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  • 1. VIJAYAM EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS
  • 2. INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION  NUCLEAR POWER POINTNUCLEAR POWER POINT  NUCLEAR FUELNUCLEAR FUEL  NUCLEAR FISSIONNUCLEAR FISSION  NUCLEAR CHAIN REACTIONNUCLEAR CHAIN REACTION  NUCLEAR REACTORNUCLEAR REACTOR  CONTROL ROOMCONTROL ROOM  CONDENSORCONDENSOR  COOLING TOWERCOOLING TOWER  BREADER REACTORSBREADER REACTORS
  • 3. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT
  • 4. Nuclear fuel is any material that can beNuclear fuel is any material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy. The mostconsumed to derive nuclear energy. The most common type of nuclear fuel is fissile elementscommon type of nuclear fuel is fissile elements that can be made to undergo nuclear fissionthat can be made to undergo nuclear fission chain reactions in a nuclear reactorchain reactions in a nuclear reactor The most common nuclear fuels are 235U andThe most common nuclear fuels are 235U and 239Pu. Not all nuclear fuels are used in fission239Pu. Not all nuclear fuels are used in fission chain reactionschain reactions NUCLEAR FUEL
  • 5. NUCLEAR FISSIONNUCLEAR FISSION When a neutron strikes an atom of uranium, theWhen a neutron strikes an atom of uranium, the uranium splits into two lighter atoms and releases heaturanium splits into two lighter atoms and releases heat simultaneously.simultaneously. Fission of heavy elements is an exothermic reactionFission of heavy elements is an exothermic reaction which can release large amounts of energy both aswhich can release large amounts of energy both as electromagnetic radiation and as kinetic energy of theelectromagnetic radiation and as kinetic energy of the fragmentsfragments E = mc2 ► The fission reactionThe fission reaction produces more neutronsproduces more neutrons which can then inducewhich can then induce fission in other Uraniumfission in other Uranium atoms.atoms. ► Mouse Trap Chain ReactionMouse Trap Chain Reaction
  • 6. NUCLEAR CHAIN REACTIONS A chain reaction refers to a process in which neutrons released in fission produce an additional fission in at least one further nucleus. This nucleus in turn produces neutrons, and the process repeats. If the process is controlled it is used for nuclear power or if uncontrolled it is used for nuclear weapons
  • 7. U235 + n → fission + 2 or 3 n + 200 Mev If each neutron releases two more neutrons, then the number of fissions doubles each generation. In that case, in 10 generations there are 1,024 fissions and in 80 generations about 6 x 10 23 (a mole) fissions.
  • 8. NUCLEAR REACTOR A nuclear reactor is a device in which nuclear chain reactions are initiated, controlled, and sustained at a steady rate, as opposed to a nuclear bomb, in which the chain reaction occurs in a fraction of a second and is uncontrolled causing an explotion.
  • 9. • CONTROL RODS  Control rods made of a material that absorbs neutrons are inserted into the bundle using a mechanism that can rise or lower the control rods.  . The control rods essentially contain neutron absorbers like, boron, cadmium or indium.
  • 10. Control room
  • 11. COOLANT PUMPCOOLANT PUMP The coolant pump pressurizes the coolant toThe coolant pump pressurizes the coolant to pressures of the order of 155bar.pressures of the order of 155bar. The pressure of the coolant loop isThe pressure of the coolant loop is maintained almost constant with the help ofmaintained almost constant with the help of the pump and a pressurized unit.the pump and a pressurized unit.
  • 12. CONDENSER Condenser is a device or unit which is used to condense vapor into liquid. The objective of the condenser are to reduce the turbine exhaust pressure to increase the efficiency and to recover high quality feed water in the form of condensate & feed back it to the steam generator without any further treatment.
  • 13. COOLING TOWER Cooling towers are heat removal devices used to transfer process waste heat to the atmosphere. Water circulating through the codensor is taken to the cooling tower for cooling and reuse
  • 14. BREADER REACTORSBREADER REACTORS  A big problem with nuclear power is the creationA big problem with nuclear power is the creation of Plutonium in the reactor core.of Plutonium in the reactor core.  This is a long lived radioactive element that isThis is a long lived radioactive element that is difficult to store.difficult to store.  Q: Why not use it as a fuel too?Q: Why not use it as a fuel too?
  • 15. BASIC IDEA • Process that creates the Pu. • During fission use one of the extra neutrons to create a Pu atom − − − − + → +→ →+ β β 0 1 239 944.2 239 93 0 1 239 93min23 239 92 239 92 238 92 PuNp NpU UUn days
  • 16. Nuclear power generation does emit relatively lowNuclear power generation does emit relatively low amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2). The emissions of greenamounts of carbon dioxide (CO2). The emissions of green house gases and therefore the contribution of nuclearhouse gases and therefore the contribution of nuclear power plants to global warming is therefore relatively little.power plants to global warming is therefore relatively little. This technology is readily available, it does not have toThis technology is readily available, it does not have to be developed first.be developed first. It is possible to generate a high amount of electricalIt is possible to generate a high amount of electrical energy in one single plantenergy in one single plant ADVANTAGES
  • 17. Nuclear power plants as well as nuclear waste couldNuclear power plants as well as nuclear waste could be preferred targets for terrorist attacks..be preferred targets for terrorist attacks.. During the operation of nuclear power plants,During the operation of nuclear power plants, radioactive waste is produced, which in turn can beradioactive waste is produced, which in turn can be used for the production of nuclear weapons.used for the production of nuclear weapons. DISADVANTAGES
  • 18. THANKING YOU……..THANKING YOU……..