course System Design for Sustainability
subject 3. System design for eco-efficiency


learning resource 3.4
Designing tran...
CONTENTS
. ECO-EFFICIENT PSS: DIFFUSION BARRIERS
. ECO-EFFICIENT PSS: HOW TO FACILITATE THE
  INTRODUCTION AND DIFFUSION?
...
ECO-EFFICIENT PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEMS
                                                         PSS




                   ...
ECO-EFFICIENT PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEMS

(POTENTIALLY) WIN-WIN SOLUTIONS:
IT’S THE ECONOMIC AND COMPETITIVE INTEREST THAT
PU...
EE-PSS: KNOWLEDGE PRODUCED
                                                                        ECO-EFFICIENT
         ...
PSS CONCEPT IS A PROMISING WIN-WIN
                SOLUTION

     SEVERAL PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEM
  INNOVATIONS (WITH CHARA...
EE-PSS: DIFFUSION BARRIERS

             DESIGN                                                                   IMPLEMEN...
LET’S LOOK AT SOME REAL CASES




Fabrizio Ceschin
Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
EE-PSS: diffusion barriers
PAY-PER-USE (ARISTON+ENEL)
                                     After 2 pilot projects (in 2001...
EE-PSS: diffusion barriers
EVERGREEN LEASE (INTERFACE FLOORING SYSTEM)
                                     The solution w...
EE-PSS: diffusion barriers
[UNEP, 2002; Mont, 2002; 2004; Tukker & Tischner, 2006]


FOR COMPANIES
. ORGANISATIONAL RESIST...
EE-PSS: diffusion barriers
[UNEP, 2002; Mont, 2002; 2004; Tukker & Tischner, 2006]


FOR USERS / CUSTOMERS
. DIFFICULTIES ...
EE-PSS: diffusion barriers
[UNEP, 2002; Mont, 2002; 2004; Tukker & Tischner, 2006]


FOR GOVERNAMENTAL INSTITUTIONS
. DIFF...
ECO-EFFICIENT PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEMS


RADICAL INNOVATIONS THAT (IN MOST OF THE
CASES) CHALLENGE:


. USER HABITS (CULTUR...
ECO-EFFICIENT PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEMS

HIGHLY UNCERTAIN AND RISKY INNOVATIONS

THAT CANNOT BE IMPLEMENTED IN THE SAME
WAY ...
WHICH IS THE MOST EFFECTIVE STRATEGY
  TO IMPLEMENT ECO-EFFICIENT PSS?
     WHICH ARE THE FACTORS THAT
     FACILITATE AND...
LET’S SEE A PRELIMINARY EXAMPLE




Fabrizio Ceschin
Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
CLEAR CHANNEL OUTDOOR – Bike Sharing System




      Fabrizio Ceschin
      Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / ...
CLEAR CHANNEL OUTDOOR – Bike Sharing System


Implementation and diffusion path



Idea birth        The idea is          ...
CLEAR CHANNEL OUTDOOR – Bike Sharing System

FACTORS THAT FACILITATED THE IMPLEMENTATION
AND DIFFUSION

. ABILITY IN PRESE...
WHICH IS THE MOST EFFECTIVE STRATEGY TO
         IMPLEMENT ECO-EFFICIENT PSS?
   WHICH ARE THE FACTORS THAT FACILITATE AND...
EE-PSS IMPLEMENTATION AND DIFFUSION
KEY FACTORS

