3.3 System D. Ecoefficiency Guidelines Vezzoli Polimi 07 08 3.11

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System Design for Eco-efficency Guidelines

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3.3 System D. Ecoefficiency Guidelines Vezzoli Polimi 07 08 3.11

  1. 1. course System Design for Sustainability . subject 3. System design for eco-efficency . learning resource 3.3 System design for eco-efficiency guidelines . year 2007-2008 learning resource 3.3 System design for eco-efficiency guidelines course System Design for Sustainability subject 3. System design for eco-efficency carlo vezzoli politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . Italy Learning Network on Sustainability contents System life optimisation Transportation-distribution reduction Resources reduction Waste minimisation-valorisation Conservation-biocompatibility Toxic reduction carlo vezzoli . politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . italy Learning Network on Sustainability
  2. 2. course System Design for Sustainability . subject 3. System design for eco-efficency . learning resource 3.3 System design for eco-efficiency guidelines . year 2007-2008 3.3.1 System life optimisation When speaking about system life optimisation, we mean the design for system stakeholders’ interactions leading to extending the sum of the products’ life span and intensifying the sum of the products’ use. Guidelines for system life optimisation complement product or infrastructure with services for their maintenance, reparability, substitution • examples 1 complement product or infrastructure with services for their technological up-gradeability example 2 • complement existing product or infrastructure with services that increase/enable their aesthetical or • cultural up-gradeability example 3 complement product or infrastructure with services that increase their re-configurability (adaptation in • new location) offer shared use services for products or infrastructures examples 4 • offer service delivery platform for product sharing/reuse/second hand selling example 5 • EXAMPLES 1.1 Aeron Herman Miller - office chair with 12 years warranty Aeron and other chairs sold by Herman Miller have a 12 years warranty. During the warranty period, Herman Miller, repairs or replaces (at its option) any product, part, or component, which fails a result of a defect in material or workmanship, with a comparable product, part, or component. This additional service is in turn complemented with appropriate design to extent the lifespan of the product. 1.2 Leased flooring - Interface Flooring System carlo vezzoli . politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . italy Learning Network on Sustainability
  3. 3. course System Design for Sustainability . subject 3. System design for eco-efficency . learning resource 3.3 System design for eco-efficiency guidelines . year 2007-2008 Interface Flooring System provides together with the flooring systems also installation and maintenance. Thanks to modularity in size and relative shape to each other and appropriate replacement techniques and maintenance services, the flooring performances last longer. In fact, the selective use of modular carpet tiles enable quick replacement when damaged or stained offers superior long-term performance. Furthermore at the end of its life span the company has planned its recycle. 1.3 OmniDiagnostic - Philips The OmniDiagnost is a Radiography and Fluoroscopy (RF) system designed for patient examinations within hospitals. Maintenance and further technical support for the system can be offered remotely and these functions are available through service contracts. Philips also offers full training in its operation under clinical conditions using purpose-built facilities. By adding these further service features into the existing product, Philips have extended the service value of the total OmniDiagnost System beyond a simple product offering. Morover, Philips innovations must offer superior value in terms of multi-functionality, archive and network connectivity, high throughput, ease of use and lifetime quality if they are to meet the demands of hospital budgets and working practice. The service options provide a closer relationship between Philips and the customer in terms of support and possible upgrading of the product offering. Customers can reduce long-term costs by obtaining both the product and service necessary to add value to their hospital medical ability. Approximately 65% of all systems are sold under a service contract, while approximately 15% of the systems are sold under a 'paid-repair' contract. All OmniDiagnost systems have Remote Support capabilities. These support services provide technical assistance effectively and quickly, while teaching facilities for the system are provided for training under actual clinical conditions. The OmniDiagnost can be integrated into virtually any network infrastructure and has the option of a digital imaging upgrade. 2. Washing machine with fuzzy logic and update White goods update is a launderette equipped with minicomputer which is able to quot;readquot; the load of clothes and their textiles, subsequently dosing the washing powder and using adequate washing programs. The computer is able to modify these programs after updating the database recorded inside the computer, rendering possible the utilisation of innovative products, whether detergents or textiles. The update function postpones technological obsolescence and extends serviceable life. The washing machine is sold together with the service providing the new washing program. 3. After saler – Wilkhahn carlo vezzoli . politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . italy Learning Network on Sustainability
