Regional Skills-building Workshops in Evidence-based
Programming, Monitoring, Evaluation, and Knowledge
Management of Prog...
Acknowledgments
The materials for this training course were compiled and adapted by the International Center for
Research ...
Bloom S. Violence Against Women and Girls: A Compendium of Monitoring and Evaluation
Indicators. October 2008. MS-08-30. C...
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction
Session 1 Introduction to the Course
Session 2 What is M&E? What is the purpose of M&E?
Ses...
Introduction
This workshop was built using existing tools and experiences in order to develop and
implement workshops to m...
HOW TO USE THE FACILITOR’S GUIDE
This guide is intended to provide understanding and direction on how to successfully
carr...
Day 1
I.
INTRODUCTION AND COURSE LOGISTICS
• UN Trust Fund representative(s) introduce the course and provide background
i...
Slides 1-3: Introduction to the Workshop and Workshop Objectives
Slide Slide Notes
Monitoring and Evaluation
Workshop for ...
3
Workshop Objectives
By the end of this workshop, participants will be able
to:
• Differentiate between monitoring and ev...
I. WHAT IS MONITORING? WHAT IS EVALUATION?
Plenary Discussion: Ask participants to come up with a list of what monitoring ...
Slides 4-9: Monitoring and Evaluation
Slides Slide notes
Session 2
What is M & E?
What is the Purpose of M &E?
Adaptedfrom...
Slides Slide notes
6
Illustration of Program Monitoring
Source: Module II M&E GBV Prevention and Mitigation Programs, June...
Slides Slide notes
7
Illustration of Program Impact
Source: Module II M&E GBV Prevention and Mitigation Programs, June 200...
Slides Slide notes
8
Discussion: Is it Monitoring or Evaluation?
• The Ministry of Women’s Affairs wants to know if
progra...
Slide 10: Monitoring and Evaluation Questions
Slides Slide notes
10
Is it monitoring? Is it evaluation? Is it impact evalu...
11
M&E Across Program Life Cycle
Source: Module II M&E GBV Prevention and Mitigation Programs, June 2009
ASSESSMENT
What i...
for participants to understand the full set of issues that,
ideally, stakeholders should agree upon and document for
a pro...
Group Activity: Distribute Handout 1: Elements of an M&E plan. The facilitator should
combine project teams into groups of...
Slides 16-29: A Global Overview of Violence against Women
Slides Slide Notes
16
Session 3
Evidenced-based Programming
for ...
Slides Slide Notes
understood in isolation from the norms and social
structure and gender roles within the community,
whic...
Slides Slide Notes
21
Violence against women begins
early...
• female infanticide
• neglect, malnutrition
• child sexual a...
Slides Slide Notes
24
Women’s greatest risk of violence is
from a partner
Source: WHO Multi-country Study on Women’s Healt...
Slides Slide Notes
26
Prevalence of forced sexual initiation
Source: WHO’s World Report on Violence and Health, 2002
Limit...
Slides Slide Notes
29
Violence against women
in the region
Group Exercise
• What are the most common forms of
violence aga...
Slides Slide Notes
32
Promising practices for addressing
VAW
• Increasing access to justice
• Providing support to survivo...
Slides Slide Notes
34
Improved policies and programs
– National Commissions and Plans against
Violence
– More services for...
Slides Slide Notes
37
Promising practices to increase
support for survivors
• Women’s safe houses or shelters
• Crisis cen...
Slides Slide Notes
42
Communication, or “edutainment”
programs can help prevent violence
• Model new behaviors and ways
of...
Slides Slide Notes
also the power within individuals and in communities to
take action against violence. They encourage co...
Slides Slide Notes
48
Image Program in South Africa
Microfinancing and
training on violence,
together with
community
mobil...
Slides Slide Notes
50
We need to invest in evaluation!
• We need to know what works and what
doesn’t
• More rigorous desig...
⇒ NOTE: Objectives = Outcomes in the UN Trust Fund Logical
Framework
Slides 52-56: Defining goals and objectives (outcomes...
Slides Slide Notes
53
Program Goals
A goal is a broad statement of a desired, long-term outcome of a
program. Goals repres...
Slides Slide Notes
How to Write Program Objectives
(Outcomes)
To [action]
The
(what)
[specify what knowledge, attitudes, s...
Slides Slide Notes
resources and personnel available but we can assume that
the objective can be achieved with the resourc...
Slide 57
Slides Slide Notes
57
Group Activity
In your groups:
• Choose two statements from the list on the
handout
• Decid...
Day 2
Ask for two volunteers to review the previous day’s activities and topics. Facilitator
should supplement discussion ...
I: CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORKS
Slides 58-60: Conceptual Frameworks
Slides Slide Notes
58
Session 5
Conceptual Frameworks,
Logic ...
Slides Slide Notes
60
Illustrative Conceptual Model for IPV
Source: Module II M&E GBV Prevention and Mitigation Programs, ...
II: LOGIC MODELS AND LOGICAL FRAMEWORKS
Slides 61-67: Logic Models
Slides Slide Notes
Logic Models
Logic models are diagra...
Slides Slide Notes
Logic Model Shows Intended Results
6months – 1 year
After implementation
Inputs
Activities
(work plans)...
Slides Slide Notes
64
INPUT
•Human and
financial
resources to
develop
training
materials &
implement
training
program
ACTI...
Questions and Discussion: Why are logic models useful? How do they help when
developing plans for M&E? How is this logic m...
SLIDES 68-75 Logical Frameworks
44
Slides Slide Notes
Logical Frameworks
A logical framework (LogFrame) is a
tool for strategic planning, and
management of a...
Slides Slide Notes
Logical Frameworks
A logical framework (LogFrame) is a
tool for strategic planning, and
management of a...
Part 1: Logic Model
For this
It is especially important for facilitators to provide intensive assistance and feedback
duri...
Plenary Discussion: Each team should take 2-3 minutes to present their logic
models. The entire group should then discuss ...
Day 3
Recap of Previous Day
Ask for two volunteers to review the previous day’s activities and topics. Facilitator
should ...
Slides 76-87: What is an indicator? Characteristics of good indicators. Good
Indicator Metrics. Challenges in Indicator Se...
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  1. 1. Regional Skills-building Workshops in Evidence-based Programming, Monitoring, Evaluation, and Knowledge Management of Programmes to End Violence Against Women and Girls for Grantees of the UN Trust Fund in Support of Actions to End Violence against Women Facilitator’s Guide 1
  2. 2. Acknowledgments The materials for this training course were compiled and adapted by the International Center for Research on Women (ICRW) for the United Nations Trust Fund to End Violence against Women. ICRW would like to thank our partners and colleagues at the South African Medical Research Council (MRC) based in Cape Town, South Africa, and the Addis Continental Institute of Public Health (ACIPH) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, who provided critical input and support for the development and piloting of this training course. The curriculum was based on the following sources: Gage A, and Dunn M. MODULE II - Monitoring and Evaluating Gender-based Violence Prevention and Mitigation Programs: A Facilitator’s Training Guide. June 24, 2009 With support from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) under the terms of the Cooperative Agreement GPO-A-00-03-0003-00. Gage A, and Dunn M. MODULE II - Monitoring and Evaluating Gender-based Violence Prevention and Mitigation Programs: June 24, 2009 With support from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) under the terms of the Cooperative Agreement GPO-A-00-03-0003-00. Ellsberg M, and Heise L. Researching Violence Against Women: A Practical Guide for Researchers and Activist. Washington DC: World Health Organization, PATH; 2005 Ellsberg M, and Heise L Researching Violence Against Women: A Training Course for Researchers and Activists. Washington DC: World Health Organization, PATH; 2005 2
  3. 3. Bloom S. Violence Against Women and Girls: A Compendium of Monitoring and Evaluation Indicators. October 2008. MS-08-30. Chapel Hill, NC: Carolina Population Center, the University of North Carolina and Chapel Hill. With support from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) under the terms of the Cooperative Agreement GPO-A-00-03-00003-00. We gratefully acknowledge permission to adapt and reprint these materials. 3
  4. 4. TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Session 1 Introduction to the Course Session 2 What is M&E? What is the purpose of M&E? Session 3 Evidence-based programming for VAW Session 4 Program Goals and Objectives Session 5 Monitoring and Evaluation Frameworks Session 6 Choosing Appropriate Indicators for Different Types of Interventions Session 7 Indicators for VAW Programs Session 8 Quantitative Evaluation Designs Session 9 Quantitative Methods and Tools for Measuring VAW Session 10 From Research to Action Appendices Appendix I Handouts Appendix II M&E Knowledge and Skills – Participant Self-Assessment Appendix III M&E Workshop Evaluation Appendix IV Indicator Reference Sheet Appendix V Agenda 4
  5. 5. Introduction This workshop was built using existing tools and experiences in order to develop and implement workshops to meet the specific needs of UN Trust Fund grantees, with materials were drawn from MODULE II - Monitoring and Evaluating Gender-based Violence Prevention and Mitigation Programs (Measure Evaluation) and from the training course: Researching Violence Against Women: A Training Course for Researchers and Activists (PATH/WHO, 2009). The workshop is designed specifically for Grantees of the UN Trust Fund in Support of Actions to End Violence against Women. The goal of the workshop is to provide UN Trust Fund grantees with the skills and knowledge to design programs with a strong M&E focus, to understand the specific methodological and ethical challenges for conducting research on violence against women, and to become engaged as active partners in the implementation of M&E activities. The workshop is practical and interactive, utilizing participants own experiences as well as case studies in the development of M&E skills and knowledge on violence against women. The proposed outline serves as a guide for the one-week workshop, starting with the basics of monitoring and evaluation, then building to incorporate the selection of indicators, methods, and examples of evidence-based programming. The training includes short, interactive lectures with practical application of the knowledge and skills learned, as well as time for the participants to work on their logical frameworks, a key tool in monitoring and evaluating their programs, and a deliverable to the UN Trust Fund. Ideally, the workshop would include no more than 25 participants and should be facilitated by two or more co-facilitators with complementary backgrounds and expertise. If one facilitator is a monitoring and evaluation expert, for example, the second should have expertise in violence against women programming and familiarity with the methodological and ethical issues specific to this kind of work. In addition to the group work, facilitators should also encourage participants to share their experiences as grantees of the UN Trust Fund. Discussions can be used to highlight any aspect or any stage of the process of developing and evaluating programs, and to bring up related challenges, questions, or issues. Such discussions provide participants with an excellent opportunity to engage with the group and get feedback and suggestions on their strategies, tools, and methodologies. 5
  6. 6. HOW TO USE THE FACILITOR’S GUIDE This guide is intended to provide understanding and direction on how to successfully carry out and deliver the workshops. The guide has eleven sessions spread through five days of training and has been developed to correspond to the curriculum power point slides. Therefore it will be useful to refer to the corresponding slides, for content, while reviewing the facilitator’s guide. The guide is divided into five workshop days and each day has a combination for the following: 1. Session title and number including the approximate time to be devoted to the session. 2. Session aim and objectives - addressing the overall goal and expectations of the session. 3. Slide number and title for the session – please refer to the indicated slide number for more content details. 4. Brainstorming – usually following the slide presentation and includes Questions and Discussion. 5. Group/Team work – with guidelines on how to organize the participants in teams so that they work together on specific tasks. 6. Activity – which will often involve a handout with specific tasks for participants to engage in. 7. A summary of the session’s exercises and activities. NB: Discussion points and content details are provided in the slide notes. 6
