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2010 araujo et al   stranding of masturus lanceolatus
2010 araujo et al   stranding of masturus lanceolatus
2010 araujo et al   stranding of masturus lanceolatus
2010 araujo et al   stranding of masturus lanceolatus
2010 araujo et al   stranding of masturus lanceolatus
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2010 araujo et al stranding of masturus lanceolatus

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  • 1. Marine Biodiversity Records, page 1 of 5. # Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 2010 doi:10.1017/S1755267210000588; Vol. 3; e69; 2010 Published online Stranding of Masturus lanceolatus (Actinopterygii: Molidae) in the estuary of the Una River, Pernambuco, Brazil: natural and anthropogenic causes m.e. araujo1, e.c. silva-falcao1, p.d. falcao2, v.m. marques1 and i.r. joca3 ’ ~ ~ 1 Departamento de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50730-540 Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil, 2Veterinary (voluntary researcher) and 3Grupo de Ictiologia MarinhaTropical, 50730-540 Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil Molidae are tropical marine teleosts that occur in all oceans. Among the species described, Masturus lanceolatus is considered rare on the Brazilian coast, with only four records found in scientific publications. The present study reports the first occur- rence of this species for the coast of the State of Pernambuco (north-eastern Brazil) and discusses the possible causes of its ˜ ´ being stranded. The specimen was found alive in the estuary of the Una River in the city of Sao Jose da Coroa Grande on the southern coast of the state. The fish was unknown to the local community of fishermen, who considered it a ‘bad omen’. The occurrence led to an environmental education project in the community carried out by members of the Tropical Marine Ichthyology Group, which carried out an inspection, documentation, analysis of external injuries and collec- tion of viscera for the subsequent histological analysis. After undergoing taxidermy, the specimen was donated to the Una Museum. Analysis revealed that the fish suffered from an intense inflammatory process of the liver caused by polycystosis of nematodes and Trypanorhyncha, which resulted in malnutrition, as observed by the low body weight. Moreover, a likely stranding left the specimen more vulnerable to different species of shark, which mutilated it, hindering its locomotion. This fish appears to have drifted and was thrown against the reefs near the estuary before its stranding. Keywords: sunfish, river, first record, fishermen, north-eastern Brazil Submitted 9 March 2010; accepted 28 April 2010 INTRODUCTION These fish are frequently infected with the larvae of worms (Arru et al., 1991) and are well-known for their impressive The family Molidae comprises species of epipelagic fish com- parasite load. Forty different genera of parasites have been monly known as molas or ocean sunfish, which are distributed reported in a single species (Volgelinest, 2006). in warm, tropical waters in all oceans (Matsuura, 2002). Only Masturus lanceolatus, commonly known as the sharptail three species were described for this family: Ranzania laevis mola, has broad distribution in the western Atlantic, occurring (Pennant, 1776), Mola mola (Linnaeus, 1758) and Masturus from Nova Scotia to south-eastern Brazil (Klein-MacPhee, ´ lanceolatus Lienard, 1840. A recent genetic and biogeographi- 2002; Menezes, 2003). Records of occurrence in Brazil, cal study confirmed the existence of a fourth species, Mola however, are rare and the species is only cited for the states ramsayi (Giglioli, 1883), which is restricted to the southern ˜ ´ of Sao Paulo, Ceara (Figueiredo & Menezes, 2000) and hemisphere (Parenti, 2003; Bass et al., 2005). Despite their Bahia. Only two specimens are deposited in ichthyologic col- broad distribution, studies on the biology of these species lections in Brazil (Lopes et al., 2004). are rare in Brazil and the majority involve the analysis of Recently Ahid et al. (2009) published an article on a speci- individuals stranded on the shore either dead or severely men of Mola mola stranded in the Brazilian State of Rio Grande debilitated (Lopes et al., 2004; Ahid et al., 2009). do Norte. However, the photograph clearly shows the clavus in Morphologically, molas are considered the heaviest living the shape of a lance, which characterizes it as M. lanceolatus. marine teleosts and have a very tall, laterally flat body. The The aims of the present study are to analyse the possible dorsal and anal fins are used for propulsion and the caudal causes of the stranding of a sharptail mola and record the first fin is modified in a structure called a clavus. The mouth is occurrence of M. lanceolatus for the coast of Pernambuco very small and the teeth are united in the form of a beak State, Brazil. (Parenti, 2003). Molidae feed mainly on zooplankton, but also jellyfish, algae, crustaceans and fish (Parenti, 2003); juveniles feed on benthic invertebrate (Matsuura, 2002). MATERIALS AND METHODS Characterization of the area Corresponding author: ´ M.E. Araujo ˜ ´ The estuary of the Una River is located at Sao Jose da Coroa Email: elisabeth.araujo@ufpe.br Grande on the southern coast of the State of Pernambuco, 1