                                                                   CLEAR ...
EE-PSS IMPLEMENTATION AND DIFFUSION
KEY FACTORS

                                                                   Finnis...
EE-PSS IMPLEMENTATION AND DIFFUSION
KEY FACTORS

                                                                   INTERF...
EE-PSS IMPLEMENTATION AND DIFFUSION
KEY FACTORS

                                                                   CLEAR ...
EE-PSS IMPLEMENTATION AND DIFFUSION
KEY FACTORS

                                                                   QURREN...
EE-PSS IMPLEMENTATION AND DIFFUSION
KEY FACTORS

                                                                   EGO – ...
EE-PSS IMPLEMENTATION AND DIFFUSION
KEY FACTORS

                                                                   QURREN...
EE-PSS IMPLEMENTATION AND DIFFUSION
KEY FACTORS

                          SOCIO-                              QURRENT – S...
EE-PSS IMPLEMENTATION AND DIFFUSION
KEY FACTORS

                          SOCIO-                              EGO – Ecolo...
EE-PSS IMPLEMENTATION AND DIFFUSION
KEY FACTORS

                          SOCIO-
                                        ...
EE-PSS IMPLEMENTATION AND DIFFUSION
KEY FACTORS

                                                                QURRENT –...
EE-PSS IMPLEMENTATION AND DIFFUSION
KEY FACTORS

                                                                CLEAR CHA...
EE-PSS IMPLEMENTATION AND DIFFUSION
KEY FACTORS
                                                     who
                 ...
EE-PSS IMPLEMENTATION AND DIFFUSION
TRANSITION PATH
STAKEHOLDERS ARENA (AND ITS EVOLUTION IN TIME)




TRANSITION PATH


 ...
IMPLEMENTAZIONE E DIFFUSIONE DI EE-PSS
                                                           A dynamic and cyclical
 ...
ROLE OF DESIGN IN EE-PSS
IMPLEMENTATION AND DIFFUSION
DESIGN APPROACH:
DESIGN TRANSITION PATHS TOWARDS
SUSTAINABILITY

The...
ROLE OF DESIGN IN EE-PSS
IMPLEMENTATION AND DIFFUSION

ROLE OF DESIGN:

> DESIGN the SEQUENCE OF SOCIO-TECHNICAL
  EXPERIM...
FIRST APPLICATIONS OF THE DESIGN
            APPROACH
             (DIS/INDACO PROJECTS)




 Fabrizio Ceschin
 Politecnic...
SYSTEM DESIGN FOR                                                       Politecnico di
                                   ...
POLIMI-DIS ROLE WITHIN THE PROJECT
SYSTEM DESIGN FOR                                             Politecnico di Milano
SUS...
AIM OF THE PROJECT

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENT A SUSTAINABLE MOBILITY
SYSTEM FOR THE TRANSPORTATION OF PEOPLE WITH
DISABILITIES
...
OFFERING DIAGRAM




Fabrizio Ceschin
Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
STAKEHOLDERS SYSTEM MAP
                                     DESIGN /
DESIGN                               PRODUCTION
SUPP...
TRANSITION PATH

THE APPROACH FOCUSES NOT ONLY IN DESIGNING THE PSS
SOLUTION, BUT ALSO THE PROPER CONDITIONS TO FOSTER
THE...
TRANSITION PATH
               1
       START-UP
    Setting-up of
        two multi-
      stakeholder
  networks (one
 A...
TRANSITION PATH
                2
            PILOT
     PROJECT/S
 DEVELOPMENT
       To test and
  experiment the
design...
TRANSITION PATH
                2
            PILOT
     PROJECT/S
 DEVELOPMENT
       To test and
  experiment the
      ...
TRANSITION PATH
              3
SELF-STANDING
     SOLUTION
 DEVELOPMENT
     The solution
    become self-
    standing a...
TRANSITION PATH
               4
  BRANCHING
AND SCALING-
               UP
    local partner
  could act as a
      platf...
DESIGN TRANSITION PATHS TOWARDS
         SUSTAINABILITY:
                                NEXT STEPS




  Fabrizio Ceschin...
DESIGN TRANSITION PATHS TOWARDS
SUSTAINABILITY


NEXT STEPS:

> DEVELOP SPECIFIC METHODS AND TOOLS to
 effectively support...
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Design transition paths towards sustainability