  7. 7. Day 1 I. INTRODUCTION AND COURSE LOGISTICS • UN Trust Fund representative(s) introduce the course and provide background information about the UN Trust Fund. • Special guest (if present) provides introduction. • Facilitators, and participants briefly introduce themselves to each other. • Course logistics are discussed. 7 Session Aim To provide participants with an overview of the course and its aim and learning objectives; includes introduction by special guest and representative(s) from the UN Trust Fund. Session Objectives By the end of the session, participants will:  Know their fellow participants and facilitators better  Demonstrate an understanding of the course’s aim and learning objectives  Share their expectations and personal learning objectives for the course Session Agenda • Introductions and course logistics 1 hour • What do we have in common 30 min • Expectations and learning objectives 30 min Total: 2 hours Session 1: Introduction to the Course
  8. 8. Slides 1-3: Introduction to the Workshop and Workshop Objectives Slide Slide Notes Monitoring and Evaluation Workshop for Grantees City, Country Dates 1 No Notes Slide Not Numbered. 1 Session 1 Introduction to the Workshop Adapted from: Module II M&E GBV Prevention and Mitigation Programs, June 2009 No Notes 2 • Introductions • Workshop logistics • What do we have in common? • Expectations and Learning Objectives No Notes 8
  9. 9. 3 Workshop Objectives By the end of this workshop, participants will be able to: • Differentiate between monitoring and evaluation • Write/revise goals and smart outcomes for your VAW program • Demonstrate an understanding how to develop an appropriate M & E plan for your program • Identify criteria for indicator selection and information sources for VAW indicators, and select appropriate indicators for your program • Discuss factors to consider when choosing an evaluation design • Demonstrate an understanding of the different methods used to monitor and evaluate programs Source: Module II M&E GBV Prevention and Mitigation Programs, June 2009 No Notes II: WHAT DO WE HAVE IN COMMON? Ask participants to pair up with someone they don’t know. Give each pair approximately 10 minutes to interview their partner. Come back to the large group and ask each participant to introduce his/her partner to the group. III: EXPECTATIONS AND LEARNING OBJECTIVES. Divide participants into groups of three. Ask them to discuss their expectations and learning objectives for the workshop and list each expectation on separate index cards. Give participants 10 minutes to discuss. In plenary, ask a representative from each group to share their expectations and objectives with the group. Note common themes on a flipchart. Collect all the index cards, sort them by theme, and tape them on separate flipchart sheets with category headings. 9
  10. 10. I. WHAT IS MONITORING? WHAT IS EVALUATION? Plenary Discussion: Ask participants to come up with a list of what monitoring is. Then ask participants to come up with a list of what evaluation is. How are they different? How do they fit together? How are they like two sides of a coin? You need both sides to have a good understanding of how your program is doing. 10 Session Aim: To clarify participants’ concepts regarding monitoring and evaluation Session Objectives By the end of the session, participants will:  Demonstrate a clear understanding of the definitions of monitoring and evaluation, how they are different and how they fit together.  Define formative, outcome, and impact evaluation Session Agenda • What is monitoring? What is evaluation? 30 min • Monitoring and Evaluation Questions 15 min • Key Elements of an M&E Plan 15 min • Group Activity: Sample outline of an M&E Plan 15 min • Plenary Discussion 15 min Total: 1 hour 30 min Session 2: What is M&E? What is the Purpose of M&E?
  11. 11. Slides 4-9: Monitoring and Evaluation Slides Slide notes Session 2 What is M & E? What is the Purpose of M &E? Adaptedfrom: Module II M&E GBV Prevention and Mitigation Programs, June2009 This section is designed to clarify participants’ concepts regarding M&E. Plenary discussion: Ask participants to come up with a list of what monitoring is. Then ask participants to come up with a list of what evaluation is. How are they different? How do they fit together? How are they like two sides of a coin? You need both sides to have a good understanding of how your program is doing. 5 Monitoring versus Evaluation MONITORING = Tracking changes in program performance over time EVALUATION = Assessing whether objectives have been met Assessing extent to which program is responsible for observed changes Source: Module II M&E GBV Prevention and Mitigation Programs, June 2009 Many M&E experts maintain a strict distinction between monitoring and evaluation. Monitoring is an ongoing, continuous process of data collection. Monitoring involves counting what we are doing. Monitoring involves tracking changes in program performance over time. Monitoring is sometimes referred to as process evaluation. Evaluation is the use of social research methods to systematically investigate how well program activities have met expected objectives. Evaluation requires a special study design. Evaluation sometimes requires a control or comparison group. 11
  12. 12. Slides Slide notes 6 Illustration of Program Monitoring Source: Module II M&E GBV Prevention and Mitigation Programs, June 2009 Program start Program end TIME-> Program indicator An illustration of program monitoring over time could look like this. The program indicator being measured on the “Y” axis could be any element of the program that needs tracking , such as the number of community events carried out with anti- VAW messages. The “X” axis is the time over which a program runs. Each bar represents the periodic measurement of the indicator over the lifetime of the program. As this graph illustrates, monitoring requires data to construct indicators for your outcomes of interest at several points. At a minimum, the program must have all data necessary to calculate your indicator before or near the start of the related intervention, and at or after the end of the intervention. Ideally, monitoring will measure the indicator at multiple points while the program is ongoing, both to track incremental program performance and to determine if activities need adjustment during the intervention in order to improve desired outcomes. Monitoring addresses the following questions: Are activities carried out as planned? What services are provided, to whom, when, how often, for how long, and in what context? Are the services accessible? Is their quality adequate? Is the target population being reached? 12
  13. 13. Slides Slide notes 7 Illustration of Program Impact Source: Module II M&E GBV Prevention and Mitigation Programs, June 2009 Program start Program end TIME-> Change in Program Outcome With program Without program Program impact Evaluation addresses the following questions: what outcomes are observed? Does the program make a difference? To what extent is the program responsible for the observed changes? The latter question is more directed at measuring program impact. To measure program impact, an evaluation is typically conducted at the start of the program and again at the end of a program, rather than at repeated intervals while the program is being implemented. At the same time, baseline and follow- up measurements are made in areas without the program. Attributing changes in outcomes to a particular program/intervention requires one to rule out all other possible explanations. We need to control for all external or confounding factors that may account for the results. Therefore, extensive knowledge of sampling and statistical analysis are sometimes required for measuring program impact. There are some similarities between monitoring and evaluation. Both require knowledge of baseline values and final values, often with an interim measurement during the project. However, evaluation differs crucially from monitoring in that the goal of evaluation is to determine how much of the change in outcome is due to the program or intervention. Evaluation is fundamentally an analytical exercise to help decision makers understand when, how, and to what extent the program is responsible for particular measured impact. However, relatively few programs go as far as establishing cause-and-effect between the program and the change. Impact Evaluation: isolating the program effect from the effect of non-program factors, involves rigorous research design (to be discussed more in-depth later in the workshop) such as randomization or multi- level longitudinal analysis. Note that change can happen in the absence of a program – discuss with the participants examples of behavior change they have made in the absence of programs (for example, going on a diet or watching what we eat). 13
  14. 14. Slides Slide notes 8 Discussion: Is it Monitoring or Evaluation? • The Ministry of Women’s Affairs wants to know if programs carried out in Province A are reducing the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV). • The UN Trust Fund wants to know how many villages in Region B have been reached with anti-VAW messages by your program this year. Source: Module II M&E GBV Prevention and Mitigation Programs, June 2009 Answer to bullet 1: this is evaluation because it is concerned with the impact of a program; Answer to bullet 2: this is monitoring because it is concerned with counting the number of something (villages reached with anti-VAW messages in Region B this year). 9 The Purpose of M & E The purpose of monitoring and evaluation is to measure program effectiveness. Source: Module II M&E GBV Prevention and Mitigation Programs, June 2009 ` M&E can be used to demonstrate to planners, donors, and decision makers if programs have truly had a measurable impact on outcomes of interest. M&E helps program implementers make informed decisions about program operations. It helps programs make the most effective and efficient use of resources. It helps also to determine exactly where a program is right on track and where implementers need to consider making corrections. M&E also helps one come to objective conclusions regarding the extent to which a program can be judged a “success”. Plenary discussion (to introduce the next slide): If the participants are fairly advanced and relatively familiar with the basics of M&E, launch a discussion of: What questions or issues are best raised or addressed through monitoring? What questions or issues might be better to raise or address through evaluation. Efficiency: how inputs are converted to run activities that lead to outputs – more monitoring. Effectiveness – program reached its intended objectives – more evaluation. II. MONITORING AND EVALUATION QUESTIONS Plenary Discussion: If the participants are fairly advanced and relatively familiar with the basics of M&E, launch a discussion of: • What questions or issues are best raised or addressed through monitoring? • What questions or issues might be better to raise or address through evaluation? 14
  15. 15. Slide 10: Monitoring and Evaluation Questions Slides Slide notes 10 Is it monitoring? Is it evaluation? Is it impact evaluation? • Were resources made available to the program in the quantities and at the times specified by the program plan? • Were the program activities carried out as planned? • Which program activities were more effective and which were less effective? • Did the expected changes occur? How much change occurred? • Can improved health outcomes be attributed to program efforts? • Did the target population benefit from the program and at what cost? Source: Module II M&E GBV Prevention and Mitigation Programs, June 2009 Discussion: Monitoring and Evaluation Questions M&E questions help focus and provide structure to monitoring and evaluation activities, help guide M&E planning, facilitate decision making about what tools and methods to use, and inform discussions about how M&E results can be used to improve programs. One of the first things program managers should ask themselves is where they want the program to take them. A careful selection of the questions a program wants answered through would help in the development of a monitoring and evaluation plan and related M&E activities. M&E questions help focus and provide structure to M&E activities. Answers Were resources made available to the program in the quantity and at the times specified by the program plan? Answer: Monitoring Were the program activities carried out as planned Answer: Monitoring Which program activities were more Did the expected changes occur? How much change occurred? Answer: Evaluation Can improved outcomes be attributed to program efforts? Answer: Evaluation Did the target population benefit from the program and at what cost? Answer: Monitoring (Did the target population benefit from the program?) and Evaluation (At what cost?) Different stakeholders need answers to different questions Remind the group that different stakeholders are interested in different types of questions. If time permits, refer back to the set of questions and ask participants to specify which types of stakeholders would be interested in each question. Inform the group that later on, there will be a small group activity on developing monitoring and evaluation questions for their GBV intervention areas. Slide 11: Monitoring and Evaluation across the program life cycle Slides Slide notes 15
