History of pesticides
Types of Pesticides
Uses of Pesticides
Impact of pesticides on human being &
A substance used for destroying
insects or other organisms harmful
to cultivated plants or to animals.
Ancient times: Ashes, common salts, and bitters are used as herbicides
1st century AD: Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder, in his Historia naturalis,
advocates the use of arsenic as an insecticide; suggests soda and olive oil
for treatment of legumes
16th century: Chinese farmers use arsenicals and nicotine in the form of
tobacco extracts as insecticides
1850s: Pyrethrum and soap see wide use in the West as insecticides; a
wash of tobacco, sulfur, and lime used to combat insects and fungi
1867: The pigment Paris green, an impure form of copper arsenite,
1896: A French grape grower applies Bordeaux mixture Cu sulfate &
1900: Sulfuric acid, copper nitrates, potassium salts are used
1900 -1950 Sodium arsenite solutions become the standard herbicides and are used
in large quantities
1913 - Organomercury seed dressing
1913- 1939 First of several dithiocarbamates fungicides used in US
1939: Insecticidal potential of DDT discovered in Switzerland,
leading to synthesis of thousands of chemicals. Chlorinated
hydrocarbons such as DDT, BHC, dieldrin, aldrin& chlordane, and
others, all powerful contact and stomach poisons, see enthusiastic
use against malaria and other insectborne diseases
Algicides Control algae in lakes, canals, swimming
pools, water tanks, and other sites.
Antifouling agents Kill or repel organisms that attach to
underwater surfaces, such as boat bottoms
Antimicrobials Kill microorganisms (such as bacteria and
Attractants Attract pests (for example, to lure an insect or
rodent to a trap). (However, food is not
considered a pesticide when used as an
Biopesticides Biopesticides are certain types of pesticides
derived from such natural materials as
animals, plants, bacteria, and certain
Biocides Kill microorganisms
Disinfectants and sanitizers Kill or inactivate disease-producing
microorganisms on inanimate objects
Fungicides Kill fungi (including blights, mildews, molds,
Fumigants Produce gas or vapor intended to destroy
pests in buildings or soil
Herbicides Kill weeds and other plants that grow where
they are not wanted.
Insecticides Kill insects and other arthropods.
Miticides Kill mites that feed on plants and animals
Microbial pesticides Microorganisms that kill, inhibit, or out
compete pests, including insects or other
Molluscicides Kill snails and slugs
Nematicides Kill nematodes (microscopic, worm-like
organisms that feed on plant roots)
Ovicides Kill eggs of insects and mites
Pheromones Biochemicals used to disrupt the mating
behavior of insects.
Repellents Repel pests, including insects (such as
mosquitoes) and birds
Rodenticides Control mice and other rodents.
Defoliants Cause leaves or other foliage to drop from a
plant, usually to facilitate harvest
Desiccants Promote drying of living tissues, such as
unwanted plant tops.
Insect growth regulators Disrupt the molting, maturity from pupal
stage to adult, or other life processes of
Food production capacity is faced with an ever-growing
number of challenges, including a world population expected
to grow to nearly 9 billion by 2050 and a falling ratio of arable
land to population.
Increased yields, reduced crop losses from pests and disease, and
less spoilage after harvest are just some of the benefits of innovation
in crop protection products that we all enjoy today
Consumers expect high quality fruit and vegetables; this means
produce free of insect blemishes and insect contamination.
Before the introduction of insecticides, holes, scars, and surface
tunnels made my insects feeding on crops could often be found in
produce sold to consumers in addition to insect fragments in
Pesticides can contribute to air pollution. Pesticide drift occurs
when pesticides suspended in the air as particles are carried by
wind to other areas, potentially contaminating them
Pesticide impacts on aquatic systems There are four
major routes through which pesticides reach the water:
it may drift outside of the intended area when it is
sprayed, it may percolate, or leach, through the soil, it
may be carried to the water as runoff, or it may be
spilled, for example accidentally or through neglect
The use of pesticides decreases the general biodiversity in the
soil. Not using the chemicals results in higher soil quality, with
the additional effect that more organic matter in the soil
allows for higher water retention
Pesticides can enter the body through inhalation of aerosols, dust
andvapor that contain pesticides; through oral exposure by
consuming food/water; and through skin exposure by direct
Impact of pesticides on human being
Alternative methods have been practiced for some time and
1. Crop rotation.
Crop rotation involves alternating the species of crop that
a farmer grows on his or her land each year. Rotating crops
helps prevent pests from getting used to the type of plant
that is being cultivated. Planting different species of
The simultaneous cultivation or exploitation of several crops or kinds of
Trap crops, which attract pests away from the
6. Biological pest control, such as:
ii) Entomopathogenic fungi.
iii) Bacteria and viruses.
iv) The release of other organisms, such as natural pest
predators and pesticides
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