  4. 4. course System Design for Sustainability . subject 3. System design for eco-efficency . learning resource 3.3 System design for eco-efficiency guidelines . year 2007-2008 Wilkhahn easy-repair furniture has fully replaceable upholstery with prolonged service time. During their service life periodical checks of office swivel chairs are carried out to keep the products in good working order. The order includes a service agreement which comprises three visits by service technicians within a period of 5 years. Older products, which no longer meet current technical or design standards, may be updated if the customers wishes. The customer can find on a web-site the information about this opportunities. An environmentally compatible material cycle and product service, and enhancement to extend product life are also priorities, at the end of product life customers are offered take-back and recycling services. Furthermore, the repair price list allows estimates to be made with speed and precision, and applies to all seating furniture ranges. For furniture ranges, that are no longer produced, an additional repair service for two years is offered. A general overhaul is usually carried out at producer's plant on the basis of a detailed estimate, and is arranged by their consultant or by a local dealer. Producer guarantees the take-back of worn out products from the several product ranges. These chairs are disassembled, all parts are sorted into pure material categories and passed on for recycling. All other models contained in the repair price list may, on request, be taken back by plant. In the case of a new order, no take-back costs will be billed for those chairs being replaced by new chairs ordered from Wilkhahn. 4.1 Call A Bike - Professional bike rental system Call a Bike is a public mobility system with a new service structure in Munich, Frankfurt and Berlin based on using special bikes. Call a Bike is a service of Deutsche Bahn AG although it wasn't developed by them. A fleet of special designed bikes can be rented in these three cities in Germany, around the clock. Once the user has been registered at Call A Bike, the CallBikes can be hired and returned at all major crossroads by making a telephone call. Each CallBike is protected by an electronic lock that can be opened with a numerical code. If the green light on the lock blinks, the bike is free and it can be used. To obtain the valid code for the CallBike, the user has to dial the telephone number printed on the lock. Then the user enters the code in the lock display to unleash the bike. To return the bike, the user has to take it to the nearest major crossing within the core area of the town and lock it to a fixed object, e.g. a traffic sign or a bicycle stand. After opening the protective cover of the lock, and pressing the button on the display, the user can either choose to return the bike or to just lock it. When pressing return, the users sees the receipt code, which is needed for the return call. To make the return call, the same number printed on the lock has to be called and the receipt code plus the location of the Call a Bike (the names of both roads at the crossing) has to be given to the Call a Bike organisation. The standard rate for Call a Bike is 6 Cents per minute but max. EUR 15.00 per day (24 hours). After 24 hours have elapsed, the time charge of 6 Cent per minute begins again. If the users hires a CallBike for a number of days, e.g., a whole week, Call a Bike automatically charges the user from the fourth to the seventh day a lump-sum of EUR 60.00. The project started in 1996, with the development of the idea and system. Special bikes were designed to cope with the heavy usage. Due to the design process the renting started in April 2000 instead of 1998. The company had by then 100 employees and operated in Munich for the first years. The first profit is to be expected in July 2001. The bike system is theft proof and nearly resistant against violent attacks. Different parts like the saddle or the tires can only be disassembled by using special tools and no single component of this bike can be used for other bikes on the market. The bikes, especially the lock-computers are patented in whole Europe. By allowing the modern traveller to use a convenient bike rental system in all major German cities the amount of inner city car traffic can be reduced drastically, what improves the traffic situation in the city, reduces air pollution and is healthier for the people using the bikes and living in the city. The market success of the concept shows that there is a broad consumer acceptance. In the first three months of introducing the concept in Munich 30,000 consumers joined the bike sharing system. carlo vezzoli . politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . italy Learning Network on Sustainability
  5. 5. course System Design for Sustainability . subject 3. System design for eco-efficency . learning resource 3.3 System design for eco-efficiency guidelines . year 2007-2008 4.2 Virtual Station - virtual office service system The virtual station service facilities are located in Fortaleza in an area of high economical and commercial development, with stores, restaurants and supermarkets and is close to the University of Fortaleza (UNIFOR). The company services are targeted to independent professionals, commercial representatives, autonomous and companies working with services. Virtual Station is a service providing a full range of services and infrastructure for a complete office. Clients only pay for the periods in which they use the service. Like other Virtual Offices, they are spaces planned to provide efficiency and comfort, at a low cost. They are equipped with computers, printers, scanners, access to internet, TV, video recorders, air conditioning, copiers and bookbinding services. Secretarial services such as reception, personalised phone answer, phone calls, answering and remittance of fax reception and transmission of messages, transmission of e-mails with personal address, creation and impression of business stationery (cards, envelopes, pamphlets, etc.), typing services, photocopies and translations are generally available. More specialised services are also accessible such as support for advertising campaigns, administrative assistance and bank services. Logistic solutions include lease of rooms for meetings, consultations or interviews with candidates, miniauditorium lease and coffee-break service. Environmental benefits include a decrease in consumption of products and energy savings, because of the collective use of equipment and physical space. At every stage in the consumption process there is resource optimisation. The intensive use of infrastructure, machines and tools reduces the amount of manufactured products needed at any given point. IT equipment such as computers can be better utilised before it becomes obsolescent, and needs to be supplanted. Lessening resource costs of disposal also leads to reductions in resource consumption and emissions. At a system level there are economic benefits because Virtual Station effectively has no down time compared to conventional offices. The regular (albeit temporary) use, generates predictable monthly operational costs and resource demands. Important socio-economical benefits also flow with the concomitant employment generation and requirement for specialist service staff. Service providers gain customers from start-up companies reluctant to sink to many funds into infrastructure. Utilising Virtual Station clients can save 70% on administrative and routine functions compared to conventional offices. The idea of a virtual space where facilities for all kinds of office work are present, is not new. In fact it is already in use in Europe and the United States of America and it is estimated this trend is increasing world wide by 15% per annum. 5.1 iShareStuff - reuse second-hand items carlo vezzoli . politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . italy Learning Network on Sustainability
  6. 6. course System Design for Sustainability . subject 3. System design for eco-efficency . learning resource 3.3 System design for eco-efficiency guidelines . year 2007-2008 The internet has become a valuable tool in the drive to use less material resources. Auction and barter sites enable consumers to reuse items by buying second-hand goods, and a number of business-to-business exchanges are using the efficiencies of the web to recycle materials more efficiently. iShareStuff supplements those efforts with a site that helps consumers share what they already own with people they know, which extends the life of the product among consumers. Historically, sharing has occurred between family-members, friends, and neighbours as a replacement for or supplement to their own purchases, and as a way to jointly purchase items that could not be individually acquired. Sharing is and has been based on a network of trusted participants, and has been quite geographically limited. However, the traditional sharing structure has broken down as the population has spread out in growing cities, people have become more transient, and suburban design has limited neighbourhood interaction. As a result, the old trustworthy network is no longer tied to proximity and sharing has become more difficult. Sharing is most likely occurring on items, which are expensive and/or fill a specialised need (and, therefore, are used infrequently). For certain consumer groups sharing includes a wide range of items. Those groups include people, who lack the money or space to acquire the things they need, who live in close communities, and people, who are concerned about the environment. Internet offers free and ready-made tools and forums to enable people to identify and communicate with people in their trusted networks, and to catalogue the resources they have to lend and borrow. The iShareStuff system assures that only people included in users' network have access to their information and offers the flexibility for the user to add whatever items are important or appropriate for that individual. There are several elements of the sharing process. First, lenders must register and catalogue their items on the iShareStuff website. Only the owner can view these items. Second, they must inform people, whom they consider potential borrowers, on the website that these items are available. Third, potential borrowers must contact the lender to check availability of an item. Finally, the lender must give the item to the borrower, and the borrower must return it. iShareStuff facilitates all the first 3 steps of the process through the website. The partnership between the consumer and iShareStuff might define this successful and free Product-Service System, but it is the consumer, who drives the service. iShareStuff was designed for consumer benefits rather as a commercial enterprise. 3.3.2 Transportation/distribution reduction Transportation/distribution reduction denotes the design of system stakeholders’ interactions leading to reduced sum of the transportations and packaging. Guidelines for transportation/distribution reduction use digital infrastructures (i.e. internet) for transferring/accessing information example 1 • create alternative partnerships that enable long distance activities (use, maintenance, repair) • create partnerships optimising the use of local resources (info/data transfer) • create alternative partnerships that allow on-site production (info/data transfer) examples 2 • merge the product/infrastructure offer, with services for their on-site assembly example 3 • create partnerships to reduce/avoid transportation and packaging of products or semi-finished products • merge the product/semi finished product with the service of its transportation to optimise distribution • example 4 enable clients to reuse packing and reduce transportation example 5 • carlo vezzoli . politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . italy Learning Network on Sustainability
