THE OPIUM WAR(1839-1842)British East India Company The war following is anstarted to trade opium, and a embarrassing loss for China,loss of silver imports and an and marks the beginning ofincrease in societal problems foreign intrusion(Bentley andforced action(Bentley and Ziegler).Ziegler).Trade doesn’t stop, so militarydumps tons of the drug,enraging BEIC, and thereforeBritain(Bentley and Ziegler).
SPHERES OF INFLUENCEThe British force the Chinese to sign what was called the unequaltreaty, allowing Britain to trade as they wish, and carve their ownsphere of influence.Other European powers, as well as the US, follow Britain’sexample, and soon China is filled with foreign influence andmerchants.This leads to numerous rebellions, such as the Nanjing rebellion,which nearly took down the Qing dynasty. These were theforerunners to the movement that would take the dynastydown(Bentley an Ziegler).
THE FIRST REVOLUTIONIn 1908, the empress Dowager Cixi died, placing a young child,Puyi, on the throne of a crumbling dynasty with an incompetentregent(“ChineseRevolution”).The revolt was triggered by foreign stockholders blocking thecompletion of a railroad, causing riots, and eventually mutiny inWuchang, followed by many more cities(“Chinese Revolution”).The regent, in panic, allowed the adoption of a constitution, andasked Yuan Shikal, a former viceroy, to come out of retirement tosave the dynasty(“Chinese Revolution”).
THE ESTABLISHMENT OF REPUBLICSun Yat-sen: leader ofrevolutionaries >set up aprovisional republican governmentin Nanjing and electedpresident(“Chinese Revolution”).Yuan called for negotiations for anew government with therepublicans. the government wasmade a republic, led by Yuan withLi Yuanhong, a leader of theWuchang uprising, as vice-president(“Chinese Revolution”).
THE FALL OF THE REPUBLICYuan abused the system by signingtreaties with other nations andforming armies without parliament’sconsent(“History of Republic”).Yuan named self emperor of China,which did not go with China and LiYuanhong becamepresident(“History of Republic”).regional warlords began their rise topower, which they would retain for adecade(“History of Republic”).
WWI DISPUTEWhen WWI broke, the vice-president Duan Qirui wanted to jointhe allies, but President Li did not. The debating became sointense, Duan was kicked out of office(“History of Republic”).Duan’s warlord allies declared independence and requested Listep down. Li asked general Zhang Xun to mediateissue(“History of Republic”).Zhang had his own agenda of restoring the Qing dynasty, so,aided by German funding, he put Puyi on the throne on July 11917(“History of Republic”).
China in DisarrayDuan marched on Beijing and defeated Zhang’s forces. Duanthen sent China into war with Germany and Austo-Hungary(“History of Republic”).Duan ignored the constitution like his predecessors anddissolved the parliament(“History of Republic”).The South revolted by forming a new government, theKuomintang, in Guangzhou led by Sun Yat-sen and hisConstitutional Protection Army, which put Sun as militaryleader(“History of Republic”).
Constitutional Protection WarThe Northern warlords got sick of the war and forcedDuan to resign so negotiations could begin(“History ofRepublic”).In the South, members of Sun’s government dislikedSun’s total power, so a cabinet was elected(“History ofRepublic”).
May Fourth MovementA national movement led bystudents from 1917 to1923,protesting against the manyissues plaguing the nationincluding, WWI involvement(Treaty of Versailles not signed) Constitutional Protection War Warlordism
The KuomintangIn 1921, Sun returned to the KMT aspresident, and got Soviet support(“Historyof Republic”).Sun was soon ousted and replaced byChiang Kai-shek. The Soviets had the KMTand newly founded Chinese CommunistParty unite(“History of Republic”).This united party allowed Chiang to invadeNorth in 1925, which stalled as divisions inthe party grew(”History of Republic”).
Chiang’s RiseChiang limited the CCP’s powerin the party(“History ofRepublic”).The CCP and KMT’s left wingmade a new capital in Wuhan,and Chiang made a new capital inNanjing(“History of Republic”).China now split between threecapitals; Beijing, Wuhan,Nanjing.
China’s Communist PartyAfter their capital was established, they startedencouraging insurrections in rural and urbanareas.Most notably was the Autumn Harvest Uprising inthe Hunan province. It was led by Mao Zedong,co-founder of the CCP(“History of Republic”).By 1928, Chiang was in control of most of China,and kicked the CCP out of Wuhan during theEncirclement campaign. This set the stage for theLong March, led by Mao Zedong, which was aNorthward 8,000 mile retreat(Szczepanski)
The Nanjing Decade(1928-1937)A short period of reform dominated by the KMT including regaining power to set own tariffs modernization of Chinese infrastructure Modern Standard Chinese women’s rights the decade was also marked by the pushing back of warlords to China’s limits and conflicts with Soviets in the West.
The Second Sino-Japanese WarIn 1931, Japan took Manchuria>ex-Emperor Puyi head of puppet-state(“History of Republic”).Japan continued to march throughNorthern China, as the KMT waspre-occupied with tracking downthe remnants of the CCP(“Historyof Republic”).Chiang was forced to work with theCCP against the Japanese, savingthe CCP(“History of Republic”).
Spread of CommunismThe united front never was very united> distrusted each otherThe Republic of China arose from WWII on theverge of civil war, since there was no need forcooperation.The economy collapsed under the weight ofnational debt from foreign and internalstrife(“History of Republic”).
Foreign InterestThe United States and Britainwanted China to be a strong allyin East Asia, so they revised theunequal treaties, and the USthrew out its anti-Chineseimmigration laws(“History ofRepublic”).US settles a truce betweenfactions, but fighting starts soonafterwards. goal to prevent war abandoned
Civil War3 year civil war>>>>War of Liberation(of Chaing)20 July 1946>>>>KMT invasion of Communist NorthSuccessful at first, but tide turned in 1947 as Communistsstaged a huge counter-attack(“Civil War”).
The Exodus21 April, 1949, CCP armycrosses Yangtze River, takeNanjing two days later(“CivilWar”).The KMT retreat to Taiwan,where they remained
Mao and the People’s RepublicOn October 1 1949, Mao announced establishment of ThePeople’s Republic of China(Szczepanski). End of the worst,right?From 1949 to 1953 mass executions of landowners and“rightists”(remember communists and left wing united), such ascapitalists, commences, estimated death toll>1million(Szczepanski)Mao bans all parties but CCP, and becomespresident(Szczepanski).
More “Reformation”Implemented First Five Year Plan(1953-58) designed toencourage industrialization, industry is owned bypublic(Szczepanski).Insidious Hundred Flowers Campaign-in an effort to root outdissidents, Mao encourages criticism ofgovernment(Szczepanski).Second Five Year Plan: Great Leap Forward, redistribution offarm land, ending in catastophe as farmers are overwhelmed,possibly 20 million starve to death(Szczepanski).
The Cultural RevolutionMao replaced as president soon after total failure of ironicallynamed Great Leap Forward(but still CCP leader, and verypowerful)In 1965, Mao starts the Cultural Revolution to reassert hispower in China by influencing the youth to have them condemnthe new upper classes(“Cultural Revolution”). Mao envisioned a China as a single class. Led to violence towards foreign embassies and upper classes by the Red Guard(bands of youth).
The End of an EraIn 1968, Liu Shao-chi, president of the republic, was expelledfrom the party, which Mao found satisfactory ending the turmoiland violence towards “priveleged” classes(“CulturalRevolution”).In 9 years Mao would be dead, and the end of an era with it. TheRevolution finally ended, as China quickly modernized, catchingup with the rest of the world.