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  1. 1. INTRODUCTION PET SCAN & ENDOSCOPY  What is a PET scan?  How does a PET scan work?  Why are PET scan required?  PET scans used to investigate?  Difference between PET and other scans?  What happens during a PET scan?  Who should not have PET scan?  What is an Endoscopy?  When is an Endoscopy used?  Main components of an Endoscope?  How does an Endoscopy work?  complications of an Endoscopy? By A.Anuja III BSC(MPC)
  2. 2. What is a PET scan ?  PET stands for Positron Emission Tomography.  A pet scan is an imaging test that uses a radioactive substance called a tracer to look for disease in the body.  It uses radiation, or nuclear medicine imaging, to produce 3-dimensional color images of the functional processes within the human body.  The machine detects pairs of gamma rays which arfe emmitted indirectly by a traacer.  The images are reconstructed by computer analysis.  PET scans are often used to see how effective an ongoing treatment is.
  3. 3. PET scan
  4. 4. How does a PET scan work?  Radiotracer:- Before carrying out a PET scan, a raadioactive medicine is producead in a cyclotron(a type of machine).  The radioactive medicine is then tagged to a natural chemical like glucose, waater or ammonia.  The tagged natural chemical is known as Radiotracer.  After inserting into a human body this radiotracer will go to the areas inside the body that use the natural chemical(eg. FDG- Fluorodeoxyglucose, a radioactive drug)  As the radiotracer is broken down inside the patient’s body positrons are made.  This energy appears as a 3-dimensional image on a computer.  The image reveals how parts of the patients body is functioning.
  5. 5. Why are PET scans required?  PET scans are generally used alongside X-rays or MRI scans.  These PET scans are used as a complementary to these main ones.  These are used to make a diagnosis or to get more data  The combined imaging technologies may stop or evenprevent heart attacks.  The biggest advantage of PET is it can reveal how a part of the patient’s body is functioning.
  6. 6. PET scans used to investigate?  Epilepsy  Alzheimer’s disease  Cancer  Heart disease  Medical research
  7. 7. Difference between PET and other scans  A CT or MRI scan can assess the size and shape of the bodu organs and tissue.  They cannot assess function  But PET scan looks at function  MRI or CT scans tell you how theorgans looks like while PET scan can tell you how it is working.
  8. 8. What happens during a PET scan?  The patient does not have to spend the night in hospital if he/she comes for a PET scan.  The majority of patients will be told not to consume food for at least 4-6hrs and to drink plenty of water before the scan  A small quantity of radiotracer will be injected into the patient's arm and it may take 30-90 mins to reach the target part of the body.  Depending on which part of the body is scanned, the processes takes from about 30-60 mins.  Experts says that the radiotracer should have left the body completely within 3-4hrs after entering the body.
  9. 9. Who should not have PET scan?  Pregnant women.  Women who are breast feeding.  Anybody who has just had a PET scan should stay away from pregnant women, babies and young children.
  10. 10. What is an Endoscopy?  an Endoscopy involves examining the inside of a person’s body using an Endoscope.  An Endoscope is a medical device of long, thin, flexible tube which has a light and video camera.  Endoscopy is a invasive diagnostic medical procedure used to examine the interior surfaces of an organ or tissue.
  11. 11. When is an Endoscopy used?  Endoscopy is most commonly used for the following illness:  Breathing disorders  Chronic diarrhea  Incontinence  Internal bleeding  Irritable bowel syndrome  Stomach ulcers  Urinary tract infections  Diagnosis of cancer, biopsies
  12. 12. Main components of an Endoscope  An Endoscope consists of:  A flexible or rigid tube  A light that illuminates what the doctor wants to examine  The light is delivered via an optical fiber system  A lens system that transmits an image to the viewer from the fiber scope  Another channel to allow the entry of medical instruments or Manipulators
  13. 13. How does an Endoscopy work?  The patient swallows a capsule which wirelessly sends images.  The capsule is about the size of a multi-vitamin and has a camera.  As it moves inside it takes the pictures.  The patient wears a small data recorder that receives the data from the capsule.
  14. 14. Complications of an Endoscopy?  According to the National Health Service less than 1% of endoscopies have following complications:  Piercing or tearing of an organ  Bleeding more than normally expected  Allergy  Redness  Swelling  Fluid or pus discharge
  15. 15. Acknowledgement I heart fully convey my vote of thanks to Mr. Thejo moorthy ,the correspondent of vijayam degree and P.G college Mr. Prasad, Chemistry lecturer, Vijayam Institutions Miss Nalini , Chemistry lecturer , Vijayam Institutions k.Naveena, friend, Vijayam degree College FOR GIVING ME THIS OPPURTUNITY,……
  16. 16. THANK YOU