  • 2. 2 ’ m.e. arau jo et al. 123 km from Recife (State capital). Its margins are colonized by 0900 on 15 September 2006. The fish was being tossed by mangrove forests. Tidal plains form at the mouth of the river, the waves in the surf zone. It was quite debilitated, but along with a sandbar parallel with the coast. Reefs are abundant still alive. The fish was unknown to the fishermen and their throughout the coast and are located approximately 400 m from colleagues, who wanted to either burn or bury it, thinking the mouth of the river. The stranding occurred on the left margin that it was a ‘bad omen’. Native fishermen called the of the delta approximately 120 m from the coastline at the coor- team from the Tropical Marine Ichthyology Group (IMAT) dinates 8852′ 42.18′′ S 35808′ 17.85′′ W (Figure 1). to help them. Two researchers of IMAT, coordinated by ´ M.E. Araujo, together with other researchers, including the Description of specimen and external injuries authors, went to the site to: (1) identify the specimen; (2) reas- sure the population; and (3) conserve the fish on ice until the The examination of the external injuries was initially arrival of the taxidermist (I.R. Joca). The IMAT acquired the performed at the stranding site and subsequently through specimen and donated it to the Una Museum, where it is cur- photographs taken on the day of the capture. Investigations rently on display (Figure 2). were made into the causes of the injuries through a compara- The occurrence was reported by national newspapers and tive analysis of data published in scientific journals. For television news due to the fact that this fish is rare, not only the identification of shark bites, specialist Dr Paulo to the local population of the small beach, but also to the Guilherme Vasconcelos de Oliveira, adjunct professor of the scientific community. Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, was consulted, It is possible that the specimen described here died prema- along with bibliographic resources. turely, as its age was estimated at 20 years, using a calculation based on the von Bertalanffy curve presented by Liu et al. Preparation of histological slides (2009). According to the authors, M. lanceolatus longevity is estimated at 105 and 82 years for females and males, respect- After being collected and fixed in 10% formalin, fragments ively. While molas have k-strategie characteristics, such as were removed from the oesophagus, stomach, intestine, liver slow growth and late maturation, they also have the greatest and heart (auricle and ventricle). The samples were submitted fecundity among existing vertebrates, with as many as to routine histological techniques. Tissues were dehydrated in 300,000,000 eggs (Parenti, 2003). an increasing concentration of alcohol, diaphanized in xylol, The specimen described here was male, measured 170 cm embedded in paraffin, cut on a microtome to micro-sections and weighed 78 kg. The three other specimens found in 5 mm in thickness and stained with haematoxylin –eosin ˜ Bahia (Lopes et al., 2004), Sao Paulo (Figueiredo & (HE) (Maia, 1979) for mounting on slides. Menezes, 2000) and Rio Grande do Norte (Ahid et al., 2009) measured 112 cm, 170 cm and 93 cm and weighed RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 50 kg, 119 kg and 24 kg, respectively. Comparing the body mass index (BMI) of these specimens, the fish from The specimen of Masturus lanceolatus was found by three Pernambuco was the thinnest (BMI ¼ 27) and the specimen local fishermen in the estuary of the Una River at about from Sao Paulo was the fattest (BMI ¼ 41.2). ˜ Along with the low body weight, a set of factors suggest the reasons for the stranding: (1) high parasite load in the liver; (2) net entanglement followed by stress; (3) susceptibility to shark attacks, with mutilation of the fins; (4) locomotion difficulty stemming from mutilated fins; and (5) body striking the reefs that form a barrier before arriving at the site where the specimen was found. The histopathological study of fragments from the oeso- phagus, stomach, intestine and heart revealed no noteworthy alterations. The liver had numerous cists from nematodes and cestodes from the order Trypanorhyncha in the hepatic Fig. 1. Location of stranding of Masturus lanceolatus in the estuary of the Una ˜ ´ Fig. 2. Specimen of Masturus lanceolatus on display at Una Museum (Sao Jose River, Pernambuco, Brazil. da Coroa Grande, PE) following taxidermy.
  • 3. stranding of sunfish in the una estuary, brazil 3 Fig. 3. Some results of the histopathological study of the specimen of Masturus lanceolatus, stranding on Una River, Pernambuco: (A) macroscopic view of liver with numerous cysts from parasites; (B) worm polycytosis in hepatic parenchyma (magnification: 10×); (C) leukocyte infiltrate (magnification: 10×); (D) dilation of artery (left side) and encapsulated parasite (right side) (magnification: 10×); (E) transversal concentric hyaline formation similar to encapsulated nematode (magnification: 40×); (F) macroscopic view of cestode from the order Trypanorhyncha. parenchyma, with perforation of the stroma of the organ, hepatic parenchyma, leukocyte infiltrates (Figure 3C) and allowing a view of the cysts externally (Figure 3A). On dilation of arteries (Figure 3D). average, each cyst contained one parasite, as reported by Encysted nematodes inhabit different tissues in fish, Rodrigues et al. (2002) in fish from the family Characidae. causing cell disorganization and a variable amount of phago- The liver exhibited parenchyma loss due to the presence of cyte cells and lymphocyte infiltrates (Eiras & Rego, 1989). The worm polycytosis (Figure 3B). Several transversal concentric erratic migration of nematode larvae in viscera such as the hyaline formations similar to nematodes were observed liver is not uncommon (Roberts, 2001). In the intermediate (Figure 3E). The cysts were enveloped by a fibrous capsule host, the larvae are found either floating freely or encapsulated of conjunctive tissue and some exhibited invasion of the in the abdominal cavity or adhered to the liver (Moravec, ˜ ´ Fig. 4. External injuries on specimen of Masturus lanceolatus captured live in the estuary of Una River (Sao Jose da Coroa Grande, PE). (A, B) Scratches; (E & H) rashes; (G) x-shape mark and linear cut with knife; (C, D & F) shark bites.
  • 4. 4 ’ m.e. arau jo et al. 1998), as found in the liver of the specimen described here. this marine zone where reefs are concentrated, over which Post mortem studies of the Mola mola revealed multifocal molas pass when needing to clean off ectoparasites, which is hepatic and renal granulomas and hepatic cysts of cestodes performed by fish from the families Chaetodontidae and (Volgelnest, 2006). Digenetic hemiurid and plerocercoid para- Pomacanthidae (Konow et al., 2006). Although the coast of sites from Trypanorhyncha were recorded in the specimen of Pernambuco has a large area of reefs, this is the first record M. lanceolatus mistakenly identified as M. mola (Ahid et al., of this species for this area. Thus, it is believed that the injuries 2009). Adults and larvae of species from this order are often supposedly caused by the specimen striking the reefs occurred found in the gastrointestinal apparatus of elasmobranchs after the shark bites, which is the main factor attributed to its and a number of teleost species (Campbell & Beveridge, stranding. ˜ 1994; Knoff et al., 2004, Sao Clemente et al., 2004, Dias et al., 2009), as found in the specimen of M. lanceolatus described here. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Although Campos et al. (2008) state that extensive eosino- philia is not usual with the inflammatory reaction of host fish The authors are grateful to the fishermen Amaro Tenorio, ´ to parasites, the intensity of encapsulated parasites in the ´ Amaro Junior and Valnencir Ferreira; to Luciano Silva who specimen of M. lanceolatus led to various points of leukocyte notified us of the stranding, thereby keeping the mola from infiltrates, thereby characterizing an inflammatory process. being buried or burned; to IMAT biologists Leonardo Bruto This condition may have led to the initial debility of the speci- and Fernando Melo for having conserved the specimen, men, making it an easy target for predation or fishing nets. photographed it on the day of capture and interviewed the Fishing net marks in the form of an ‘x’ were found on the fishermen; to Bertrando Bernardino, Ricardo G. Ferreira, J. epidermis of the specimen (Figure 4G), revealing that the fish Barbosa de Andrade and his wife for the logistic and financial must have been imprisoned in a fishing net and suffered stress ´ ´ support; to J. Carlos Tenorio, Diogo Tenorio, Jailton Batista and trauma, which further aggravated its state of health and and Lucilo Marinho for help with the transportation, main- enabled attacks from predators and parasites. Accidental tenance and taxidermy of the specimen; and to the Brazilian entanglement in fishing gear is one of the main threats to fostering agency CNPq for the grant given to the first author. mola populations, as species from the family are often reported as by-catch in lone-line fisheries (Joung et al., 2005) and drift nets (Akiol et al., 2005). REFERENCES Both recent and old shark bites of different shapes and origins were found during the external analysis of the speci- Ahid S.M.M., Filgueira K.D., Fonseca Z.A.A.S., Soto-Blanco B. and men. One bite mark was typical of some species of cigar ˆ Oliveira M.F. (2009) Ocorrencia de parasitismo em Mola mola shark from the genus Isistius. The specimen had a circular ´ (Linnaeus, 1758) por metazoarios no litoral do Rio Grande do orifice that was apparently recent, as the skin that covered Norte, Brasil. Acta Veterinaria Brasilica 3, 43–47. the area was still attached to the upper margin of the injury Akiol O., Erdem M., Unal V. and Ceyham T. (2005) Investigations on (Figure 4D). The concentration of bites on the sides of the drift-net fishery for swordfish (Xiphias gladius L.) in the Aegean Sea. body was likely due to the fact that these areas are the Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences 29, 1225–1231. largest and most easily accessed in this type of attack (Souto Arru E., Garippa G. and Sanna E. (1991) Molicola horridus in Luvaris et al., 2007). These sharks may be considered temporary ecto- imperialis and Mola mola. 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