  1. 1. course System Design for Sustainability subject 3. System design for eco-efficiency learning resource 3.4 Designing transition paths towards sustainability fabrizio ceschin politecnico di milano . dip. INDACO . DIS . facoltà del design . Italia Learning Network on Sustainability Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  2. 2. CONTENTS . ECO-EFFICIENT PSS: DIFFUSION BARRIERS . ECO-EFFICIENT PSS: HOW TO FACILITATE THE INTRODUCTION AND DIFFUSION? . Key factors . A promising model . ROLE OF DESIGN IN SUPPORTING THE INTRODUCTION AND DIFFUSION OF ECO-EFFICIENT PSS . Design approach . Examples Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  3. 3. ECO-EFFICIENT PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEMS PSS actors network product/s service/s “A system of products, services, supporting networks and infrastructure that is designed to be: competitive [and] satisfy customer needs” [Mont, 2001] IF PROPERLY DEVELOPED AND IMPLEMENTED a PSS can decouple value creation from material and energy consumption and therefore reduce (even radically) the environmental impacts compared to the traditional product- based offers Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  4. 4. ECO-EFFICIENT PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEMS (POTENTIALLY) WIN-WIN SOLUTIONS: IT’S THE ECONOMIC AND COMPETITIVE INTEREST THAT PUSH COMPANY/IES TO REDUCE THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT (SYSTEM ECO-EFFICIENCY) SYSTEM INNOVATION IS POTENTIALLY: . WINNING FOR THE PRODUCER(S)/PROVIDER(S) . WINNING FOR THE USER . WINNING FOR THE ENVIRONMENT Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  5. 5. EE-PSS: KNOWLEDGE PRODUCED ECO-EFFICIENT PSS SusHouse, HiCS, Highly MEPSS, MEthodology ProSecCo, SusProNet, Sustainable Customerised for Product Service Product Service Network on Household Solutions System development Co-design sustainable PSS [see Vergragt et [see Manzini et [see van Halen et al. development al. 2000] al. 2004] 2005] [see Tukker &Tischner, 2006] METHODS DESIGN TOOLS Storyboard Diagnosis module Motivation matrix SDO toolkit Opportunity module Polarities System map diagram Solution elements Offering Implementation module Poster System assessment diagram Interaction table Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  6. 6. PSS CONCEPT IS A PROMISING WIN-WIN SOLUTION SEVERAL PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEM INNOVATIONS (WITH CHARACTERSITICS OF SUSTAINABILITY) HAVE BEEN IMPLEMENTED IN THE LAST YEARS BY COMPANIES THE CONCEPT OF PSS HAS BEEN DEEPLY EXPLORED ON A THEORETICAL LEVEL AND IT HAS BEEN UNDERSTOOD HOW TO DESIGN A SUSTAINABLE SYSTEM INNOVATION WHY THE SUSTAINABLE PSS ARE NOT YET DIFFUSED? Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  7. 7. EE-PSS: DIFFUSION BARRIERS DESIGN IMPLEMENTED of IMPLEMENTATION ECO-EFFICIENT PROCESS ECO-EFFICIENT PSS PSS IMPLEMENTATION/ DIFFUSION BARRIERS [UNEP, 2002; Mont, 2002; 2004; Tukker & Tischner, 2006] cultural shift FOR USER/CUSTOMERS FOR GOVERNMENTS lack of knowledge actual laws may not about life cycle costs FOR COMPANIES favour eco-efficient PSS difficulty in changing lack of design and the corporate culture management skills uncertainties about cash flows Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  8. 8. LET’S LOOK AT SOME REAL CASES Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  9. 9. EE-PSS: diffusion barriers PAY-PER-USE (ARISTON+ENEL) After 2 pilot projects (in 2001) the partnership decided to not introduce the solution on the market. Why? - USER LEVEL: ownerless consumption did not obtain the foreseen consensus - COMPANY LEVEL: eco-efficiency potentials were not understood Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  10. 10. EE-PSS: diffusion barriers EVERGREEN LEASE (INTERFACE FLOORING SYSTEM) The solution was initially offered in 1995, but only six lease agreements have been signed since then [Oliva & Quinn, 2003]. Why? - USER LEVEL: resistance towards the ownerless consumption - REGULATIVE LEVEL: obstacles regarding tax laws made the leasing of products like carpet floors not convenient for the customer Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  11. 