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ROMANS (World History)
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ROMANS (World History)

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ROMANS (World History)

ROMANS (World History)

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  • 1. • Rome was a small town on the Tiber River in the central part of the Italian peninsula. • The fertile plains could support a large population. • The Tiber provided a route to the sea, giving Rome the opportunity for foreign trade.
  • 2. • The early settlers of Rome were people called Latin, one of many different people living in the Italian peninsula. • Etruscans lived in prosperous trading cities to the north and west of Rome.
  • 3. • From the Etruscans, Romans learned practical skills in sanitation, road, building, architecture, and pottery making. • About 17 th B.C, the Etruscans controlled Rome for over a hundred years.
  • 4. • Rome grew into a great city built on seven hills along the Tiber. • The Forum – a central public square – was built between two of the hills.
  • 5. • In 509 B.C, the Roman drove out their Etruscan ruler and established a republic – a government without a king.
  • 6. • The Roman Republic was not a democracy. • Leaders were from the class of wealthy landowners called patricians.
  • 7. • Consuls held office for only one year; there was little risk that they would gain too much power or make themselves king.
  • 8. • THE SENATE – 300 -member council of patricians – Most powerful part of the government of the Republic – Controlled Rome’s finances and foreign affairs
  • 9. • The military banners carried by the Roman armies bore the letters S enatus P opulus Q ue R omanus – “ the Senate and the people of Rome .”
  • 10. • An assembly of soldier-citizens made laws and approved the election of government officials. • Plebians – “common people”. They took part on the assembly, but had less power than the senate . They could not hold high government positions or marry patricians. They struggle to gain equality for 200 years.
  • 11. • Plebians threatened to stop serving the army and paying taxes. • They were given right to form their own assembly. It could pass law affecting only the common people. • Elected officials called tribunes, who protected the plebians right. • In 451 B.C. the plebians succeeded in having Roman laws – “ Twelve Tables”.
  • 12. • Twelve Tables – gave the plebians some protection against unfair decisions by patrician judges. • Plebians could no longer be enslave for debt. They gained right to marry patricians and hold the office of consul . Eventually, they won the right to become members of Senate. • By 287 B.C ., plebians and patricians had equal rights .
  • 13. • The Romans showed a devotion to their city , a toughness of character, and a genius for warfare and diplomacy. • By the middle of the third century B.C., Rome ruled most of Italy.
  • 14. • The strength of the Roman army was its superior discipline and organization. • Romans adopted and improved upon the tight battle formation used by the Greek foot soldiers.
  • 15. • The basic army unit was the legion. It was made up of 3,000 – 6,000 infantry soldiers and 100 more troops on horseback.
  • 16. • Through wise diplomacy , Rome made allies of some former enemies. • Some defeated cities and people were granted Roman citizenship; others were permitted to keep their local self-
  • 17. • Rome gave the conquered people protection and maintained order throughout the Italian peninsula .
  • 18. • In 264 B.C. Rome went to war with the North African city – state of Carthage. • Carthage controlled large areas in the Mediterranean , including parts of Spain, North America, and many islands.
  • 19. • The series of war that Rome fought with Carthage are called the Punic Wars. • Rome’s victory in the First Punic War gave it Sicily as its first province.
  • 20. • In 218 B.C ., the Carthaginian general Hannibal decided to strike at Rome by invading Italy from the north - “Second Punic War”. • The Gauls joined the Carthaginians against Rome , and even some Roman allies helped
  • 21. • Hannibal showed his military genius at the Battle of Cannae in 216 B.C. • 4 legions of Roman soldiers were killed or captured.
  • 22. • Hannibal lacked the military strength to capture the city of Rome. • Roman allies near the city remained loyal.
  • 23. • An army led by the Roman general Scipio attacked Carthaginians in Spain, preventing help from being sent to the Hannibal. • In 204 B.C ., Romans invaded North Africa and Hannibal returned to Carthage to protect his homeland.
  • 24. • Hannibal was defeated by Scipio in the Battle of Zama in 202 B.C . • This was Hannibal’s first defeat , and it ended the war.