  7. 7. course System Design for Sustainability . subject 3. System design for eco-efficency . learning resource 3.3 System design for eco-efficiency guidelines . year 2007-2008 offer service of that allow remote controlling for maintenance/repair of products • EXAMPLES 1. E-commerce Battersea pen home - web site for fountain pens purchasing Battersea pen home, founded by Simon Gray, deals with vintage fountain pens. In the beginning of their activities, that took place only in Great Britain, they published a catalogue every three months and sent it to their customers. In 1996 a decision was made to create a website to attract more clients and reduce delivery costs. Information technology allowed to minimize consumption of resources at product transporting, delivery (and advertising) stages. Local delivery has been optimized with the use of pony express, that proved to be faster and reduced further the environmental impact created by previous spedition system. 2. Lampi di Stampa - book on demand Lampi di Stampa offers a book on demand service based on a digital process comparable with the off-set printing. It is an Italian company born from a partnership between some actors: Editrice bibliografica, Legoprint e Messaggerie Libri. The book-on-demand service is technology provided by IBM Infoprint. The innovation implicates a transition from the traditional off-set print to the one denominated print-on-demand (i.e. digital). The two processes (off-set and print-on-demand), can be considered essentially analogical to the digital elaborations phases of texts and images. A radical difference between the two processes is in the subsequent phases. The off-set technology brings about the realization and the assembly of the films, the production of the cianographic, the plate impression and logistic for the delivery and stocking of the books. The digital print technology entails only one operation printing the book directly from the file very near or even at the sale point, hence allows to avoid a lot productive and logistic phases. The environmental advantages are connected to the reduction of the transports as well as the dematerialization of some phases of the print process, and the drastic reduction of the copies destined to the maceration. In economic terms the print-on-demand process allows to: guarantee the books presence in the market, depending on the amount of orders; avoid the warehousing costs; guarantee low cost books modifies. The author can easier publish his work. The reader can buy books at a low cost, find rare texts or little editions, and personalize the book to his preference. 3. Ikea Air - inflatable sofas and armchairs carlo vezzoli . politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . italy Learning Network on Sustainability
  8. 8. course System Design for Sustainability . subject 3. System design for eco-efficency . learning resource 3.3 System design for eco-efficiency guidelines . year 2007-2008 Ikea air is a set of sofas and armchairs to be assembled at home, with an optional service for their on-site assembly. These are models of seats furnished with flexible plastic (inflatable air cells), and a extern shell. Sofas and armchairs are distributed in a flat package, which is very light and flexible. Cells can be inflated with a normal hair dryer, and need not to be reflated for 3 years. The drastic compactability reduce considerably the consumptions and emissions during transport and distribution. Furthermore, these inflatable furniture minimize the use of resources, dematerializing the product: the quantity of used material is, on average, the 15% of the one used for a conventional armchair/sofa. Finally, the material used is easily recyclable because the shells separation is immediate. 4. Casa Quick Allegrini - movable unit for detergents' delivery carlo vezzoli . politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . italy Learning Network on Sustainability
  9. 9. course System Design for Sustainability . subject 3. System design for eco-efficency . learning resource 3.3 System design for eco-efficiency guidelines . year 2007-2008 Allegrini S.p.A. is an Italian producer of detergents and cosmetics. Casa Quick is a service providing added value to the product life cycle, based on a home-delivery distribution of detergents. Casa Quick products are sold/acquired from mobile vans, which move from house to house, on a regular route. Each family withdraws the detergents needed from the mobile van, in the quantity and quality preferred, using special containers and paying only for the quantity taken. Casa Quick consumers receive a kit of plastic flasks which are easy to carry from the house to the van, and can be filled up even if not completely empty. This system incorporates the product (the detergent) plus a service (home delivery), with low-level client effort: there is no need for the client to travel to shops, rather the shop comes to the client. Finally information is given to consumers on how to use the products to optimise the effect and minimise the amount used. Seven different types of products are delivered each month by the Casa Quick mobile van, which regularly visits four municipalities, each of which has about 3.000 families. The environmental benefits are obtained by the optimisation of the distribution processes, in terms of both packaging and transportation. Previously clients used disposable flasks, but with the packaging re-use in the Allegrini system, there is a consequent reduction in raw material consumption and a minimisation of production processes. In fact, it has been observed that over a one year period, no container has been replaced. For the same reason, packaging landfill is reduced. Importantly, other problems related to waste treatments are also avoided: when recycled, traditional packaging causes problems because of detergent residuals contamination; and improper disposal