IR/EPR/ NMR)
  12. 12.  Catalyst Activity Testing : Activity to be expressed as: - Rate constants from kinetics - Rates/weight - Rates/volume - Conversions at constant P,T and SV. - Temp required for a given conversion at constant partial & total pressures - Space velocity required for a given conversion at constant pressure and temp
  13. 13.  Alternative feedstock's, reagents, solvents, products  Enhanced process control  New catalysts  Greater integration of catalysis and reactor engineering: membrane reactors, micro reactors, monolith technology, phenomena integration  Increased use of natural gas and biomass as feedstock  Photodecomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen  Catalysts for depolymerizing polymers for recycle of the monomers  Improvements in fuel cell electrodes and their operation
  14. 14. THANKS FOR PROVIDING THIS OPPURTUNITY AND SPECIAL THANKS TO MY BROTHER V.A.CHAITANYA.
  15. 15. Thank you

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