1.2 evolution of sustainability within design vezzoli 09-10 (51)

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  • 1. course System Design for Sustainability subject 1. Sustainable development and design: the reference framework learning resource 1.2 Evolution of sustainability within design carlo vezzoli politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . Italy Learning Network on Sustainability Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  • 2. CONTENTS . increasing role of design (for sustainability) . evolution of sustainability within design . low environmental impact materials/energies . product life cycle design/ecodesign . (Product-Service) system design for eco- efficiency . design for social equity and cohesion . design for sustainability: state of the art . a “pluralism of aesthetics” for sustainability Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  • 3. APPROACHES TO SUSTAINABILITY - intervening after processes’ damages intervening on processes TIME intervening on products and services + intervening consumption patterns (SCP) INCREASING (POTENTIAL) ROLE FOR DESIGN Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  • 4. INCREASING (POTENTIAL) ROLE OF DESIGN emphasis on prevention emphasis on socio-cultural dimension > responsibility for: the “technical” definition of the solutions the “attractiveness” of solutions Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  • 5. DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY: IS A DESIGN PRACTICE, EDUCATION AND RESEARCH THAT, IN ONE WAY OR ANOTHER, CONTRIBUTES TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  • 6. WHAT DO THE DESIGN COMMUNITY (IN GENERAL) KNOWS OF DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY? Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  • 7. cardboard seat DESIGN WITH LOW ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT? Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  • 8. Savonarola seat walnut-wood, so far 500 years life span MADE WITHOUT ANY CONCERN FOR THE ENVIRONMENT, BUT … Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  • 9. + + + + + + + … + + + + + + + … …………………………………………………………….. = time Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  • 10. Chadwick , Stumpf Aeron, Herman Miller seat steel and plastics, 12 years warranty even in use commodatum DESIGNED TODAY WITH A RIGHT CONCERN FOR THE ENVIRONMENT Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  • 11. pen, biodegradable material (from corn starch) HOW MANY (IN THE DESIGN COMMUNITY) WOULD THINK IT IS WITH A LOW ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT? Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  • 12. Pen, MONTBLANC DESIGNED WITHOUT ANY CONCERN FOR THE ENVIRONMENT, BUT … Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  • 13. + + + + + + + … + + + + + + + … ……………………………………………………………............. = time Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  • 14. “Natural” materials HOW MANY (IN THE DESIGN COMMUNITY) WOULD THINK THEY ARE ALWAYS WITH A LOW ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT? Asbestos (amianto) is a natural material! (and one of the most cancerogenic!) Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  • 15. how many persons within the design community ? would evalaute correctly the environmantal sustaianbility? “natural” “njatural” HOW MANY COULD materials materials CORRECTLY DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY (AND TEACH IT)? Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  • 16. THE TRUTH IS … ... TODAY FEW WHTIN THE DESIGN COMMUNITY ARE “EQUIPPED” WITH A SOLID KNOWLEDGE-BASE AND KNOW-HOW (METHODS AND TOOLS) ON DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY … TODAY THE DESIGN COMMUNITY (AS A WHOLE) IS STILL MORE PART OF THE PROBLEM THEN PART OF THE SOLUTION! Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  • 17. EVOLUTION OF THE (POTENTIAL) ROLE OF DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY: (in industrially mature contexts) low impact mat./energies Product Life Cycle Design ecodesign system design for eco-efficiency design for social equity and cohesion Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  • 18. 1. LOW ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT MATERIALS/ENERGIES . NON-TOXIC . “NATURAL” . RECYCLABLE . RENEWABLE . BIO-DEGRADABLE Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  • 19. 2. PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE DESIGN (ECODESIGN) an extended design horizon from product design to the design of the product LIFE CYCLE stages the design “reference” from product design to product’s “FUNCTION” design Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  • 20. LIFE CYCLE APPROACH other product’s life cycle Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  • 21. FUNCTIONAL APPROACH IS NOT THE PRODUCT TO BE DESIGNED (ASSESSED) BUT, THE WHOLE OF THE PROCESSES ASSOCIATED WITH THE PRODUCT AND FULFILLMENT OF A GIVEN FUNCTION Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  • 22. METHODS/TOOLS several have been developed for product life cycle design (according to ISO/TR 14062:2002 Environmental management - Integrating environmental aspects into product design and development) … UNEP-TUD (D4S) POLIMI-DIS (MPDS) Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  • 23. … BUT SUSTAINABILITY ASK FOR A RADICAL CHANGE RADICAL INNOVATIONS (DISCONTINUITY) PROMOTE (EVEN) SUSTAINABLE SYSTEM INNOVATION Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  • 24. 3. (PRDUCT-SERVICE) SYSTEM DESIGN FOR ECO-EFFICENCY Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  • 25. DEFINITIONS OF PRODUCTS-SERVICES SYSTEMS autors year definition (country) Goedkoop, van 1999 a Product Service System (or combination of products and services) is a set of Halen, te Riele, marketable products and services jointly capable of fulfilling a need for a client. [...] Rommens (The The PSS may lead to a benefit for environmment in connection with the creation of a Netherland) (new) business Mont (Sweeden) 2001 PSS is a system of products, services, networks of actors and supporting infrastructure that continuously seeks to be competitive, satisfy customer needs and have a lower impact of traditional business models UNEP- Manzini, 2002 result of an innovative strategy that shifts the center of the business design and sale Vezzoli (world- of products only (physical) systems offer products and services that are jointly wide) capable of satisfying a given application Brandsotter 2003 PSS is a product of material and intangible services designed and combined so that (Austria) both jointly are able to satisfy a specific need of a user. In addition a PSS may reach sustainability targets UE, MEPPS (AA. 2005 result of an innovation strategy focused on the design and sale of a system of VV.) products and services that are jointly capable of fulfilling a specific customer demand (Cranfield) Evans 2007 PSS is an integrated offering of a product and a service that provides a value. When et al. (UK) using a PSS offers the opportunity to decouple economic success from material consumption and thus reduce the environmental impact of economic activity UNEP-Tischner, 2009 system of products and services (and infrastructure), jointly cope with the needs and Vezzoli (world- demands of customers in a more efficient and better value for both businesses and wide) customers, compared to only offer products [...]. PSS can decouple the creation of value from the consumption of materials and energy and thus significantly reduce the environmental impact in the life cycle of traditional systems of product Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  • 26. PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEM: A DEFINITION “designing and providing a system of products and services (and related infrastructure) which are jointly capable of fulfilling client needs or demands more efficiently and with higher value for both companies and customers than purely product based solutions. […] PSS could decouple the creation of value from consumption of materials and energy and thus significantly reduce the life-cycle environmental load of current product systems.” [UNEP, Tischner, Vezzoli, 2009] free pdf: http://www.d4s-sbs.org/ Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  • 27. AN EXAMPLE OF ECO-EFFICENT SYSTEM INNOVATION Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  • 28. ARISTON + ENEL: PAY-PER-USE payment is based on number of washes and includes: delivery of a washing machine at home (not owned), electricity supply (not directly paid), maintenance, up-grading and end-of-life collection. the innovative interaction between the two companies and the client, make the companies’ interest to design and provide (and design) high efficient, long lasting, reusable and recyclable washing machines Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  • 29. SYSTEM INNOVATION: CHARACTERISTSICS WIN-WIN POTENTIAL: SYSTEM ECO-EFFICIENCY innovation in which is the company/companies’ economic and competitive interest that leads to an environmental impact reduction (system eco- efficiency) STAKEHOLDERS’ INTERACTIONS INNOVATION radical innovation, not so much as technological one, but rather as innovative interactions/partnership/services among the stakeholders of a particular satisfaction system Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  • 30. SYSTEM DESIGN FOR ECO-EFFICIENCY: A DEFINITION “the design for eco-efficiency of the system of products and services that are together able to fulfil a particular demand of (customer) “satisfaction”, as well as the design of the interaction of the stakeholders directly and indirectly linked to that “satisfaction” system (or value production system)” [VEZZOLI, 2010] Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  • 31. SYSTEM DESIGN FOR ECO-EFFICIENCY: NEW APPROACH A. “SATISFACTION-SYSTEM” APPROACH design the satisfaction of a particular demand (satisfaction unit) B. “STAKEHOLDER CONFIGURATION” APPROACH design the interactions of the stakeholder of a particular satisfaction-system C. “SYSTEM ECO-EFFICIENCY” APPROACH design the interactions of the stakeholder (offer model) leading them for economic-competitive reasons towards the innovation reducing the environmental impact Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  • 32. [for such a new apporach] NEW DESIGN SKILLS: - design an integrated system of products and services fulfilling a particular demand for “satisfaction” - design/promote/facilitate new socio-economic stakeholder interactions (configurations) - promote/facilitate participated design between different stakeholders - ORIENTATE THE ABOVE PROCESSES TOWARDS ECO-EFFICENT SOLUTIONS Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  • 33. [for such an new skills] NEW METHODS/TOOLS some methods/tools developed to orientate system design towards eco-efficent solutions: HiCS, Highly MEPSS, MEthodology ProSecCo, Product SusProNet, Network Design4Sustainability Customerised for Product Service Service Co-design on sustainable PSS Step by step Solutions System development [2005] development approach [see Manzini et [see van Halen et al. [see Tukker [see Tischner & al. 2004] 2005] &Tischner, 2006] Vezzoli, 2009] METODI DESIGN STRUMENTI Storyboar Diagnosis module d SDO toolkit Opportunity Bl portfolio diagram Solution elements Offering module u Implementation diagram Interaction module System assessment table Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  • 34. MSDS PHASES/PROCESSES METHODS/TOOLS BY LeNS: STRATEGIC ANALYSIS METHOD FOR SYSTEM ANALYSIS OF THE PROJECT PROMOTERS DESIGN FOR ANALYSIS OF THE REFERENCE CONTEXT ANALYSIS OF THE REFERENCE STRUCTURE SUSTAINABILITY (MSDS) ANALYSIS OF BEST PRACTICES DEFINITION OF SUSTAINABILITY DESIGN PRIORITIES EXPLORING OPPORTUNITIES IDEAS GENERATION ORIENTED TO SUSTAINABILITY DEVELEPMENT OF THE SUSTAINABILITY DESIGN ORIENTING SCENARIO - VISIONS/CLUSTERS/IDEAS SYSTEM CONCEPT DESIGN VISIONS, CLUSTERS AND IDEAS SELECTION SYSTEM CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT ENV., SOC. & ECON. CHECK SYSTEM DESIGN (AND ENGIN.) SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT (EXECUTIVE LEVEL) ENV., SOC. & ECON. CHECK SDO toolkit: environmental system design orientation COMMUNICATION on-line use, free access:www.sdo-lens.polomi.it DOCUMENTS EDITING free download Carlo Vezzoli open: www.lens.polimi.it > tools Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  • 35. 4. DESIGN FOR SOCIAL EQUITY where various forms of social inequality are directly addressed in the design process Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  • 36. MAIN APPROACHES OF DESIGN FOR SOCIAL EQUITY AND COHESION . product design for low-income contexts and basics needs (design for BOP, etc.) . system (stakeholder interaction) design joining eco-efficiency with social equity and cohesion . … of lacally-based and network-structured enterprises/initiatives . … of path for local autonomy Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  • 37. UNEP, 2002: PSS FOR ALL “a product-service system innovation (approach) may act as a business opportunity to facilitate the process of a social-economical development in an emerging context - by jumping over the stage characterised by individual consumption/ownership of mass produced goods - towards a “satisfaction-based” and “low resource-intensity” advanced service-economy.” free pdf at: http://www.unep.fr/scp/publications/details.asp?id=WEB/0081/PA Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  • 38. (INFORMAL) LENS-UNESCO patronised, 2005 [update of UNEP, 2002] “a system innovation (approach) may act as a business opportunity to facilitate the process of a social-economical development in an emerging context - by jumping over the stage characterised by individual consumption/ownership of mass produced goods - towards a “satisfaction-based” and “low resource- intensity” advanced service-economy, characterized by the development of local-based and network-structured enterprises and initiatives, for a sustainable re-globalisation process aiming at a democratisation of access to resources, goods and services”. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  • 39. AN EXAMPLE OF SOCIO-ETHICAL + ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILE SYSTEM INNOVATIONS Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  • 40. DISTRIBUTED SOLAR HOME KITS, BRASIL TSSFA offers to Brasilian rural people a solar home kits that include the hardware needed to generate solar energy, plus the installation service and products that use the electricity, such as lighting and electrical outlets. All of the tangible inputs are owned by the provider and only the service supplied by these materials are leased to customers. TSSFA customers sign a three-year service contract. It is environmentally sustainable because it uses the solar energy, as well it is socioethically sustainable because give to poor people access to useful services. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  • 41. A NEW (POTENTIAL) ROLE FOR DESIGN: strategic skills in system innovation aiming at promoting network-structured and local-based sustainable enterprise/initiatives Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  • 42. [for such a new apporach] NEW DESIGN SKILLS: - design an integrated system of products and services fulfilling a particular demand for “satisfaction” - promote/facilitate new socio-economic stakeholder interactions/partnerships - design/promote/facilitate participated design between different stakeholders - ORIENTATE THE ABOVE PROCESSES TOWARDS AN SUSTAINABLE (IN ALL DIMENSIONS) SOLUTION Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  • 43. [for such a new skills] NEW METHODS/TOOLS some methods/tools developed to orientate system design towards sustainable solutions: … MEPSS, UE RESEARCH UNEP, RESEARCH D4S, UNEP RESEARCH van Halen, Vezzoli & UNEP - TUD, Design Tischner, Vezzoli, Wimmer, Methodology for for Sustainability: A Product-Service Systems; product service system Practical Approach Tools innovation, for Developing and cases Design for Van Gorcum, Assen, The Economies, UNEP- Sustainability, UNEP/TU Netherlands, 2005 DTI, 2006 Delft, 2009 Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  • 44. MSDS PHASES/PROCESSES METHODS/TOOLS BY LeNS: STRATEGIC ANALYSIS METHOD FOR SYSTEM ANALYSIS OF THE PROJECT PROMOTERS DESIGN FOR ANALYSIS OF THE REFERENCE CONTEXT ANALYSIS OF THE REFERENCE STRUCTURE SUSTAINABILITY (MSDS) ANALYSIS OF BEST PRACTICES DEFINITION OF SUSTAINABILITY DESIGN PRIORITIES EXPLORING OPPORTUNITIES IDEAS GENERATION ORIENTED TO SUSTAINABILITY DEVELEPMENT OF THE SUSTAINABILITY DESIGN ORIENTING SCENARIO - VISIONS/CLUSTERS/IDEAS SYSTEM CONCEPT DESIGN VISIONS, CLUSTERS AND IDEAS SELECTION SYSTEM CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT ENV., SOC. & ECON. CHECK SYSTEM DESIGN (AND ENGIN.) SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT (EXECUTIVE LEVEL) ENV., SOC. & ECON. CHECK SDO toolkit: socioethical system design orientation COMMUNICATION on-line use, free access:www.sdo-lens.polomi.it DOCUMENTS EDITING free download Carlo Vezzoli open: www.lens.polimi.it > tools Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  • 45. SUSTAINABILITY IN DESIGN ROLE: STATE OF THE ART (in industrially mature contexts) … aim at 100% (education and practice) DISSEMINATION low impact mat./energies Product Life Cycle Design ecodesign system design for eco-efficiency design for social equity and cohesion new research 0 CONSOLIDATION 100% frontier … (research achievements on knowledge-base and know-how) Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  • 46. IN THIS COURSE (SYSTEM DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY) WE WILL SEE: DESIGN KNOWLEDGE-BASE AND KNOW-HOW IN SYSTEM DESIGN FOR BOTH ECO-EFFICENCY AND SOCIAL EQUITY AND COHESION Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  • 47. SYSTEM DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY … aim at 100% (education and practice) DISSEMINATION low impact mat./energies Product Life Cycle Design ecodesign system design for eco-efficiency design for social equity and cohesion new research 0 CONSOLIDATION 100% frontier … (research achievements on knowledge-base and know-how) Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  • 48. … BUT SUSTAINABILITY REQUIRE A DIFFUSED (RADICAL) CHANGE DIFFUSED INNOVATION PROMOTE SUSTAINABLE (SYSTEM) INNOVATION FEASABLE AND “ATTRACTIVE” Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  • 49. AN AESTHETIC FOR SUSTAINABILITY? the aesthetic has a fundamental role! A “ICONIC-ENVIRONMENTALIST AESTHETIC”? a mass of “green-recycled-panda” products? A “PLURALISM OF AESTHETICS FOR SUSTAINABILITY” arise from the sustainability’s (new) values that take the expressions in a multiplicity of forms Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  • 50. AN NEW AESTHETIC FOR PRODUCTS as well as SERVICES AND INTERACTIONS BETWEEN SOCIO-ECONOMIC STAKAHOLDERS Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  • 51. DESIGNER: A SOCIO-CULTURAL “INNOVATOR”? A DESIGNER MAY … … observe emerging/new types of demands (coherent with sustainability) and transforming them into products, services and systems … A DESIGNER MAY … … induce new quality criteria (coherent with sustainability) throughout the offer of (more) attractive products, services and systems Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy