2.2 Product Life Cycle Design Vezzoli Polimi 07 08  3.11
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2.2 Product Life Cycle Design Vezzoli Polimi 07 08 3.11

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2.2 Product Life Cycle Design Vezzoli Polimi 07 08  3.11 2.2 Product Life Cycle Design Vezzoli Polimi 07 08 3.11 Document Transcript

  • course System Design for Sustainability . subject 2. Introduction to product Life Cicle Design (LCD) . learning resource 2.2 Product Life Cycle Design . year 2007-2008 learning resource 2.2 Product Life Cycle Design course System Design for Sustainability subject 2. Introduction to product Life Cycle Design (LCD) carlo vezzoli politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . Italy Learning Network on Sustainability contents Minimize the inputs and the outputs Life cycle approach Functional approach LCD: environmental criteria/guidelines carlo vezzoli . politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . italy Learning Network on Sustainability
  • course System Design for Sustainability . subject 2. Introduction to product Life Cicle Design (LCD) . learning resource 2.2 Product Life Cycle Design . year 2007-2008 2.2.1 Product Life Cycle Design: approach Well finally, the discipline integrating environmental requirements within the design process it is called Life Cycle Design, LCD1. The environmental aim of Life Cycle Design is to reduce the input of materials and energy, as well as the impact of all emissions and waste, both quantitatively and qualitatively; that also means to assess the harm done (with LCA or other tools) by the processes at every stage of the product’s life cycle (in relation to a give functional unit). The economic/environmental presupposition of a life cycle development approach attempts to intervene upstream in order to prevent dangerous emissions and reduce consumption of resources. It is more effective and cheaper to prevent harm to the environment at the design stage than to try to remedy things once the product is on the market. The importance of an LCD approach is therefore to identify and bring together the environmental advantages with the economic and competitive ones, i.e. to intervene upstream identifying all the opportunities for eco-efficiency. In summary, there are two key concepts introduced by a LCD approach as described before: • First to adopt an extended design horizon moving from product design to the design of the product life cycle stages. • Second the design “reference” that has moved from designing the product's function instead of product itself. To speak about LCD does not mean to focus on only environmental requirements, it is intended to be a more general approach to design. Nevertheless, when we do consider, as it is our interests, the environmental requirements, then the objectives will be to minimize the inputs and the outputs both quantitatively and qualitatively. Obviously in relation to life cycle and functional unit and with developed methods and tools to assess the environmental impact. The most reliable method is, as mentioned before, the LCA. 2.2.2 LCD: environmental criteria/guidelines When discussing LCD it is useful to bear in mind some of the following strategies that can direct product development towards smaller environmental impact: • minimizing resources • choosing resources with low environmental impact • optimizing the lifespan of products • extending the lifespan of materials • design for disassembly. Minimizing resources denotes design aimed at reducing the usage of materials and energy of given product or, more precisely, of given service offered by that type of product. 1 Among other similar terms, the most common are Eco-design and Design For Environment. They all indicate a designing approach that aims at reducing environmental impact. However, Life Cycle Design expresses the basic criterion more forcefully: the reduction of environmental impact throughout the entire life cycle. carlo vezzoli . politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . italy Learning Network on Sustainability
  • course System Design for Sustainability . subject 2. Introduction to product Life Cicle Design (LCD) . learning resource 2.2 Product Life Cycle Design . year 2007-2008 Choosing resources with low environmental impact implies to design that selects materials and energy sources with the highest environmental quality. It is a qualitative impact reduction. To be more clear, selection of low impact resources means both: • design for renewable resources (for future generations) and • design for atoxic and harmless resources for all the life cycle phases. Optimizing the lifespan of products is to design for extending product (and its components) life span and for intensifying product (and its components) use2. A product with longer lifespan than another similarly functioning one, generally determines smaller environmental impact. A product with accelerated wear will not only generate untimely waste, but will also determine further impact due to the need to replace it. Production and distribution of a new product to replace its function involves the consumption of new resources and the further generation of emissions. Extending the lifespan of materials means design that valorises material from scrapped products, so rather than ending up in landfills, they can be re-processed to obtain new secondary raw materials, or incinerated (burned) to recover their energy content. Now, speaking about post-consumption recycling we have to recognise its different phases: • the collection, • the transportation from collection place to recycling site • the separation, meaning the disassembly and/or crushing the materials that are not compatible: metals from plastic, but also the plastic that cannot be recycled together • the identification of various materials • the cleaning, for example from contaminating substances or adhesive label • and finally the production of secondary materials . All this means that, while designing for recycling, we should facilitate all those phases. Or rather that design for the extension of the lifespan of materials does not mean simply choosing materials with efficient recycling or combustion technologies, but designing to facilitate collection and transport after use, identify materials, minimize the number of incompatible materials, facilitate their separation and cleaning. Finally, design for disassembly means better design for the separation of parts (for maintenance, repairs, updating or re-use) or incompatible materials (waiting to be recycled or incinerated for energy recovery). This strategy is therefore helpful in optimizing the duration of products and extending the lifespan of materials. 2.2.2.1 Criteria priorities For a given product, when speaking for example about a refrigerator or a chair or any other object, some criteria have higher relevance than others. So for a chair the life span extension will be more important than reducing resources of usage, because the chair is not as consuming article as refrigerator. Finally the criteria could also be conflicting. For example the use of a biodegradable material is worth while, but for many products the duration is more important and a biodegradable material 2 Intensifying usage means that a (greater) number of people use the same product (or component) at different times. A product used more intensely than others leads to a reduction in the quantity of product present at a given time or in a given place in order to meet a given/the same demand for a function; i.e. it determines a reduction in environmental impact. carlo vezzoli . politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . italy Learning Network on Sustainability
  • course System Design for Sustainability . subject 2. Introduction to product Life Cicle Design (LCD) . learning resource 2.2 Product Life Cycle Design . year 2007-2008 could compromise it. Therefore before even start to design, is important to identify the strategic priorities, in other words the relative degree of importance of several strategies. carlo vezzoli . politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . italy Learning Network on Sustainability