  16. 16. 11 M&E Across Program Life Cycle Source: Module II M&E GBV Prevention and Mitigation Programs, June 2009 ASSESSMENT What is the nature of the (health) problem? EVALUATION How Do I know that the strategy is working? How do I judge if the intervention is making a difference? STRATEGIC PLANNING What primary objectives should my program pursue to address this problem? IMPLEMENTATION/MONITORING How do I know the activities are being implemented as designed? How much does implementation vary from site to site? How can be program become more efficient or effective? DESIGN What strategy, interventions and approaches should my program use to achieve these priorities? 3 2 1 3 4 5 At what points of a program lifecycle do you do M&E? M&E occurs at all stages of the program life cycle. In phase I of the program lifecycle, sponsors and program managers identify the needs or problems to be addressed by the program. Phase II is the strategic planning stage. Sponsors & program managers are considering the goals they hope to accomplish through program activities. Information is needed to make decisions about how to allocate money and effort in order to meet identified program needs. Phase III is the program design stage. The program may be designed from scratch or an already existing program may be revised or adapted to meet the specified goals and objectives. At this stage, information is needed to address the question “What strategy or interventions should the program use to achieve these objectives.” M&E activities may include pilot testing and assessing the effectiveness and feasibility of alternative methods of service delivery. Phase IV is the monitoring stage. The program staff is trying to operationalize the program, adapt it as necessary to a particular setting, solve problems that arise and get the program to a point where it is running smoothly. Information is needed that describes how the program is operating and how the program can be improved: To what extent has the program been implemented as designed? How much does implementation vary from site to site? How can the program become more efficient and effective? Phase V is the evaluation stage. The program has become established and information is needed on the extent to which a program’s highest priority goals have been achieved. For M&E to be successful, strategic program planning & developing an M&E strategy should go hand in hand. III: KEY ELEMENTS OF AN M&E PLAN Slides 12-15: Key elements of an M&E Plan Slides Slide Notes 12 What is an M&E Plan? An M&E Plan is a document that describes a system which links strategic information obtained from various data collection systems to decisions that will improve health programs. The M&E plan describes the strategic information your program will gather and use for decision making that will lead to improved programs and ultimately contribute to ending VAW/G. It is also the fundamental document that will hold the program accountable and tell you whether you succeeded or not. Plan for: Collection, analysis and use of data for management purposes and accountability The M&E activities to be completed Indicators Roles and responsibilities of organizations and individuals How data will be used Developing an M&E plan is an important step in making sure that you collect information you need to monitor and evaluate your program. Although this workshop does not include participants writing an M&E plan, it is important 16
  17. 17. for participants to understand the full set of issues that, ideally, stakeholders should agree upon and document for a program’s M&E plan to be complete. 13 Functions of an M&E Plan • Describes how the program is going to measure achievements (ensure Accountability) • Document consensus (encourage Transparency and Responsibility) • Guide M&E implementation (Standardization and Coordination) • Preserve Institutional Memory M&E plan is a living document and needs to be adjusted when necessary. In addition to stating how the program is going to measure what it has achieved, an M&E plan functions to document consensus, guide implementation, and preserve institutional memory. Remember that an M&E plan is a living document and needs to be adjusted when a program is modified or new information is needed. Elements of M&E Plan 1. Brief project description 2. Purpose(s) of M&E plan 3. Brief history of M&E plan development 4. Evaluation framework 5. Indicator system 6. Information system (Data sources) 7. Dissemination and utilization plan 8. Adjustments to M&E plan It is important to emphasize that M&E plans can be organized in many ways but that there a number of elements that should be included in an M&E plan for the M&E plan to be complete. 15 Group Activity: M&E Plans • Do you have M&E plans (or something similar)? • What are the components of the plans? What sections do the plans include? • Look at Handout 1: Template for M&E plan • What is missing from your programs’ M&E plans? • What additional components do your programs’ M&E plans include? Facilitate a discussion about key elements of an M&E plan. Facilitators should begin this section by asking participants whether their programs have M&E plans and what sections their plans include. Write down sections mentioned by participants on a flip chart. Do participants’ programs have M&E plans? What sections do the M&E plans include? Distribute or refer to Handout 1: Sample Outline of an M&E plan. It is important to emphasize that M&E plans can be organized in many ways but that there a number of elements that should be included in an M&E plan for the M&E plan to be complete. Compare the sections in the M&E plan template with the list compiled from participants’ responses. What is missing from their program’s M&E plans? What additional components do their M&E plans include? 17
  18. 18. Group Activity: Distribute Handout 1: Elements of an M&E plan. The facilitator should combine project teams into groups of four or five participants working on the same topic within VAW prevention/mitigation (for example, group participants that are doing community mobilization/awareness raising; one group for participants who are working on male engagement; etc). If there are several project teams working on the same subject they should be organized into two or more groups of four to five each. These groups will be called “working groups” and participants will return to these same groups for other activities later in the workshop (all “Group Work”) Together with the other project teams, participants should compare the sections in the M&E plan template with what they have included in their program’s M&E plan. Is there anything missing from their program’s M&E plan? If so, what is missing? What additional components do their M&E plans include? Plenary Questions and Discussion: How many groups had M&E plans (or something similar)? What components did they have from the handout? What was missing? What additional components were included? Why are M&E plans important? How do you use your M&E plan? 18 Session Aim: To review the current knowledge around VAW and evidence-based VAW programming. Session Objectives: By the end of the session, participants will:  Understand the different types of violence against women and their impact on the health and well-being of women and girls.  Develop an understanding of the meaning of evidence-based programming and current examples in VAW programs, specifically. Session Agenda: • Overview of VAW 30 min • Questions on VAW in the region 20 min • Evidence based Programming on VAW 30 min • Plenary Discussion 15 min Total: 1 hour 35 min
  19. 19. Slides 16-29: A Global Overview of Violence against Women Slides Slide Notes 16 Session 3 Evidenced-based Programming for VAW No notes 17 What do we know about violence against women? • Around the world, at least one out of three women is beaten, coerced into sex or otherwise abused during her lifetime • Women are most at risk at home and from men they know, usually a family member or spouse No notes 18 Definition “Any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual, or psychological harm or suffering for women, including threats of such acts, coercion, or arbitrary deprivations of liberty, whether occurring in public or private life.” United Nations General Assembly, 1993 In 1983, the UN defined gender violence as: “any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual, or psychological harm or suffering for women, including threats of such acts, coercion, or arbitrary deprivations of liberty, whether occurring in public or private life.” Violence against women includes and is not limited to: a) Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring in the family; b) Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring within the general community; c) Physical, sexual and psychological violence perpetrated or condoned by the State, wherever it occurs. Acts of violence against women also include forced sterilization and forced abortion, coercive/forced use of contraceptives, female infanticide and prenatal sex selection. (United Nations 1993) By referring to violence as “gender-based”, the UN definition (United Nations 1993) highlights the need to understand violence within the context of women’s and girl’s subordinate status in society. Such violence cannot be 19
  20. 20. Slides Slide Notes understood in isolation from the norms and social structure and gender roles within the community, which greatly influence women’s vulnerability to violence. It is important to understand that gender-based violence is not only a manifestation of sex inequality, but also serves to maintain this unequal balance of power. Many terms are used to describe this type of violence, including: Violence Against Women, Domestic Violence, Intimate Partner Violence, Family Violence, and Gender-Based Violence 19 Violence Against Women Includes: • Physical violence • Sexual violence • Emotional violence • Economic violence No notes 20 Violence Against Women Includes: • Violence that takes place in the family – domestic abuse – incest • Violence that occurs in the community – sexual assault – sexual harassment at work and at school • Violence that is organized or tolerated by governments There is an overlap between violence that takes place in the family and that which occurs in the community. For instance intimate partner violence and sexual abuse of women and girls in the family fall under the realm of both violence occurring in the family and community. Violence that occurs in the community: Early Marriage FGM IPV 20
  21. 21. Slides Slide Notes 21 Violence against women begins early... • female infanticide • neglect, malnutrition • child sexual abuse • trafficking • female genital mutilation/cutting • child marriage No notes 22 And continues throughout the life cycle… • physical and sexual partner abuse • dowry and “honor” related violence • coerced sex (within marriage or outside) • forced prostitution & trafficking • sexual harassment at work and at school • rape as a weapon of war No notes 23 Physical and sexual violence is extremely common in women’s lives Source: WHO Multi-country Study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence against Women, 2005 Following are some of the key findings from the WHO Multi-Country Study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence Against Women. This study was initiated in 1997 with the aim of obtaining reliable and comparable data within and across culturally diverse countries on different forms of violence against women. It collected information from over 24,000 women in 10 different countries, and provides critical information about how women experience violence in different settings. The study showed that between 15 and 70% of women in different settings had experienced some form of physical and/or sexual violence in their lifetime. 21