of packaging with possible dispersion of residual detergents is also minimised with the Allegrini system. It should be noted that this system is optimal in high density areas because of the transportation component, where optimised paths of delivery to various customers could be organised. The economic benefits are significant both for the producer and consumer. For the company, the major drive is to gain and keep the loyalty of customers over the long term, and the provision of a home delivered service deters customers from seeking other producers. At the same time, the reduction in packaging costs lowers the price of detergent, and extending the life of the flasks helps to postpone the cost of new product manufacture. A clear added value for the consumers is the increase in comfort, with door to door delivery and reduced waste disposal. Allegrini also gains a competitive advantage in terms of diversification of the service provided. New market niches are opened to the company. 5. Detergents dispenser - IPER supermarket carlo vezzoli . politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . italy Learning Network on Sustainability
  10. 10. course System Design for Sustainability . subject 3. System design for eco-efficency . learning resource 3.3 System design for eco-efficiency guidelines . year 2007-2008 The supermarket chain IPER, has its own detergent brand, and the sales are complemented with a refill service. The client, who has ran out of detergent, returns to the supermarket with an empty phial and refills it through a dispenser. The product under examination replaces common detergents commercialized in mono-use package, with a collective refill service. The environmental advantages are connected to the resources minimization (in the production and distribution phases), with waste reduction. 3.3.3 Resources reduction By reduction of resources is meant the design for system stakeholders’ interactions that reduce the sum of the resources used by all products and services of the system. Guidelines for resources reduction complement energy/materials/semi-finished products, with support services for their optimal use • offer access to products or infrastructures (enabling platform) through payment based on the unit of • satisfaction examples 1 offer full-service (final result) to client/final user, through payment based on the unit of satisfaction • example 2 offer collective use of products and infrastructures example 3 • outsource activities when higher specialisation and technological efficiency of products/infrastructures • are available example 4 create partnerships to use/integrate existing infrastructures/products • outsource activities when higher scale economies are feasible • add to product/infrastructure the design of their adaptation in the context of use aiming at resources • optimisation complement product/infrastructure, with design services for their adaptation to use in variations of • resource requirements offer products/semi finished products on availability example 5 • offer products/semi finished products on pre-determined demand • carlo vezzoli . politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . italy Learning Network on Sustainability
  11. 11. course System Design for Sustainability . subject 3. System design for eco-efficency . learning resource 3.3 System design for eco-efficiency guidelines . year 2007-2008 EXAMPLES 1.1 Self service laundry - Millebolle S.r.l. Ondablu is self service laundry with 36 branches in major cities and turistic centres of North Italy. After choosing the machine, client has to insert the load, choose working program and dosage the detergent (provided by the shop); finally he turns to control board that works with either notes or coins (more practical and convenient than tokens), choose the correct washing machine and the rest is automatic. Payment per wash conduces the client to maximise the load, which consequently reduces energy, detergent and water consumption per weight of laundry. Furthermore, the shared use of washing machine reduces production materials and waste. 1.2 Pay-per-use washing machines - Ariston Digital, Merloni Elettrodomestici The PAY-PER-USE washing machines project has emerged from a partnership between Ariston (part of the Merloni group a leading company of home appliances in Italy) and Enel (the leading energy supplier in Italy). The payment is based on the number of washes and the service includes delivery of the washing machine at home in commodatum of use (not owned), electricity supply (not directly paid), maintenance, up-grading and end-of-life collection. carlo vezzoli . politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . italy Learning Network on Sustainability
  12. 12. course System Design for Sustainability . subject 3. System design for eco-efficency . learning resource 3.3 System design for eco-efficiency guidelines . year 2007-2008 According to this payment procedure there is no longer any obligation to buy the washing machine, but by the agency of Enel is possible to pay for single washings, including electricity costs. Also payments for the washing are carried out via telephone. All instructions for personalised washing programs are given via interactive display, that also provides information about water hardness, the amount of washing loads; it also upgrades the program when necessary. A smart Adaptor enables to estimate the energy consumption of every appliance, including the washing machine. Finally, this innovative interaction between the companies and the client, compels the companies to design and provide high efficient, long lasting, reusable and recyclable washing machines, because higher factor cost washing machines would lower their revenues. 2. Energy Service Companies (ESCO) The Energy Service Companies in the EU and in US supply an overall package of services on a turnkey basis. We could say that they are selling thermal comfort instead of fuels. The package comprises: supply of energy resources, identification and selection of conservation measures and installation, operation and maintenance of the energy supply. They achieved an average of 30-40% savings in energy. 3. Collective transpiration with Electric minibus Gulliver - Tecnobus Products that operate simultaneously with many consumers and can answer to greater quantity of demanded operations (i.e. collective use), can cause the reduction both in resource consumption and waste production. This can happen due to two main reasons: economies of scale and greater professionality of hired operators. What's more, in the case of collectively used products is far easier to adopt technological levels, that enhance the consuming efficiency during its exploitation. Often than not, these systems are also more expensive and thus not always accessible for individual use. Worth mentioning are the transportation systems, that tend to be more efficient when in public or collective use. The eco-efficiency can be elevated twofold, if public transport is based on low-impact engines, as in this case the electrobuse. Gulliver is electrobus in operation in European market. Its 5-meter length gives it a good manoeuvrability on narrow and crowded streets. Its transport capacity is for 26 passengers, the flat floor set at 330 mm gives good accessibility to children and seniors. Gulliver is supplied with continuous current engine and 72 volt battery. Fully charged battery gives it a range of 100 km and they can be recharged in 3 minutes, using a simple fork-lift system. On down-slope the engine actually accumulates energy. Gulliver has very quiet engine with 0-emission and it aids to improve air quality. 4. Cleaning cloth rental service – MEWA Wiesbaden carlo vezzoli . politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . italy Learning Network on Sustainability
  13. 13. course System Design for Sustainability . subject 3. System design for eco-efficency . learning resource 3.3 System design for eco-efficiency guidelines . year 2007-2008 MEWA hires out swabs made of recycled cotton to engineering companies, printing plants, repair shops and to the German railway company Deutsche Bahn. MEWA urges its customers to return their dirty rags. The rags are delivered in containers to the customers, used and then thrown back into the containers to be collected by MEWA. After being washed (by MEWA) in giant washing machines the cloths are hired out again. Each cloth completes these cycles up to 50 times. MEWA is not the cheapest option. Nevertheless, although there are cheap throwaway rags on the market, rising disposal costs for heavily soiled swabs (which count as hazardous waste) make the service a very attractive option. In fact, MEWA became the market leader in the cleaning cloth sector in Germany. Compared to other washing machine the wash process in the giant washing machines of MEWA, turn to be much more efficient. The efficiency is improved even throughout the highly specialised the staff at MEWA. Furthermore the company has not only improved its rental service but also the material cycles involved. Solvents contained in the returned rags are used in the cleaning process, water and energy are re-used several times in cascades through the washing and drying stages, and the oil contained in sewage is recycled and used for energy production in the MEWA plant. The company's plant in Vienna has already become energically self-sufficient through this recovery processes. After treatment in the MEWA plant the sewage is sufficiently clean to be accepted by normal municipal sewage treatment plants without any problems. 5. Organic vegetables subscription system - Odin carlo vezzoli . politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . italy Learning Network on Sustainability
  14. 14. course System Design for Sustainability . subject 3. System design for eco-efficency . learning resource 3.3 System design for eco-efficiency guidelines . year 2007-2008 Odin Holland provides an organically grown fruit and vegetables subscription directly to consumers. The consumer receives the produce by paying a fixed subscription fee. Once a week the consumer is sent a paper bag with assorted fruit and vegetables and accompanying recipes from an (often) organic store in the neighbourhood. One Odin bag provides fruit and vegetable needs for consumers for around four days. The selection of best available produce is made by Odin. Customers do not prespecify the mix of produce. In these conditions, i.e. selling food as the on availability of the produce, allows to reduce the surplus and thus the overall production per sale unit. Where possible Odin supplies regionally grown food which minimises transport over larger distances. Some food is however imported, especially in the wintertime, for the purposes of variation. All produce is supplied to Odin by growers on a fixed price contract, without going to third parties such as wholesalers or auctions. Odin works directly with the growers to plan cultivation, and effectively work as a supply manager of the growers produce, based on the forecasts of consumer demand for particular vegetable needs. In fact, information is given to the consumers, which directly enable these farmers to grow organic produce in demand. In return, the consumers share the harvest and participate in the system. As part of the supply relationship Odin also offers its growers advice on agricultural and horticultural matters by experts. It is a very effective system because of the security it provides to growers (crop-planning and harvest guarantees). Odin have an effective supply control (over the grower business, from supply to delivery), thus keeping losses to a minimum. The growers are offered a fixed price to grow certain produce, which allows them some form of financial security. Furthermore, their margins are higher than with supply to either organic food stores or supermarkets. Odin also takes responsibility for any financial consequences due to losses that occur from the supply of produce. Consumers benefit from lower vegetable costs than they would incur from an organic store, as well as an assurance of freshly produced goods; this in turn leads to a stronger customer loyalty to the company. Most of the produce is grown regionally and therefore the transport costs to deliver the goods to Odin are reduced. Packaging waste is also minimised, both in the transport stage and end product packaging. Even produce waste is minimised because Odin is managing the selection, for best optimisation, in regard to production trends. 3.3.4 Waste minimisation/valorisation carlo vezzoli . politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . italy Learning Network on Sustainability
  15. 15. course System Design for Sustainability . subject 3. System design for eco-efficency . learning resource 3.3 System design for eco-efficiency guidelines . year 2007-2008 Waste minimization/valorisation entails the design for system stakeholders’ interactions improving the sum of the system recycling, energy recovery and composting and reducing the sum of the waste produced. Guidelines for waste minimization/valorisation • complement product/infrastructure, with take back services aimed at re-using or re-manufacturing example 1 • complement product/infrastructure offer, with take back services aimed at recycling example 2 • complement product/infrastructure offer, with take back services aimed at energy recovery • add to product withdraw services aiming at composting • create localised alliances/partnership aiming at symbiotic/cascade approach for secondary resources’ use. EXAMPLES 1. Rentable modular photocopiers - Rank Xerox Rank Xerox offers a package deal that includes photocopier, the maintenance and servicing, and the end-of-life collection. In fact, it has developed a systemic approach (chain management system), for re-manufactoring, re-using and recycling the components and equipment. In practice, the disposed photocopiers are disassembled in a specific factory. Components are tested and functional parts are re-manufactored or directly re-used in a new photocopier. Damaged components are destined to the material recycling (some components are recyclable at the rate of 98%). By means of this system three-quarters of the components can be re-used in new products. Rank Xerox products are designed to allow component compatibility between different models and to facilitate the whole processes of re-using or re-manufacturing.. 2. Textile recyclable flooring - Digodream Diddi & Gori carlo vezzoli . politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . italy Learning Network on Sustainability
  16. 16. course System Design for Sustainability . subject 3. System design for eco-efficency . learning resource 3.3 System design for eco-efficiency guidelines . year 2007-2008 Digodream is the product-service offered by Diddi & Gori. It consists of a textile flooring, that can be used during trade fairs and exhibitions, made of waste and completely recyclable, since it returns as the original fibre. The novelty of Digodream is that it is sold as an entire service, from the supply and the installation to the removal. It has become a whole system of services given to the client, who is no longer owner of the product, but he buys its utility. Hence, the new concept of product is clearly moved from the traditional one to the idea of mutually dependent products and services that focus on the utility. Users do not demand the products or services, per se, but what these products and services enable them to achieve. In this perspective, the client obtains the needed utility and pays for product use. Before, similar products were bought, used for a short period of time and then disposed. Since Diddi & Gori remains the owner of the product over its life-cycle, there is further economic interest to valorise the materials lifetime. Digodream, after being used, returns to the producer, who recovers it to make fibre again. In the case of Digodream, it is remarkable the saving of raw materials and in the production cycle. Extending material life is the main step to reach, since it enables the recycling. The product service mix given allows the extension of the life of textile floorings materials, in a way that the company itself is interested in increasing longer-terms results. This new idea of productivity lead to reducing waste and resources consumption. In such perspective, longer-term profits are to be find in longer term client relationships, since new market niches are created. In this perspective, the client avoid the disposal costs and Diddi & Gori reduce the cost for raw material acquisition. From the clients point of view, economic benefits are achieved, because the traditional products need to be disposed, with consequent costs for the process; Digodream provide a complete service, that include the process and the costs of disposal. Such a product-service mix may generate longer term client relationship and brand loyalties: in terms of economic benefits for companies, they are involved in a new concept of market, since clients may be interested in keeping relationship with them and in receiving an improved efficiency of the service itself. 3.3.5 Conservation/biocompatibility Conservation and biocompatibility entails the design for system stakeholders’ interactions that improves the overall amount of the system’s resources conservation/renewability. Guidelines for conservation and biocompatibility • create partnerships aiming at decentralised, and renewable energy resources • create partnerships that increase the utilisation of local renewable and bio-degradable materials and produces example 1 • increase the utilisation of passive energy resources for infrastructure and products functioning • create partnership that increase the utilisation of local recycled materials carlo vezzoli . politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . italy Learning Network on Sustainability