11. EE-PSS: diffusion barriers [UNEP, 2002; Mont, 2002; 2004; Tukker & Tischner, 2006] FOR COMPANIES . ORGANISATIONAL RESISTANCE: PSS REQUIRES SHIFT IN CORPORATE CULTURE AND MARKET ENGAGEMENT . NEW DESIGN AND MANAGEMENT SKILLS ARE REQUIRED . UNCERTANTIES ABOUT CASH FLOWS: CHANGEOVER FROM SHORT- TERM PROFIT REALISATION TO MEDIUM/LONG TERM AMMORTISATION . CONFLICT OF INTERESTS BETWEEN COMPANIES AND RETAILERS . DIFFICULTIES IN UNDERSTANDING ECO-EFFICIENCY POTENTIALS Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  12. 12. EE-PSS: diffusion barriers [UNEP, 2002; Mont, 2002; 2004; Tukker & Tischner, 2006] FOR USERS / CUSTOMERS . DIFFICULTIES IN GAINING CUSTOMER ACCEPTANCE ON OWNERLESS SOLUTIONS (ESPECIALLY IN B2C MARKETS) . LACK OF KNOWLEDGE ABOUT LIFE CYCLE COSTS OF PRODUCT OWNERSHIP, AND CONSEQUENT DIFFICULTY IN UNDERSTANDING THE ECONOMICAL BENEFITS OF A OWNERLESS CONSUMPTION Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  13. 13. EE-PSS: diffusion barriers [UNEP, 2002; Mont, 2002; 2004; Tukker & Tischner, 2006] FOR GOVERNAMENTAL INSTITUTIONS . DIFFICULTY IN UNDERSTANDING THE ECONOMICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ADVANTAGES LINKED TO THIS KIND OF SOLUTION. THIS DETERMINES: . DIFFICULTY IN MODIFYING CURRENT LAWS AND NORMS THAT MAY NOT FAVOUR PSS ORIENTED SOLUTIONS . DIFFICULTIES IN IMPLEMENTING POLICIES TO PROMOTE THE DIFFUSION OF PSS ORIENTED TO SUSTAINABILITY (FOR EX. COST INTERNALISATION) Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  14. 14. ECO-EFFICIENT PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEMS RADICAL INNOVATIONS THAT (IN MOST OF THE CASES) CHALLENGE: . USER HABITS (CULTURAL BARRIERS) . COMPANY ORGANISATION MODELS (CORPORATE BARRIERS) . THE REGULATIVE /LEGISLATIVE CONTEXTS (REGULATIVE BARRIERS) Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  15. 15. ECO-EFFICIENT PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEMS HIGHLY UNCERTAIN AND RISKY INNOVATIONS THAT CANNOT BE IMPLEMENTED IN THE SAME WAY AS INCREMENTAL INNOVATIONS Incremental innovation development process [Lar do et al. 2002] STRATEGIC CONCEPT PROTOTYPE MARKET ENGINEERING ANALYSIS DEVELOPMENT AND TEST LAUNCH DESIGN MARKET LAUNCH Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  16. 16. WHICH IS THE MOST EFFECTIVE STRATEGY TO IMPLEMENT ECO-EFFICIENT PSS? WHICH ARE THE FACTORS THAT FACILITATE AND OBSTACLE THIS PROCESS? Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  17. 17. LET’S SEE A PRELIMINARY EXAMPLE Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  18. 18. CLEAR CHANNEL OUTDOOR – Bike Sharing System Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  19. 19. CLEAR CHANNEL OUTDOOR – Bike Sharing System Implementation and diffusion path Idea birth The idea is Implementatio End of pilot The PSS and PSS proposed to n of a small project and concept di concept the pilot project implementation PSS is development municipality co-financed by of a full replicated by Clear of Renne the operative in 13 cities Channel (France) municipality of service Outdoor Renne Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  20. 20. CLEAR CHANNEL OUTDOOR – Bike Sharing System FACTORS THAT FACILITATED THE IMPLEMENTATION AND DIFFUSION . ABILITY IN PRESENTING THE PROJECT IDEA UNDERLINING THE CHARACTERISTICS OF SUSTAINABILITY (FUNDAMENTAL TO INVOLVE THE MUNICIPALITY) . INVOLVEMENT OF OTHER ACTORS (MUNICIPALITY AND PUBLIC TRANSPORT COMPANY) . IMPLEMENTATION OF PILOT PROJECTS TO TEST AND IMPROVE THE SOLUTION (SOLUTION OPEN TO MODIFIES) . IMPLEMENTATION OF PILOT PROJECTS TO GIVE VISIBILITY TO THE PROJECT IDEA Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  21. 21. WHICH IS THE MOST EFFECTIVE STRATEGY TO IMPLEMENT ECO-EFFICIENT PSS? WHICH ARE THE FACTORS THAT FACILITATE AND OBSTACLE THIS PROCESS? LET’S ANSWER INTEGRATING INSIGHTS FROM OTHER DISCIPLINES: EVOLUTIONARY INNOVATION ECONOMICS MANAGEMENT macro perspective micro perspective Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  22. 22. EE-PSS IMPLEMENTATION AND DIFFUSION KEY FACTORS CLEAR CHANNEL OUTDOOR Bike sharing system BUILDING-UP AND DEVELOPMENT OF A NETWORKS OF SOCIO- ECONOMICAL ACTORS [Latour, 1987; Callon, 1991; Laredo & Mustar, 1996; Kemp et Al, 1998; Weber et Al., 1999; Cooper, 2000; Rotmans et Al., 2000; Lar do et al. 2002] Network of actor aimed at supporting the different steps linked to the innovation development and diffusion. A wide network that involves not only the actors strictly related to the innovation, but even universities and research centres, institutions and public administrations, but also NGOs and media. Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  23. 23. EE-PSS IMPLEMENTATION AND DIFFUSION KEY FACTORS Finnish Energy Service COmpanies BUILDING-UP AND DEVELOPMENT OF A NETWORKS OF SOCIO- ECONOMICAL ACTORS [Latour, 1987; Callon, 1991; Laredo & Mustar, 1996; Kemp et Al, 1998; Weber et Al., 1999; Cooper, 2000; Rotmans et Al., 2000; Lar do et al. 2002] Network of actor aimed at supporting the different steps linked to the innovation development and diffusion. A wide network that involves not only the actors strictly related to the innovation, but even universities and research centres, institutions and public administrations, but also NGOs and media. Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  24. 24. EE-PSS IMPLEMENTATION AND DIFFUSION KEY FACTORS INTERFACE FLOORING SYSTEM – Green Lease BUILDING-UP AND DEVELOPMENT OF A NETWORKS OF SOCIO- ECONOMICAL ACTORS [Latour, 1987; Callon, 1991; Laredo & Mustar, 1996; Kemp et Al, 1998; Weber et Al., 1999; Cooper, 2000; Rotmans et Al., 2000; Lar do et al. 2002] Network of actor aimed at supporting the different steps linked to the innovation development and diffusion. A wide network that involves not only the actors strictly related to the innovation, but even universities and research centres, institutions and public administrations, but also NGOs and media. Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  25. 25. EE-PSS IMPLEMENTATION AND DIFFUSION KEY FACTORS CLEAR CHANNEL OUTDOOR Bike sharing system LONG TERM VISION BUILDING [Akrich, 1992; De Laat, 1996; Kemp et Al, 1998; Rotmans et Al., 2000; Lar do et al. 2002; Quist & Vergragt, 2003] Building-up a long term vision capable to converge actors’ expectations Foundamental in order to: - involve actors - give a direction to the innovation development Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  26. 26. EE-PSS IMPLEMENTATION AND DIFFUSION KEY FACTORS QURRENT – Services for decentralised energy systems LONG TERM VISION BUILDING [Akrich, 1992; De Laat, 1996; Kemp et Al, 1998; Rotmans et Al., 2000; Lar do et al. 2002; Quist & Vergragt, 2003] Building-up a long term vision capable to converge actors’ expectations Foundamental in order to: - involve actors - give a direction to the innovation development Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  27. 27. EE-PSS IMPLEMENTATION AND DIFFUSION KEY FACTORS EGO – Ecologico Guardaroba Organizzato LONG TERM VISION BUILDING [Akrich, 1992; De Laat, 1996; Kemp et Al, 1998; Rotmans et Al., 2000; Lar do et al. 2002; Quist & Vergragt, 2003] Building-up a long term vision capable to converge actors’ expectations Foundamental in order to: - involve actors - give a direction to the innovation development Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  28. 28. EE-PSS IMPLEMENTATION AND DIFFUSION KEY FACTORS QURRENT – Services for decentralised energy systems TRANSITION AGENDA DEVELOPMENT [Rotmans et Al., 2000; Quist & Vergragt, 2003; Kemp & Rotmans, 2004] Starting from the long term vision, it’s key important to define: - objectives and actions to be undertaken on short term, - the roles of each involved actor. Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  29. 29. EE-PSS IMPLEMENTATION AND DIFFUSION KEY FACTORS SOCIO- QURRENT – Services for decentralised energy systems TECHNICAL EXPERIMENTATIO N EXECUTION [Schot & Rip, 1996; Lynn et Al., 1996; Kemp et Al., 1998; Hoogma, 2000; 2002] Implementation of socio-technical experimentations, in order to: - verify the technical and usability aspects; - verify and favour acceptability by the various socio-economical actors; - identify diffusion barriers; - identify the most effective policy measures to support the innovation - give visibility Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  30. 