  22. 22. Slides Slide Notes 24 Women’s greatest risk of violence is from a partner Source: WHO Multi-country Study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence against Women, 2005 “International research consistently demonstrates that a woman is more likely to be assaulted, injured, raped, or killed by a current or former partner than by any other person” (Ellsberg and Heise 2005: 12) 25 Domestic violence is prevalent in all countries, but the levels can very greatly among settings Source: WHO Multi-country Study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence against Women, 2005 Japan and Serbia: 4% current violence Bangladesh, provinces in Ethiopia, Peru and Tanzania: 30% to 54% current violence Another key finding of the WHO study is that while domestic violence is widespread in all settings, the rates do vary dramatically. This graph summarizes data on the prevalence of physical or sexual partner violence in each setting, breaking it down between lifetime rates of violence and the proportion of women who have experienced partner violence within the last 12 months prior to the interview. The black bars, on the lower portion of the graph, represent the proportion of women who have experienced physical and/or sexual violence by a partner in the last 12 months. It is here that the differences in prevalence are most stark. As you can see on the graph (on the right), Only 4 percent of women in Serbia & Montenegro and Japan city have been abused by a partner in the past year compared to (on the left) 54 percent of women in rural Ethiopia or 34 percent of women in provincial Peru—a nine to ten-fold difference. (NB do not place great emphasis on the difference in prevalence. The message should be that violence against women is prevalent in all countries and regions.) 22
  23. 23. Slides Slide Notes 26 Prevalence of forced sexual initiation Source: WHO’s World Report on Violence and Health, 2002 Limited information exists about sexual coercion, particularly in developing countries. However, selected studies from various settings suggest that nearly one in four women report having experienced sexual violence by an intimate partner in their lifetime (Ellsberg et al., 2000; Mooney, 1993; Hakimi et al., 2001). Some population-based surveys have begun to ask about forced sex, particularly in the context of sexual initiation among adolescents. The graph on this slide presents data from selected studies on the percentage of sexually experienced female adolescents who report their first sex was “forced.” This percentage ranged from 7% in New Zealand to 48% of (sexually experienced) female adolescents in the Caribbean (All figures cited in the WHO World Report on Violence and Health, WHO, 2002). Violence against women is a violation of human rights and a significant development challenge • UN Declaration on Violence against Women (1993) • UN Human Rights Summit (Vienna, 1993) • International Conference on Population and Development (Cairo, 1994) • Fourth World Conference on Women (1995) • World Health Assembly resolution on violence as a public health priority (1996) • UN Secretary General’s In-depth Study on VAW (2006) No notes 28 Violence increases women’s risk for …  Fatal outcomes  homicide  suicide  maternal deaths  HIV/AIDS-related deaths  Non-fatal outcomes  physical  mental  high risk behaviors  reproductive health For example:  unwanted pregnancy  chronic pain syndromes  injury  depression  alcohol/drug use  STDs/HIV  gynecological disorders  low birth weight Sexual and physical violence can have devastating effects on women and is a major cause of death, due to homicide, suicide, maternal deaths and AIDs related deaths, as well as a vast array of physical, mental and reproductive health problems, such as some of those listed here. 23
  24. 24. Slides Slide Notes 29 Violence against women in the region Group Exercise • What are the most common forms of violence against women and girls in the region? • What are the main barriers to addressing them? Divide the group into smaller groups, can be groups of four people sitting near each other and ask them to discuss these issues for 5-10 minutes and then write 3-4 answers to each question on cards (or sticky notes), which will be taped up in the front. The facilitator organizes the responses, reads them out loud, and asks for comments or clarifications on the results (30’ at most) Plenary Discussion: What are the most common forms of violence against women and girls in the region? What are the main barriers to addressing them? Slides 30-51: International Evidence-based Programming on VAW Slides Slide Notes 30 Key principles for evidence- based programming on VAW No notes Guiding Principles in GBV Programming The underlying principle is “Do no harm” • Respect survivors’ safety and autonomy • Ensure relevance and appropriateness of interventions to local setting • Use a human rights perspective The overarching guiding principle to working on VAW is that first and foremost, any initiatives or activities should not do any harm—this should guide all decisions made in programming. 24
  25. 25. Slides Slide Notes 32 Promising practices for addressing VAW • Increasing access to justice • Providing support to survivors of violence • Prevention of VAW The World Bank has developed a framework for addressing violence against women that relies on three main strategies: Increasing women’s access to justice – this means passing and implementing laws and policies that discourage violence by raising the cost of violence to offenders; providing women with means to protect themselves and children from violence through access to restraining orders, divorce, and child maintenance; as well as humane, fair treatment by justice operators, judges, police, forensic doctors. In Melanesia and E. Timor, where parallel systems of justice operate, women need to have their rights upheld through both formal and traditional systems, and to have the necessary information to be able to exercise their rights effectively. Increasing women’s access to support services such as psychological, medical and legal support as well as safe haven. Support for survivors can and does come from government institutions, non governmental organizations, women’s rights groups, faith-based organizations and community-based organizations. Prevention of violence through coordinated efforts to raise awareness, change community attitudes about violence and increase women’s status in society through political, social and economic empowerment. Preventing violence against women involves dialogue with all sectors of society at a national, regional and community level. Prevention activities include awareness campaigns and advocacy, as well as ongoing community-level activities. Violence occurs at many levels…and therefore must be addressed at many levels Society Community Families/ household Individual woman/girlSociety Laws that sanction VAW and protect survivors National plans on VAW Media campaigns to change gender norms Address VAW in national institutions(judiciary, education, welfare, etc.) Community based networks for referrals and prevention Multi-sector, integrated services for survivors of VAW Community mobilization to change norms Support for organizations that protect rights of women Engage men as partners in prevention VAW Work with youth (boys and girls) to promote gender equity Girls’ education, Opportunities for economic empowerment, Information on civil/political rights Increased mobility and autonomy Reducing violence against women requires action at many levels by multiple actors simultaneously. Government commitment and capacity, the participation of women in public life, a strong civil society and an understanding of gender and human rights issues are key components to an enabling environment. Not every intervention needs to address all these levels, but they should be closely coordinated with other efforts to deal with violence against women and girls. 25
  26. 26. Slides Slide Notes 34 Improved policies and programs – National Commissions and Plans against Violence – More services for victims of violence (women’s police stations, NGO women’s services) – Education and Health sector policies and protocols At the level of society, governments have begun to develop national plans for eliminating violence against women, and providing specialized services for survivors of violence. In some countries, schools and health centers have programs in place to help identify survivors of violence, and to carry out educational activities to prevent violence. 35 Promising practices in strengthening women’s access to justice • Improved laws on domestic and sexual violence • Police procedures that require mandatory arrest of abusers or “no drop” policies • Protective/restraining orders that can be easily accessed by women • Specialized police stations for women • Promoting coordination with traditional justice system Transforming the justice systems to be more responsive to women suffering violence has been a primary focus of women’s rights activists in the region for many years. It is important to note however, that there have been very few evaluations of these programs, and what works well in one setting may not work well in another. 36 Lessons learned from the justice system • Train all justice personnel (judges, police, forensic doctors, clerks, etc.); address attitudes as well as skills • Human and financial resources • Multi-sectoral coordination • Public education on how to use the laws • Monitor implementation of the law to see if reporting of violence and detention of abusers increases One of the main lessons learned from these programs is that changing laws is only the first step to increasing access to justice. In most countries that have had legal reforms, it has been very difficult to implement the laws, for both financial reasons, as well as political will and negative attitudes among justice personnel. Lack of coordination among different actors in the justice system (judges, police, prosecutors, medio-legal examiners, etc.) is also a serious problem. For this reason it is essential to ensure that laws are appropriated funded, that ALL personnel are trained in it’s implementation, that training addresses attitudes as well as knowledge and skills, and that implementation of the law is closely monitored. It is also important to carry out implementation campaigns to ensure that the public is aware of the laws and how to use them. 26
  27. 27. Slides Slide Notes 37 Promising practices to increase support for survivors • Women’s safe houses or shelters • Crisis centers (legal, medical, psychological support – usually ngos.) • One- Stop centers (all services in one place – usually a hospital or police station) Women and girls who have experienced violence require a variety of services, depending on their situations. In a crisis, they may require medical treatment, psychological and legal counselling, or urgent protection and safe haven for themselves and their children. Women who have been living in abusive relationships over a long period of time may need information about divorce, child custody, and maintenance options. They may need a sympathetic and knowledgeable advisor to help them decide what to do. Sexual assault victims need forensic documentation, prophylaxis for STIs, emergency contraception, and police investigation. Starting the process of leaving a violent relationship is a particularly dangerous time for a woman, and this is when women are at greatest risk of homicide (Campbell, Webster et al. 2003). Whatever a woman’s needs, it is important that a range of services be accessible and coordinated, and above all, that providers are respectful of her right to decide what is the best and safest alternative for herself and her children. The best practices in service provision are those that make the greatest number of services available to women as close as possible to where they live. These include crisis centers, safe houses, and one-stop centers which are often located in hospitals or police stations. 38 Lessons learned from programs to increase access to services • Services should be integrated (with different types of support in one place) and coordinated through referral networks • Specialized centers are mostly in urban centers and may be too costly for rural areas • Community support networks can provide safe haven and support for survivors of violence in rural areas Referral networks need to be set up and functioning to ensure that women obtain all the services they need without putting them at risk of further harm. Unfortunately, most services are located in urban settings, and it is often very difficult for women in rural areas to obtain help. Some centers have developed community promoter programs or committees against violence against women to provide women with information about laws and their options. In some communities, for example in Papua New Guinea, local women have come together to set up community safe houses where women can stay if they are in danger of abuse. 41 Prevention of violence is key! • Community mobilization • Mass media / Communication for social change programs • Engaging men and boys in violence prevention • Women’s economic empowerment One of the important lessons learned over three decades of work around the world is that prevention must be a key part of any strategy to eliminate violence against women. This involves not only providing communities with information and skills to take action around the harmful impact of violence against women on families and communities, but also challenging attitudes that promote men’s power over women and accept violence as a legitimate way to resolve conflict. Transforming deeply entrenched values and beliefs is a long term goal, and cannot be achieved overnight. 27