  17. 17. course System Design for Sustainability . subject 3. System design for eco-efficency . learning resource 3.3 System design for eco-efficiency guidelines . year 2007-2008 EXAMPLES 1. Quality Organic Food - Slow Food in Poland Working with a group of producers, who lacked their own wide-scale distribution network, Visana came up with its own brand Soplicowo i okolice, a logistics and distribution network. Visana trades in traditionally farmed, organic produce, and promotes the idea of slow food. It co-operates with local producers, offering better sales opportunities for their products in exchange for production under the Soplicowo i okolice label. It also provides city consumers with an access to high-quality products from a trustworthy source. Now there are working under the common Soplicowo i okolice brand, 13 producers and around 40 distributors in Warsaw alone, with all the participants profiting from the co-operative venture. Producers and distributors split the risks and profits evenly. The company is employing more staff, the production firms are expanding, by investing in a machine park, and as confidence grows, new ideas emerge all the time. Traditional food is offered as a new lifestyle, enhancing also consumer awareness and concern for the source and quality of products. Visanas products are made from natural ingredients and grown in environmentally friendly conditions. The soil is fertilised with natural composts, and the fruit and vegetables contain no pesticides. This encourages traditional farming methods with fertilisers that do less harm to the environment. 3.3.6 Toxic reduction Reduction of toxic emissions entail the design for system stakeholders’ interactions that reduce/avoid the gross total of toxicity and harmfulness among the resources utilised or emitted by the system. Guidelines for toxic reduction create partnerships with other producers to reuse or recycle toxic or harmful substances • complement the product, infrastructure, or semi-finished products with services that minimise/treat toxic • or harmful emissions they cause in use Include end-of-life treatments when selling toxic or harmful substances example 1 • EXAMPLES 1. Chemical distribution - Dow Chemicals carlo vezzoli . politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . italy Learning Network on Sustainability
  18. 18. course System Design for Sustainability . subject 3. System design for eco-efficency . learning resource 3.3 System design for eco-efficiency guidelines . year 2007-2008 The Safe-tainer System is a closed-loop delivery system that combines the supply of fresh chlorinated solvents - trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene and methylene chloride - and the collection of used solvent with the professional management and disposal of the waste. The Safe-tainer System includes double-skinned containers that protect the solvent and the waste from accidental damage during transport, handling, storage and use of the containers. The container is actually a drum within a steel container that is fitted with special leak-free couplings to prevent spills, leaks or vapour emissions during use. There are two types of containers: 1) Safe-tainer for fresh solvent, designated for the transport of virgin solvent of the same product and grade, ensuring highest product quality; Safe-tainer for used solvent, designated for the collection of used solvent (waste) out of the cleaning equipment at the end-use customer, preventing any accidental exchange with the container for fresh product. Dow delivers virgin bulk solvent to filling stations, normally located at the distributor's site, where it is stored in tanks and filled into Safe-tainer containers. The distributor delivers the container for fresh solvent together with the one for used solvent to their customer. The customer connects the container to his cleaning equipment (degreaser or dry cleaning machine) using special connections. The used solvent is pumped into the designated containers for used solvent, which are collected by the distributor when full. The waste is extracted from the containers, collected and sent to a recycling station for professional management, i.e. recycling of the used solvent and the disposal of the distillation sludge. The recycled material is re-stabilised and returned to the market at a lower cost than virgin solvent. The Dow subsidiary SafeChem Germany manages the delivery, collection and recycling of the chlorinated solvents using the Safe-tainer product in Europe. SafeChem supplements the Safe-tainer system with educational training for its clients on the optimisation of application use for Chlorinated Solvents as well as correct methods for handling and recycling. It is the management of the Safe-tainer system through SafeChem that is key to the system innovation. The Safe-tainer System was introduced to help meet customers' needs by virtually eliminating emissions to the environment. Due to the environmental legislation and the decline in Chlorinated Solvent use in Germany, Dow Chemicals Germany entered into a joint venture with a recycling firm, RCN, to form the company SafeChem. The Safe-tainer system was specially designed for SafeChem to allow companies that use the chlorinated solvents in metal and surface cleaning lines to handle the solvents safely and to meet both the performance and environmental demands of their operations. With this system, chlorinated solvent users can improve their solvent operations by implementing safer handling of solvents and effective waste management. carlo vezzoli . politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . italy Learning Network on Sustainability

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