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Soujanya

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Transcript

  • 1. BY:  M.SOUJANYA  3rd BCCA
  • 2. Introduction toIntroduction to ParapsychologyParapsychology Definition  ESP(extra sensory perception)  Kinds of ESP  Precognition  Psychokinesis  Psychokinesis
  • 3. ParapsychologyParapsychology Para = “at the side of…” Psychological phenomenon that goes beyond the main area of psychological knowledge and interest
  • 4. ParapsychologyParapsychology ESP (extra sensory perception) ◦ Perception of objects or events through means other than the sensory organs
  • 5. Kinds of ESPKinds of ESP Precognition ◦ The ability to know about events before they occur
  • 6. Kinds of ESPKinds of ESP Psychokinesis ◦ The ability to make objects move by thinking of them as moving
  • 7. Kinds of ESPKinds of ESP Telepathy ◦ The direct transmission of thoughts or ideas from person to person without anything being spoken or written down
  • 8. Kinds of ESPKinds of ESP Clairvoyance ◦ The ability to perceive objects that are out of the range of human senses  i.e. – sensing the location of a missing child
  • 9. Testing ESP “Because a good magician can do something shouldn't make you right away jump to the conclusion that it's a real phenomenon.” - Richard Feynman
  • 10.  Bem and Honorton’s Ganzfeld Studies  Uri Geller  J. B. Rhine  Pearce-Pratt Series
  • 11. Testing ESP "Exteriorization of Sensitiveness." A photograph of the sensitive was taken and the negative was then held by her a few moments. The operator, with a pin, scratched the hand on the negative. Instantly the sensitive ejaculated with pain, and a small red spot appeared on the back of her hand. This rapidly grew into the blister shown on the next slide.
  • 12. What the Skeptics Say Most of the evidence for ESP is anecdotal and is dismissed by skeptics as based on one or more of the following: Incompetence or fraud by parapsychologists Cold reading Subjective validation Selective thinking and Confirmation bias Poor grasp of probabilities and of the law of truly large numbers Not falsifiable Gullibility, self-deception, and wishful thinking
  • 13.  After thousands of experiments, a reproducible ESP phenomenon has never been discovered, or has anyone produced any individual who can convincingly demonstrate psychic ability.  A National Research Council investigation of ESP concluded that "the best available evidence does not support the contention that these phenomena exist.”
  • 14. U. S. National Research Council (1988) A 2 year study concluded there was no scientific justification from research conducted over 130 years for the existence of parapsychological phenomena. “the best scientific evidence does not justify that ESP -that is, gathering information about objects or thoughts without the intervention of known sensory mechanisms- exists.”
  • 15. ACKNOWLDGEMENT • I am very thankful to Correspondent and also for Mr.Prasad Sir, Ms. Nalini Madam, • My special thanks to my parents and my friends.