  28. 28. Slides Slide Notes 42 Communication, or “edutainment” programs can help prevent violence • Model new behaviors and ways of thinking • Create an enabling environment for increased communication about gender, sexuality • Create synergies and enhance interpersonal communication • It is possible to document and measure impact (GEM Scale) A pioneering approach to communication for social change uses entertainment to raise awareness on important social issues, including violence against women. Internationally, this type of work is known as “education – entertainment”, or “edutainment.” Evaluations of internationally acclaimed edutainment programs such as Soul City in Africa, Break Through in India and Sexto Sentido in Nicaragua, have shown that multi-media programs can help transform attitudes towards gender by providing role models that audiences can identify with, who are dealing with everyday problems in new ways. Part of this communication strategy is to saturate communities with a variety of mass media using television, radio, theatre, posters, and leaflets focusing on the same messages in order to create an environment where people are talking about the new issues. The mass media messages are reinforced with interpersonal communication activities, such as workshops, town meetings, dialogue with cast members/entertainers. Changes in norms can be measure using different tools, such as the Gender Equitable Men (GEM) Scale, which will be discussed in later sessions. 43 Lessons learned for effective communications campaigns • “One-off” campaigns are less effective than ongoing programs • Multiple strategies and techniques and permanent saturation of alternative messages should be used • Importance of working with journalists to change the way VAW is addressed in main stream media An important lesson about effective communication is that changes in attitudes and behaviors will not occur in a single campaign or a few tv shows. It is necessary to “saturate” the community with alternative messages using a variety of techniques (both media and interpersonal communication) over a prolonged period of time in order to see change. The combination of mass media with local activities over a sustained period of time has been proven to be an effective catalyst for individuals and communities to take action on important issues facing them. It is also important to work with the mainstream media in order to influence the way that VAW is portrayed. 44 Raising Voices and CEDOVIP in Uganda Promising practices for community mobilization Experience has shown that it is much easier to change attitudes than behaviour. Therefore, raising awareness is only the first step in preventing violence at a community level. The Uganda based organization Raising Voices has developed a methodology for stimulating community engagement for violence prevention that has been used throughout East and Southern Africa with great success. It is based on a theory of social change that says that individuals and communities make important changes in stages, rather than all at once. The emphasis is on transforming attitudes, knowledge, skills and behaviour, and involves all members of the community. (Michau and Naker 2003) Raising Voices has identified power as a key concept for working with violence – not only the power of men over women, but 28
  29. 29. Slides Slide Notes also the power within individuals and in communities to take action against violence. They encourage communities and families to consider “balancing power” between men and women as an alternative to patriarchal norms. 46 Promising practices in engaging men and boys as partners in violence reduction • MenEngage.org In the last decade, a new approach for violence prevention has emerged that engages men and boys in open dialogue about violence and masculinity, and focuses on the positive benefits of more gender equitable values and practices. These programs encourage men and boys to develop new ways of relating with women and girls based on solidarity, cooperation and fairness rather than domination and control. This new approach is being promoted and supported by an international alliance of NGOs called MenEngage Although international research in this area is scarce, a recent review by the World Health Organization of 58 interventions concluded that, “Men and boys can and do change attitudes and behaviour related to sexual and reproductive heath,…their use of violence against women, and questioning violence with other men…as a result of relatively short term programmes.” (Barker, Ricardo et al. 2007; International Center for Research on Women (ICRW) and Instituto Promundo 2007) The review found that programmes rated as “gender-transformative” had a higher rate of effectiveness. “Programs with men and boys that include deliberate discussions of gender and masculinity and clear efforts to transform such gender norms seemed to be more effective than programmes that merely acknowledge or mention gender norms and roles.” The review also pointed to the importance of integrated programmes “that reach beyond the individual level to the social context, including relationships social institutions, gatekeepers, community leaders, and the like.” Regrettably, the review noted that most programmes are quite small in scale, and relatively few programmes with men and boys go beyond the pilot stage or a short term time frame. 47 Promising practices in women’s empowerment… •Information and education •Technologies and services •Economic assets and income •Social support and networks •Leadership and political participation Because women’s status is so low status throughout most of the world, increasing women’s participation in political leadership positions and economic and social status at all levels must be a priority. This means strengthening women’s participation and leadership in community development and economic programs as well as increasing women’s representation in national level leadership positions, including parliament. 29
  30. 30. Slides Slide Notes 48 Image Program in South Africa Microfinancing and training on violence, together with community mobilization activities reduced domestic violence by 50% in intervention group over 2 years An example of this is the IMAGE project in South Africa. They carried out an educational program on HIV/AIDS prevention and prevention of violence against women with women who participated in a micro finance program. In addition to improved repayment rates on the loans, women participating in the program experienced 50% less domestic violence over a 2 year period. 49 Addressing VAW in schools • Sexual harassment and violence are widespread in schools, (both peers and teachers) and an obstacle to girls educational advancement • Schools teach values around gender, conflict resolution, sexual and reproductive health Sexual harassment and violence against girls is widespread in educational settings throughout the world. The perpetrators include both school mates as well as teachers and other school staff. The Education System should contribute to preventing violence by establishing codes of conduct for teachers and staff and sanctioning misconduct. Schools, and more broadly the educational system and communities, can help prevent VAW by reforming education sector laws and policies improving schools institutional response to VAW and mobilizing communities in support of girls safety and rights. This requires training for teachers and students, establishment of codes of conduct that prohibit gender violence in the schools, and most importantly developing and implementing policies on dealing with teacher misconduct. 49 Lesson Learned in Addressing Violence in Education programs • Anti violence and gender norms need to be integrated into school curriculum, including family life skills • Address sexual violence in schools through sexual harassment policies and codes of conduct No notes 30
  31. 31. Slides Slide Notes 50 We need to invest in evaluation! • We need to know what works and what doesn’t • More rigorous designs and rethink success indicators • National level indicators to monitor overall trends One of the barriers to improving practices to reduce violence against women is that there is not been enough evaluation of ongoing activities to see what actually works and what doesn’t. Therefore, it is important for all programs to integrate rigorous monitoring and evaluation plans into their interventions. National governments also need to develop overall indicators that will allow for monitoring national and global trends 51 References • World Health Organization (2005). WHO Multi-Country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence Against Women: Initial Results on Prevalence, Health Outcomes and Women's Responses. Geneva, Switzerland, WHO. • Ellsberg, M. and L. Heise (2005). Researching violence against women: A practical guide for researchers and activists. Geneva, Switzerland, Program for Appropriate Technology in Health, World Health Organization, . • Morrison, A., M. Ellsberg, et al. (2007). "Addressing Gender- Based Violence: A Critical Review of Interventions." The World Bank Research Observer 22(1): 25-51. • Barker, G., C. Ricardo, et al. (2007). Engaging Men and Boys in Gender Equality: Evidence from Programme Interventions. Geneva, World Health Organiztion: 70. • Michau, L. and D. Naker (2003). Mobilising Communities to Prevent Domestic Violence. Kampala, Uganda, Raising Voices. • Velzeboer, M., M. Ellsberg, et al. (2003). Violence against Women: The Health Sector Responds. Washington, DC, Pan American Health Organization, PATH. No notes Plenary Discussion: How does the evidence-base inform participants’ programs? How can programs be developed to contribute to the evidence-base? How does this relate to monitoring and evaluation? 31
  32. 32. ⇒ NOTE: Objectives = Outcomes in the UN Trust Fund Logical Framework Slides 52-56: Defining goals and objectives (outcomes) Slides Slide Notes 52 Session 4 Program Goals and Objectives Adapted from: Module II M&E GBV Prevention and Mitigation Programs, June 2009 The purpose of this session: Monitoring and evaluation begins with identifying program goals and objectives. Goals and objectives are the core of every M&E system. In this section, we will focus on the following issues: What is the difference between a goal and objective? How can we write goals and objectives so that they can be easily monitored and evaluated? 32 Session 4: Program Goals and Outcomes Session Aim: To clarify participants’ understanding of program goals and objectives Session Objectives By the end of the session, participants will:  Demonstrate an understanding about the difference between a goal and an objectives  Be able to write goals and objectives so that they can be easily monitored and evaluated Session Agenda: • Program Goals and Objectives (Outcomes in UN Trust Fund logframe) 30 min • Group Activity: Improving Goals and Making Objectives (Outcomes) Smarter. 15 min • Plenary Discussion 15 min
