THE OPIUM WAR(1839-1842)British East India Company The war following is anstarted to trade opium, and a embarrassing loss for China,loss of silver imports forced and marks the beginning ofaction from China(Bentley foreign intrusion(Bentley andand Ziegler). Ziegler).Military dumps tons of thedrug, enraging Britain(Bentleyand Ziegler).
SPHERES OF INFLUENCEThe British force the Chinese to sign what was called theunequal treaty, allowing Britain to trade as they wish, and carvetheir own sphere of influence.Other colonial empires follow Britain’s exampleThis exploitation leads to numerous rebellions, such as theNanjing rebellion, which nearly took down the Qing dynasty.These were the forerunners to the movement that would takethe dynasty down(Bentley an Ziegler).
THE FIRST REVOLUTIONIn 1908, the empress died, placing a young child on thethrone of a crumbling dynasty(“ChineseRevolution”).The revolt was triggered by drama between foreign railroadcontractors and China, causing riots, and eventually mutiny,starting in Wuchang(“Chinese Revolution”).The incompetent regent, in panic, asked Yuan Shikal, a formerviceroy, to come out of retirement to save thedynasty(“Chinese Revolution”).
THE ESTABLISHMENT OF REPUBLICSun Yat-sen: leader ofrevolutionaries(“ChineseRevolution”).Yuan negotiated w/revolutionaries, form arepublic, led by Yuan with LiYuanhong as vice-president(“ChineseRevolution”).
THE FALL OF THE REPUBLICYuan abused the system to thepoint where he called himselfemperor. Didnt last(“Historyof Republic”).Regional warlords began theirrise to power during thisepisode(“History ofRepublic”).
WWI DISPUTEWhen WWI broke, the vice-president Duan Qirui wanted tojoin the allies, but President Li did not. The debating becameso intense, Duan was kicked out of office(“History ofRepublic”).Duan’s warlord allies declared independence(“History ofRepublic”).
China in DisarrayDuan defeated Republic’s forces and sent China into war withGermany(“History of Republic”).Duan ignored the constitution and dissolved theparliament(“History of Republic”).The South revolted by forming a new government, theKuomintang, in Guangzhou led by Sun Yat-sen, sparkingConstitutional Protection War(“History of Republic”).
May Fourth MovementA national movement led bystudents from 1917 to1923,protesting against the manyissues plaguing the nationincluding, WWI involvement Constitutional Protection War Warlordism
The KuomintangIn 1921, Sun got Sovietsupport(“History of Republic”).Sun was soon ousted and replaced byChiang Kai-shek. The Soviets had theKMT and newly founded ChineseCommunist Party unite(“History ofRepublic”).This united party allowed Chiang to invadeNorth in 1925, which stalled as divisionsin the party grew(”History of Republic”).
Chiang’s RiseThe CCP and KMT’s left wingmade a new capital inWuhan, and Chiang made anew capital inNanjing(“History ofRepublic”).China now split between threecapitals; Beijing, Wuhan,Nanjing.
China’s Communist PartyAfter their capital was established, theystarted encouraging insurrections inrural and urban areas.Most notably was the Autumn HarvestUprising in the Hunan province. It was ledby Mao Zedong(“History of Republic”).By 1928, Chiang was in control of most ofChina, and dominated the CCP. This setthe stage for the Long March, led by MaoZedong, which was a Northward 8,000mile retreat(Szczepanski)
The Nanjing Decade(1928-1937)A short period of reform dominated by the KMT including regaining power to set own tariffs modernization of Chinese infrastructure Modern Standard Chinese women’s rights the decade was also marked by the pushing back of warlords to China’s limits.
The Second Sino-Japanese WarChiang was forced to workwith the CCP against theJapanese, saving the CCPfrom annihilation(“Historyof Republic”).
Spread of CommunismThe Republic of China(KMT) arose fromWWII on the verge of civil war, since there wasno need for cooperation.The economy collapsed under the weight ofnational debt from foreign and internalstrife(“History of Republic”).
Foreign InterestThe United States and Britainwanted China to be a strongally in East Asia, so theyrevised the unequaltreaties, and the US threwout its anti-Chineseimmigration laws(“Historyof Republic”).
The ExodusA three-year civil war(Warof Liberation) quicklyfollows end of WW2. Endsin KMT defeat.The KMT retreat to Taiwan,where they remained
Mao and the People’s RepublicOn October 1 1949, Mao announced establishment of ThePeople’s Republic of China(Szczepanski). End of the worst,right?From 1949 to 1953 mass executions of landowners andnoncommunist commences; estimated death toll:1million(Szczepanski)Mao bans all parties but CCP, and becomespresident(Szczepanski).
More “Reformation”Implemented First Five Year Plan(1953-58) designed toencourage industrialization, industry is owned bypublic(Szczepanski).Second Five Year Plan: Great Leap Forward, redistributionof farm land, ending in catastophe as farmers areoverwhelmed, possibly 20 million starve todeath(Szczepanski).
The Cultural RevolutionMao replaced as president soon after total failure of ironically named GreatLeap Forward(but still CCP leader, and very powerful)In 1965, Mao starts the Cultural Revolution to reassert his power inChina by influencing the youth to have them condemn the new upperclasses(“Cultural Revolution”). Mao envisioned a China as a single class, and tried to reignite revolutionary spirit. Led to violence towards foreign embassies and upper classes by the Red Guard(bands of youth). loss of a generation of educated people for China
The End of an EraIn 1968, Mao allowed theturmoil and violence towards“priveleged” classes toend(“Cultural Revolution”).In 9 years Mao would be dead,and the end of an era with it.The Revolution finally ended, asChina quickly modernized,catching up with the rest of theworld.