30. EE-PSS IMPLEMENTATION AND DIFFUSION KEY FACTORS SOCIO- EGO – Ecologico Guardaroba Organizzato TECHNICAL EXPERIMENTATIO N EXECUTION [Schot & Rip, 1996; Lynn et Al., 1996; Kemp et Al., 1998; Hoogma, 2000; 2002] Implementation of socio-technical experimentations, in order to: - verify the technical and usability aspects; - verify and favour acceptability by the various socio-economical actors; - identify diffusion barriers; - identify the most effective policy measures to support the innovation - give visibility Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  31. 31. EE-PSS IMPLEMENTATION AND DIFFUSION KEY FACTORS SOCIO- CLEAR CHANNEL OUTDOOR Bike sharing system TECHNICAL EXPERIMENTATIO N EXECUTION [Schot & Rip, 1996; Lynn et Al., 1996; Kemp et Al., 1998; Hoogma, 2000; 2002] Implementation of socio-technical experimentations, in order to: - verify the technical and usability aspects; - verify and favour acceptability by the various socio-economical actors; - identify diffusion barriers; - identify the most effective policy measures to support the innovation - give visibility Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  32. 32. EE-PSS IMPLEMENTATION AND DIFFUSION KEY FACTORS QURRENT – Services for decentralised energy systems EVALUATION AND LEARNING [Fleck, 1994; Kemp et Al, 1998; Hoogma, 2000; Brown et Al., 2004; Loorbach, & Rotmans, 2004; van de Kerkhof & Wieczorek, 2005] Crucial, for the innovation success, is operating a continuous evaluation of the undertaken activities, in order to bring to a continuous learning process. Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  33. 33. EE-PSS IMPLEMENTATION AND DIFFUSION KEY FACTORS CLEAR CHANNEL OUTDOOR Bike sharing system EVALUATION AND LEARNING [Fleck, 1994; Kemp et Al, 1998; Hoogma, 2000; Brown et Al., 2004; Loorbach, & Rotmans, 2004; van de Kerkhof & Wieczorek, 2005] Crucial, for the innovation success, is operating a continuous evaluation of the undertaken activities, in order to bring to a continuous learning process. Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  34. 34. EE-PSS IMPLEMENTATION AND DIFFUSION KEY FACTORS who BUILDING-UP AND DEVELOPMENT OF A NETWORKS OF SOCIO- ECONOMICAL ACTORS PLAN LEARN 1 what LONG TERM VISION EVALUATION 5 2 BUILDING AND LEARNING 4 3 SOCIO-TECHNICAL TRANSITION AGENDA EXPERIMENTATION DEVELOPMENT EXECUTION TEST Fabrizio Ceschin how Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  35. 35. EE-PSS IMPLEMENTATION AND DIFFUSION TRANSITION PATH STAKEHOLDERS ARENA (AND ITS EVOLUTION IN TIME) TRANSITION PATH Pilot Niche Incubation Scaling-up Diffusion projects introduction VISION (AND ITS EVOLUTION IN TIME) Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  36. 36. IMPLEMENTAZIONE E DIFFUSIONE DI EE-PSS A dynamic and cyclical approach based on the setting up of protected socio- technical experiments (to be reinforced, scaled up and branched) and continuous learning by actor networks is promising to incubate, manage and diffuse eco- efficient PSS. AND DESIGN? WHAT ROLE? Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  37. 37. ROLE OF DESIGN IN EE-PSS IMPLEMENTATION AND DIFFUSION DESIGN APPROACH: DESIGN TRANSITION PATHS TOWARDS SUSTAINABILITY The apprach is aimed at designing not only eco-efficient PSS concepts, but also the transition path to support and facilitate the incubation, niche introduction, scaling-up and branching of the concept itself. A path oriented by a vision (eco-efficient PSS concept), and based on continuous socio-technical experimentations (supported by a dynamic network of actors). Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  38. 38. ROLE OF DESIGN IN EE-PSS IMPLEMENTATION AND DIFFUSION ROLE OF DESIGN: > DESIGN the SEQUENCE OF SOCIO-TECHNICAL EXPERIMENTATIONS that bring to reinforce the solution and facilitate its social embedding > IDENTIFY and INVOLVE (in time) the SOCIO-ECONOMICAL ACTORS thst can support the different transition steps, and orient their actions > FACILITATE the BUILDING-UP OF A VISION (and its evolution in time) capable to converge stakeholders’ expectations Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  39. 39. FIRST APPLICATIONS OF THE DESIGN APPROACH (DIS/INDACO PROJECTS) Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  40. 40. SYSTEM DESIGN FOR Politecnico di Milano SUSTAINABLE PILOT PROJECT AIMING AT AN INTRODUCTION OF LOCALLY- BASED AND LONG LASTING MOBILITY SYSTEM FOR LOW INCOME CONTEXTS IN AFRICA United Nations Industrial Development Organization A Global UNIDO Cape Peninsula University of Technology Network of University Chairs on Innovation product design sustainable system design system innovation introd. and diffusion path Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  41. 41. POLIMI-DIS ROLE WITHIN THE PROJECT SYSTEM DESIGN FOR Politecnico di Milano SUSTAINABLE PILOT PROJECT AIMING AT AN INTRODUCTION OF LOCALLY- BASED AND LONG LASTING MOBILITY SYSTEM FOR LOW INCOME CONTEXTS IN AFRICA - FARKA, a system for drinkable water transportation in Burkina Faso; - RASMIZ, a system for vegetable’s transportation in Zambia – KANGA, a system for disabled students transportation in South Cape Peninsula Africa. University of Technology Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  42. 42. AIM OF THE PROJECT DESIGN AND IMPLEMENT A SUSTAINABLE MOBILITY SYSTEM FOR THE TRANSPORTATION OF PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES This mobility system is especially thought for the suburbs of Cape Town, usually characterised by mobility problems; in these areas in fact public transport services are limited and most of the time absent, and for people with disabilities becomes difficult to move (go to school, hospital, work, etc.) Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  43. 43. OFFERING DIAGRAM Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  44. 44. STAKEHOLDERS SYSTEM MAP DESIGN / DESIGN PRODUCTION SUPPORT PARTNERSHIP info / knowledge request of transportation POLIMI HOUSES OF CAPE PENINSULA UNIVERSITY OF DISABLED PEOPLE TECHNOLOGY disabled people transportation payment for IPSIA transportation info/knowledge training DESIGN / COMPONENTS THE RECONSTRUCTED LOCAL SCHOOL SUPPLY SUPPORT DWDE TEAM energy ENERBLU payment for the transportation vehicles payment for the energy SHONAQUIP MAINTENANCE / LOCAL HOSPITAL components components SE PROJECT PARKING SPACE energy ENERGY SUPPLIER TOURISTS Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  45. 45. TRANSITION PATH THE APPROACH FOCUSES NOT ONLY IN DESIGNING THE PSS SOLUTION, BUT ALSO THE PROPER CONDITIONS TO FOSTER THE DISSEMINATION OF THE SOLUTION ITSELF. IN OTHER WORDS WE ALSO DESIGN THE TRANSITION PATH TO SUPPORT THE EXPERIMENTATION, INTRODUCTION AND SCALING-UP OF THE SOLUTION Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / Faculty of Design / INDACO Dept. / Italy
  46. 46. TRANSITION PATH 1 START-UP Setting-up of two multi- stakeholder networks (one African and one Italian); the aim is to set the basis for the development of the solution Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / Faculty of Design / INDACO Dept. / Italy
  47. 47. TRANSITION PATH 2 PILOT PROJECT/S DEVELOPMENT To test and experiment the designed solution but also to create visibility around the project (to attract new partners, funds, etc.) Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / Faculty of Design / INDACO Dept. / Italy
  48. 48. TRANSITION PATH 2 PILOT PROJECT/S DEVELOPMENT To test and experiment the Athlone District designed solution but also to create visibility around the project (to attract new partners, funds, etc.) Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / Faculty of Design / INDACO Dept. / Italy
  49. 49. TRANSITION PATH 3 SELF-STANDING SOLUTION DEVELOPMENT The solution become self- standing and economically sustainable Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / Faculty of Design / INDACO Dept. / Italy
  50. 50. TRANSITION PATH 4 BRANCHING AND SCALING- UP local partner could act as a platform to facilitate the diffusion of the solution (and its consequent adaptation) in other similar contexts. Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / Faculty of Design / INDACO Dept. / Italy
  51. 51. DESIGN TRANSITION PATHS TOWARDS SUSTAINABILITY: NEXT STEPS Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  52. 52. DESIGN TRANSITION PATHS TOWARDS SUSTAINABILITY NEXT STEPS: > DEVELOP SPECIFIC METHODS AND TOOLS to effectively support designers > TESTR THE DESIGN APPROACH, METHODS AND TOOLS (for example project in collaboration with Tetra Pak) Fabrizio Ceschin Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
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