  33. 33. Slides Slide Notes 53 Program Goals A goal is a broad statement of a desired, long-term outcome of a program. Goals represent general big picture statements of desired results. • Examples: – To improve the lives of women who experience gender- based violence – To decrease injury and mortality due to gender-based violence – To eliminate gender-based violence Source: Module II M&E GBV Prevention and Mitigation Programs, June 2009 We hear a lot of talk about how important it is to have goals. But what exactly is a goal? A goal is defined as a broad statement of a desired long-term outcome of a program, that is a broad statement of what a program hope to accomplish. A goal is an end the program strives to attain. Setting goals is a way to focus your attention on what you want in the future. You can also think of a goal as a general statement of an intended outcome. So how do you recognize a goal when you see one? First, there is not single clear-cut performance that will indicate whether the goal has been met. If there is a single behavior that will indicate the presence of a long-term outcome, you are not dealing with a goal. Examples of goals are: • To improve the lives of women who experience gender-based violence • To decrease injury and mortality due to gender-based violence • To eliminate gender-based violence Here are a few tips for writing program goals: • Each goal should contain only one idea. • Keep goal statements separate from statements of how goals are to be attained. • Separate goals from indicators. The two are related but they are not the same thing. • Distinguish between goals and activities • Keep the goal focused, clear and crisp. The goal statement should be understandable. Avoid difficult grammatical construction and professional jargon. The general public should be able to make sense of the goal. 54 Program Objectives (Outcomes) • Objectives: statements of desired, specific, realistic and measurable program results • SMART – Specific: identifies concrete events or actions that will take place – Measurable: quantifies the amount of resources, activity, or change to be expended and achieved – Appropriate: logically relates to the overall problem statement and desired effects of the program – Realistic: Provides a realistic dimension that can be achieved with the available resources and plans for implementation – Time-bound: specifies a time within which the objective will be achieved Source: Module II M&E GBV Prevention and Mitigation Programs, June 2009: (GAP 2003) NOTE: On UNTF logframes the “objective” is the “outcome”. An objective (outcome for UN Trust Fund is a statement of a desired, specific, realistic and measurable program result that must be attained in order to accomplish a particular program goal. Objectives provide direction for decision making and criteria against which program results or outcomes are measured. SMART is an acronym used to help you define and set effective outcomes. Specific – Ensure that the events, actions or outcomes are stated in a clearly defined manner. Be precise about what you intend to achieve. If an outcome is specific or precise, there is only one way in which it can be interpreted. Measurable – Ensure that your outcome can be quantified. Quantifying your outcome can help you to focus on what is expected. It can also aid you to monitor and assess actual performance against the set objectives. If an outcome cannot be measured, it will be difficult for you to demonstrate that you have accomplished the outcome. Appropriate – This means that the outcome is important for meeting the long-term goals of the program or that it is important to the organization or target population. Realistic – Make sure that the outcome can be achieved with the resources, time and personnel available. Time-bound – Although many programs have good intentions, without a time definition, the outcome lacks commitment. Time-bound means clearly stating when the outcome will be achieved. 33
  34. 34. Slides Slide Notes How to Write Program Objectives (Outcomes) To [action] The (what) [specify what knowledge, attitudes, skills, behaviors] Among (who) [specific population or segment] From – to [from baseline to desired level] or by [ x percent ] or to [specific level By (when) [time frame] Source: Module II M&E GBV Prevention and Mitigation Programs, June 2009 A properly stated objective (outcome) is action-oriented. It starts with the word “to” and is followed by an action verb. Objectives address questions of “what”, “who”, “how much” and “when” but not “why” or “how”. In other words, an objective is the aim of an action. The objective implies a specific direction for the action to take or a specific quality of work to be accomplished. The objective reflects desired outcomes for specific individuals, groups or organizations within a given period of time. Words to Avoid: Train, Enhance, Promote, Conduct, Create, Strengthen because they are activities. Objective must reflect why we are doing what we are doing and not describe what we are doing. Discussion: Is it a Goal or an Objective (Outcome)? Is it a goal or an objective? If an objective, is it SMART? Why or Why not? • To reduce violence against women • To increase the % of men and women in beneficiary population who believe that violence is not an acceptable way of dealing with conflict from 40% in 2002 to 80% by 2007 • To increase the number of domestic violence clients recommended for counseling who utilize counseling services by 30% Source: Module II M&E GBV Prevention and Mitigation Programs, June 2009 Is it a Goal or an Objective? If an Objective, is it SMART? Why or Why Not? The objective of this activity is to enable participants to differentiate between goals and objectives and see what results they can get using the SMART test. To reduce GBV Answer: This is a goal. It is long-term and cannot be measured using a single outcome. To increase the % of men and women in the beneficiary population who believe that violence is not an acceptable way of dealing with conflict from 40% in 2002 to 80% by 2007 Answer: This is SMART objective. (S) Specific –It is precise about what it wants to achieve (changes in beliefs about the acceptability of violence as a form of conflict resolution) (M) Measurable - It can it be quantified by calculating what percent of men and women agree or disagree with the statements about how to solve conflict. (A) Appropriate— We don’t have any information about the program but the objective as stated is relevant to work on GBV prevention and mitigation (R) Realistic—We don’t have any information about the resources and personnel available but we can assume that the objective be achieved with the resources available. Time-bound—The objective give a time frame by which the objective will be achieved: between 2002 and 2007. To increase the number of domestic violence clients recommended for counseling who utilize counseling services by 30%. Answer: This is an objective but it is NOT SMART. (S) Specific –It is precise about what it wants to achieve (increased utilization of counseling services by domestic violence clients who are referred) (M) Measurable - It can it be quantified by tracking the number of referred domestic violence clients who utilize those services. (A) Appropriate— We don’t have any information about the program but the objective as stated is relevant to work on GBV mitigation. (R) Realistic—We don’t have any information about the 34
  35. 35. Slides Slide Notes resources and personnel available but we can assume that the objective can be achieved with the resources available. (T) Time-bound—The objective does not give a time frame by which the objective will be achieved. Time-bound—The objective give a time frame by which the objective will be achieved: between 2002 and 2007. To increase the number of domestic violence clients recommended for counseling who utilize counseling services by 30%. Answer: This is an objective but it is NOT SMART. (S) Specific –It is precise about what it wants to achieve (increased utilization of counseling services by domestic violence clients who are referred) (M) Measurable - It can it be quantified by tracking the number of referred domestic violence clients who utilize those services. (A) Appropriate— We don’t have any information about the program but the objective as stated is relevant to work on GBV mitigation. (R) Realistic—We don’t have any information about the resources and personnel available but we can assume that the objective can be achieved with the resources available. (T) Time-bound—The objective does not give a time frame by which the objective will be achieved. Time-bound—The objective give a time frame by which the objective will be achieved: between 2002 and 2007. Questions and Discussion: Why are goals important? How do you know a goal when you see one? How are goals and objectives (outcomes) different? Group Activity: Improving Goals and Making Objectives Smarter. Distribute Handout 2: Improving Goals and Making Objectives(Outcomes) Smarter. Ask participants to get in working groups from previous activities (described on pg 17). Groups should choose two statements from the list on the handout. Decide whether the statement is a goal or an outcome. Groups should decide: If a goal, is it properly stated? Why or why not? If a goal is not properly stated, rewrite it. If an outcome, is it SMART? Why or why not? If an outcome is not smart, rewrite it in order to make it “SMARTER”. 35
  36. 36. Slide 57 Slides Slide Notes 57 Group Activity In your groups: • Choose two statements from the list on the handout • Decide whether the statement is a goal or an outcome • If a goal, is it properly stated? Why or why not? If an outcome, is it SMART? Why or why not? • If an outcome is not SMART, rewrite it in order to make it SMART. Follow this activity with a plenary discussion – what statements did groups choose? Were they goals or objectives (outcomes)? Did they have to be rewritten? If yes, share how the goal or objective (outcome) was re- written. Plenary Discussion: What statements did groups choose? Were they goals or objectives (outcomes)? Did they have to be written? If yes, share how the goal or outcome was rephrased. The participants should return to their working groups (groups of four or five participants working on the same topic within VAW prevention/mitigation (for example, group participants that are doing community mobilization/awareness raising; one group for participants who are working on male engagement; etc). Ask them to review a goal and two objectives (outcomes) from one of the participants’ logical frameworks. Ask participants to answer the following questions in reference to their own intervention target area: • In the long run, what should be different in the community, or the ‘target population’ as a result of the program being delivered to address the problems you identified? What are the changes you hope for, even recognizing your program may be playing a small part in achieving these changes? These changes would be your goals. Some of them may be quite general and broad. • In the shorter run, what changes do you hope will occur in the community or ‘target population’, as a result of your program being delivered? What short-term changes are needed in order to achieve the goal you have just specified? These are your objectives (or outcomes on the UN Trust Fund logframe). Do your objectives (outcomes) pass the SMART test? Time: 1 hour 36 Group Work: Program Goals and Objectives (outcomes)
  37. 37. Day 2 Ask for two volunteers to review the previous day’s activities and topics. Facilitator should supplement discussion with questions to the volunteers and the group about any unaddressed questions or concerns, comments, and/or suggestions for the upcoming day. Time: 30 minutes 37 Session Aim: Enable participants to understand the importance and uses of frameworks in the process of developing plans for program monitoring and evaluations Session Objectives: By the end of the sessions participants will:  Develop an understanding of conceptual frameworks and how they are used for M&E  Demonstrate an understanding of logic models and their components  Be able to develop a logic model  Session Agenda: • Conceptual Frameworks 30 min • Logic Model and Its Components 45 min • Logical Framework 45 min • Group work: Measuring change at the output level 30 min • Group work: logic models 45 min • Plenary discussion 60 min Total: 4 hours, 15 min Recap of Previous Day Session 5: Monitoring and Evaluation Frameworks
  38. 38. I: CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORKS Slides 58-60: Conceptual Frameworks Slides Slide Notes 58 Session 5 Conceptual Frameworks, Logic Models and Logical Frameworks Adapted from: Module II M&E GBV Prevention and Mitigation Programs, June 2009 Explain why frameworks are useful for M&E. Introduce this segment by saying that “It is easier to see how the pieces of your program fit together if you build a framework for monitoring and evaluation.” Explain that frameworks help to clearly define the relationship among factors key to the implementation of a program. Frameworks also serve as a foundation for selecting appropriate and useful M&E indicators 59 Conceptual Frameworks Diagram that identifies and illustrates the relationships between all relevant systemic, organizational, individual, or other salient factors that may influence program/project operation and the successful achievement of program or project goals. M&E Purpose: • To show where program fits into wider context • To clarify assumptions about causal relationships • To show how program components will operate to influence outcomes • To guide identification of indicators • To guide impact analysis (causal pathways) Source: Module II M&E GBV Prevention and Mitigation Programs, June 2009 Conceptual frameworks are sometimes called “research” or “theoretical” frameworks. A conceptual framework is a useful tool for identifying and illustrating a wide variety of factors and relationships that may affect program success. Conceptual frameworks take a broad view of the program itself in order to clarify the relationship of its activities and its main goals to the context in which it operates. The design of the conceptual framework should show the interrelationships between all factors that are relevant to achieving the program’s goals. These factors can be systems, organizations, government or institutional policies, infrastructure, population characteristics, or other features of the operational landscape that may help or hinder the program’s success. Constructing a conceptual framework thus clarifies the complete context affecting the outcome of an program or intervention. Constructing a conceptual framework also clarifies your assumptions about the causal relationships between significant features of the program context, clarifying aspects that your planned intervention may affect as well as other factors beyond your control. Identifying the variables that factor into program performance, and organizing the explicit ways they interact with each other sets the stage for outlining the results you can reasonably expect from your program activities. Clarifying all of these issues is a critical step toward designing valid measures for analyzing or evaluating the success of the program’s interventions. Additional Background Conceptual frameworks are used in the sciences to select key variables for analysis. By constructing this kind of analytical framework as the foundation within which your program will design, plan, and implement the Monitoring and Evaluation of program performance, real possibilities and limitations become clearer to everyone involved. 38
  39. 39. Slides Slide Notes 60 Illustrative Conceptual Model for IPV Source: Module II M&E GBV Prevention and Mitigation Programs, June 2009 Society Community Relationship Individual Perpetrator •Norms •Laws •Notions of masculinity •Gender roles •Poverty •Unemployment •Family isolation •Community acceptance of violence •Marital conflict •Male control of wealth •Male control of decision-making in family •Being male •Witnessing marital violence as child •Being abused as child •Absent or rejecting father •Alcohol use Source: Heise 1998: Heise 1998 Society This slide shows a conceptual framework that was proposed for intimate partner violence (IPV), a specific form of VAW. The important thing to highlight is that a broad range of factors influence intimate partner violence. The factors that are associated with intimate partner violence fall into four categories: • The individual characteristics of the perpetrator, including sex, witnessing marital violence as a child, being abused as a child, having an absent or rejecting father, and alcohol use. • Relationship factors, such as marital conflict, male control of wealth, male control of decision making in the family. • Community factors, including poverty, unemployment, family isolation, and community acceptance of violence • Societal factors including , social expectations about gender norms, notions of masculinity, and institutions that work against VAW (legal institutions, etc.) Emphasize that understanding and responding to these factors is an important part of developing effective IPV- prevention programs. This conceptual framework also means that different strategies are needed to influence the many factors—individual, relationship, community, and social — that determine whether IPV occurs. Plenary Questions and Discussion: Why is it important to understand and respond to thsee factors when developing effective IPV-prevention programs? (Different strategies are needed to influence the many factors – individual, relationship, community, and social – that determine how IPV occurs. Plenary Questions and Discussion: Why are frameworks useful for M&E? Review slide 60. The example conceptual framework was proposed for intimate partner violence (IPV), a specific form of VAW. Plenary Questions and Discussion: Discuss why understanding and responding to these factors is an important part of developing effective IPV-prevention programs. Different strategies are needed to influence the many factors—individual, relationship, community, and social — that determines whether IPV occurs. 39
  40. 40. II: LOGIC MODELS AND LOGICAL FRAMEWORKS Slides 61-67: Logic Models Slides Slide Notes Logic Models Logic models are diagrams connecting program inputs to activities, outputs, outcome and impact as they relate to a specific problem or situation. Logic models show what resources your program will need to accomplish its goals, what your program will do, and what it hopes to achieve, emphasizing the links between all these things. Source: Module II M&E GBV Prevention and Mitigation Programs, June 2009 Tell the group that the next stage is to is to show the connection between their various program components/activities and their short-term objectives (and eventually their long-term objectives). This is done in a diagram connecting the various activities and outcomes. Facilitators will now discuss the Logic Model and show how this is done. This step of the workshop is particularly important because logic models often form the basis for program monitoring and evaluation. Introduce this segment by saying that we will talk now about logic models. The logic model is important because it is the only framework that specifies inputs and that can point directly toward indicators for program monitoring. A complete logic model makes it possible to isolate discrete portions of the program implementation process, which in turn makes it possible to monitor and evaluate discrete portions of that program. The logic model can be used to inform the logical frameworks. Logic Model Components • Input – Resources used in a program (e.g., money, staff, curricula, and materials) • Activity– Actions taken or work performed through which inputs such as funds, technical assistance, and other types of resources are mobilized to produce specific outputs • Output – Direct results of program activities (e.g., people trained; materials distributed; couples counseled, etc.) • Outcome – Program results at population level (e.g., knowledge, attitudes, behavior, coverage) • Impact – Long-term change in morbidity, mortality, and fertility Source: Module II M&E GBV Prevention and Mitigation Programs, June 2009 and UNAIDS MERG, 2008 Generally logic models consist of: Input: The various resources that go into a program. For example, what kind of staff, equipment, materials and funding are at your disposal? Activity: The actual interventions that take place as part of the program. For example, conduct an educational campaign on women’s rights. Output: The direct product of a program’s activities. For example, the number of educational packets you sent to various sites. Outcome: The short- or intermediate- results of the program at the population level. Short-term outcome example: Increased awareness of VAW organizations. Intermediate outcome example: Decreased prevalence of sexual harassment in your community in the past year. Impact: the long-term outcome of the program. For example, reduced STI incidence among men in your community. 40
  41. 41. Slides Slide Notes Logic Model Shows Intended Results 6months – 1 year After implementation Inputs Activities (work plans) Outputs (Services) Outcomes Goal immediate immediate 5 years or more2 to 5 years efficiency effectiveness indicators Programme Level Global Level Source: UNIFEM RBM Curriculum: Module 3a & 3b: The Results Chain; and The World Bank Global HIV/AIDS Programme and UNAIDS 62 A logic model can be used to show results. The model is a depiction of the causal logic, causal chain or logical relationships between inputs, activities, outputs, outcomes, and impacts of a given policy, program, or initiative. A series of expected achievements, “linked” by causality Continuum from inputs/resources to final goal divided up into segments / links / levels Expressed horizontally or vertically in terms of presentation Each link in the chain is characterized by: Increased importance of achievement with respect to the programme goal Decreased control, accountability, and attribution Outputs - products, services, and capacities which result from the completion of activities within a development intervention. Outcomes - short-term and medium-term effects of an intervention’s outputs, usually requiring the collective effort of partners. Outcomes represent changes in development conditions which occur between the completion of outputs and the achievement of goals, directly influenced by Outputs, drawn from/linked to MYFF, around end of time period (ex. skills knowledge applied) Goal - higher-order objective to which a development intervention is intended to contribute, contributed to by Outcomes (in addition to many other factors), taken from MYFF, post time period, country/sector level (ex. increased right for women in….) It is important to note that the levels in a results chain are relative and depend on the point-of-view of who develops them. As an illustration, training materials might be the outputs or even outcomes of all the grantee’s efforts. Source: Source: UNIFEM RBM Curriculum: Module 3a & 3b: The Results Chain If-Then Logic – Cause and Effect Activity Output Outcome Goal then If If If if if if then then Input if then No notes 41
  42. 42. Slides Slide Notes 64 INPUT •Human and financial resources to develop training materials & implement training program ACTIVITIES •Develop GBV training curriculum •Conduct TOT workshops •Conduct GBV training for providers OUTCOME •Increased awareness of GBV •Increased disclosure of GBV •Increased knowledge and utilization of GBV services Illustrative Logic Model for Provider Training Program Source: Module II M&E GBV Prevention and Mitigation Programs, June 2009 IMPACT •Improved well-being and safety of GBV survivors OUTPUT •Providers trained in GBV •Improved provider attitudes toward GBV •Increased provider ability to identify, counsel, care for, and refer GBV survivors Distribute Handout 4 This logic model presents a straightforward view of a project designed to improve providers’ knowledge attitudes and practices and to increase providers’ awareness of GBV as a violation of human rights. As you can see, a series of “if-then” relationships connect the components of the logic model: if resources are available to the program, then program activities can be implemented; if program activities are implemented successfully, then certain outputs and outcomes can be expected. The logic model does not try to account for all of the factors that may be influencing a program’s operation and results like a conceptual framework. Instead, the logic model focuses on the program’s inputs, activities, and results. This narrow focus assists program managers and M&E planners as they clarify the direct relationships among elements of particular interest within a specific program. Also, discuss the different terms used in M&E – ‘impact’ vs. ‘long term outcome’, are they the same or different? What is another word for ‘process’? Plenary discussion: What does this logic model present? Why are logic models useful? How do they help when developing plans for M&E? 65 Role of Logic Model • Program planning – Helps one think through program strategy – where you are & where you want to be • Program management – Helps one track and monitor operations to better manage results • Communication – Shows stakeholders at a glance what program is doing and what it expects to achieve Source: Module II M&E GBV Prevention and Mitigation Programs, June 2009 Program Planning. The logic model is a valuable tool for program planning and development. The logic model structure helps you think through your program strategy— to help clarify where you are and where you want to be. Program Management. Because it "connects the dots" between resources, activities, and outcomes, a logic model can be the basis for developing a more detailed management plan. Using data collection and an evaluation plan, the logic model helps you track and monitor operations to better manage results. It can serve as the foundation for creating budgets and work plans. Communication. A well-built logic model is a powerful communications tool. It can show stakeholders at a glance what a program is doing (activities) and what it is achieving (outcomes), emphasizing the link between the two. 66 Role of Logic Model • Consensus building – Promotes common understanding about what program is, how it works and what it is trying to achieve • Fundraising – Can structure and streamline grant writing • Monitoring and evaluation – Provides thorough understanding of what resources program has to work with, what it is doing, and what it hopes to achieve. Source: Module II M&E GBV Prevention and Mitigation Programs, June 2009 Consensus-Building. Developing a logic model builds common understanding and promotes buy-in among both internal and external stakeholders about what a program is, how it works, and what it is trying to achieve. Fundraising. A sound logic model demonstrates to funders that you have purposefully identified what your program will do, what it hopes to achieve, and what resources you will need to accomplish your work. It can also help structure and streamline grant writing. Monitoring and evaluation: The cornerstone of effective evaluation is a thorough understanding of a program: what resources it has to work with, what it is doing, what it hopes to achieve, for whom, and when. In conducting an evaluation, it is tempting to focus most of your attention on data collection. However, your evaluation efforts will be more effective if you start with a logic model. Going through the logic model process will help ensure that your evaluation will yield relevant, useful information. 42
  43. 43. Questions and Discussion: Why are logic models useful? How do they help when developing plans for M&E? How is this logic model similar to the logframe participants developed for their UN Trust Fund programs? How is it different? Group Activity: Identifying Logic Model Components • Return to earlier groups • Each of the scenarios in handout #3 corresponds to one of the five components in the logic model: – Input, activity, output, outcome, and impact. • In your groups, decide which component the scenario illustrates. • Discuss in plenary Distribute Handout 3 Scenario #1: The number of stories printed, the number of newspapers in which they were printed, where they were printed (as well each newspaper’s circulation and readership demographics). Scenario #2: In the next six months, we expect to see an increase of 25 percent in the proportion of youth and adults who report the domestic violence helpline telephone number. Scenario #3: Your coalition has recruited a staff person to help promote enforcement of existing local laws on domestic violence, to collaborate with other coalitions and community organizations, and to gather relevant, comparable data on gender-based violence. Scenario #4: The newly recruited staff person creates a working group to foster collaboration among community organizations working on GBV prevention and mitigation. Scenario #5: You want to promote public awareness of domestic violence and women’s rights, so you collaborate with local newspaper reporters to develop a series of stories on GBV. Scenario #6: Through local surveys and the use of comparable data, you learn that a lower proportion of young men in your community believe that a man has the right to beat his wife. Scenario #7: An increase in the percentage of domestic violence victims who made contact with a VAW organization. Scenario #8: An overall decrease in the prevalence of domestic violence in your community. Group Activity: Ask participants to return to their working groups from previous days. Provide the groups with Handout 3: Identifying logic model and logframe components. The groups should discuss and decide which component each scenario illustrates. Discuss in plenary session. 43
  44. 44. SLIDES 68-75 Logical Frameworks 44
  45. 45. Slides Slide Notes Logical Frameworks A logical framework (LogFrame) is a tool for strategic planning, and management of a program/project. It is presented as a table and includes the most pertinent information about the project in a consise, logical and systematic manner. No Notes 69 Logical frameworks Logical frameworks answer the following questions in a standardized way: • What does the project aim to achieve? • How will it be achieved • What is needed to make the project a success? • How will progress and potential problems be assessed? No Notes 70 Logical frameworks • Summarize what the project plans to achieve and why • Summarize key hypotheses • Summarize the results and products that were monitored and evaluated No Notes UNIFEM Definitions Term Definition Example Goal The higher-order objective to which a development intervention is intended to contribute. The change is long- term and achieved through collective efforts of many partners. Morbidity and mortality are reduced among VAW/G survivors Outcome Intended or achieved short and medium term effects of an intervention’s outputs. Outcomes represent changes in development conditions which occur between the completion of outputs and the achievement of impact. At least 75% of VAW/G survivors who received appropriate care Output The products, services, and capacities resulting from completion of activities. 50 service providers trained to care for and refer VAW/G survivors who demonstrate increased skills Activity Actions taken or work performed through which inputs are mobilised to produce specific outputs. Training of 50 service providers to care for and refer VAW/G survivors Source: UNIFEM (2005). Essential Guide to RBM; and UNIFEM RBM Curriculum: Module 3a & 3b: The Results Chain 72 No Notes 45
  46. 46. Slides Slide Notes Logical Frameworks A logical framework (LogFrame) is a tool for strategic planning, and management of a program/project. It is presented as a table and includes the most pertinent information about the project in a consise, logical and systematic manner. No Notes 69 Logical frameworks Logical frameworks answer the following questions in a standardized way: • What does the project aim to achieve? • How will it be achieved • What is needed to make the project a success? • How will progress and potential problems be assessed? No Notes 70 Logical frameworks • Summarize what the project plans to achieve and why • Summarize key hypotheses • Summarize the results and products that were monitored and evaluated No Notes UNIFEM Definitions Term Definition Example Goal The higher-order objective to which a development intervention is intended to contribute. The change is long- term and achieved through collective efforts of many partners. Morbidity and mortality are reduced among VAW/G survivors Outcome Intended or achieved short and medium term effects of an intervention’s outputs. Outcomes represent changes in development conditions which occur between the completion of outputs and the achievement of impact. At least 75% of VAW/G survivors who received appropriate care Output The products, services, and capacities resulting from completion of activities. 50 service providers trained to care for and refer VAW/G survivors who demonstrate increased skills Activity Actions taken or work performed through which inputs are mobilised to produce specific outputs. Training of 50 service providers to care for and refer VAW/G survivors Source: UNIFEM (2005). Essential Guide to RBM; and UNIFEM RBM Curriculum: Module 3a & 3b: The Results Chain 72 No Notes 46
  47. 47. Part 1: Logic Model For this It is especially important for facilitators to provide intensive assistance and feedback during this exercise. Do not wait until the end of the exercise to give feedback to each group. Rather move from team to team, listen to the discussions, provide advice, and make yourself available for questions as they arise. The following guidelines for developing/revising logic model derived from WHO (2000) are quite useful in providing guidance to the groups. Post-it notes (small pieces of note paper with adhesive on one side) are useful for working on logic models. If each component of the model (e.g., a single activity our output or outcome) is written on one post-it note, it would be easier to edit the model. If post-it notes are not available, small pieces of paper backed with tape can be used instead. Questions that should be addressed during group work: • Have you expressed your outcomes in terms of change? • Do activities, outputs, and outcomes relate to each other logically (the if-then relationship)? • Does your organization/program have adequate resources to implement the activities and achieve the desired outcomes? If you need further resources, is that reflected in your activities? • Have you included all the major activities needed to implement your program and achieve the expected outcomes? • Would the activities listed enable someone who is unfamiliar with your program to understand its scope? Part 2: Project team discussion Discuss: how is the logic model similar to the logical framework each group developed for their UN Trust Fund programs? What is different? How can creating a logic model help when developing a logical framework? What additional information is in the logical framework? 47 Project Team Work Part 2 Project Group Work: Logic Models
  48. 48. Plenary Discussion: Each team should take 2-3 minutes to present their logic models. The entire group should then discuss the questions in Part 2. Examples from groups: Review example of one group’s logframe focusing on the topics covered thus far in the workshop including goals, objectives/outcomes, outputs, and activities. Time: 1 hour Project teams should meet to review their outcomes and outputs and revise based on what they have learned to date about program goals and outcomes, inputs, outputs, and activities. Time: 2 hours 30 minutes 48 Plenary Activity and Discussion – Review logframe as group Project Team Group Work: Refining outcomes and outputs
  49. 49. Day 3 Recap of Previous Day Ask for two volunteers to review the previous day’s activities and topics. Facilitator should supplement discussion with questions to the volunteers and the group about any unaddressed questions or concerns, comments, and/or suggestions for the upcoming day. Time: 30 minutes ⇒ NOTE: Facilitators should tailor this presentation to participants’ prior knowledge of measurement issues. If participants are relatively new to M&E, it might be necessary to discuss basic concepts in greater detail. 49 Recap of Previous Day Session 6: Choosing Appropriate Indicators for Different Types of Interventions Session Aim: Increase participants’ understanding of the importance of indicators, and of the characteristics of good indicators (appropriate) Session Objectives: By the end of this session participants will:  Demonstrate an understanding of how to select good (appropriate) indicators Session Agenda: • Characteristics of a good indicator 45 min • Activity: 30 min • Plenary Discussion 30 min Total: 1 hour, 45min
  50. 50. Slides 76-87: What is an indicator? Characteristics of good indicators. Good Indicator Metrics. Challenges in Indicator Selection Slides Slide Notes 76 Session 6 Choosing Appropriate Indicators for Different Types of Interventions Adapted from: Module II M&E GBV Prevention and Mitigation Programs, June 2009 This session of the workshop covers the importance and uses of indicators. Facilitators should tailor this presentation to participants’ prior knowledge of measurement issues. The focus of the group activities is to align indicators and the data to be used for measuring them with the program activities and logic model and logframes that participants have developed. The more closely all of these things are aligned with each other, the more useful M&E will be for measuring and documenting program effectiveness. Sound indicators and information systems, and systematic data collection are the best way to inform people about what a program does, how it functions, and what the program has accomplished. Without this, any claims about what a program has achieved would be open to criticism. Introduce this section by telling participants that once they have taken each outcome through the SMART test, they can move on to selecting indicators. An indicator is what you look at in order to monitor how you are progressing in achieving your objectives. In other words, indicators are clues, signs, and markers that show how close we are to achieving our outcomes and how much things are changing. 77 What is an indicator? An indicator is a specific, observable and measurable characteristic that can be used to show changes or progress a program is making toward achieving a specific outcome. Source: Module II M&E GBV Prevention and Mitigation Programs, June 2009 Measuring outputs and short-term and intermediate outcomes can provide valuable information about how the program is functioning and whether activities implemented are accomplishing what they were intended to do. Long- term outcomes are often difficult to measure on an annual basis given that it takes a long time to demonstrate change. The next step involves selecting the indicators that you will use to monitor and evaluate your program. What is an indicator? An indicator is a specific, observable and measurable characteristic that can be used to show whether a program is making changes toward achieving a specific outcome. There should be at least one indicator for each outcome. The indicator should be focused, clear and specific. The change measured by the indicator should represent progress (hopefully) that the program has made. 50

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