Animal kingdom comparative anatomy


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Animal kingdom comparative anatomy

  1. 1. Animal Kingdom: Comparative Anatomy A.Collins JSHS Pre-AP Biology
  2. 2. Animal Types <ul><li>All animals are grouped as either an invertebrate or a vertebrate. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>95% of all animals are invertebrate organisms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The animals do not have a backbone or vertebral column. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5% of all animals are vertebrates. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These animals do have a backbone. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. What do animals do to survive? Concept Map Section 26-1 have are carry out with such as All Animals No cell walls Feeding Respiration Circulation Excretion Response Movement Reproduction Eukaryotic cells Heterotrophs Essential functions
  4. 4. Feeding <ul><li>Most animals do not absorb food; instead they ingest it. </li></ul><ul><li>Animals range from filter feeder and herbivores to carnivores and from commensalites to parasites. </li></ul><ul><li>All animals have developed different mouth structures and different digestive systems based on food and environmental adaptations. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Invertebrate feeding and digestion <ul><li>Invertebrates can either have intracellular or extracellular digestion: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intracellular meaning that food is digested within each individual cell of the organism. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Sponges </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extracellular means that digestion occurs inside a digestive tract or cavity, then absorbed into the body. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: mollusks, worms, arthropods, echinoderms </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Figure 29–8 Invertebrate Digestive Systems Section 29-2 Arthropod Annelid Flatworm Cnidarian Mouth/anus Mouth/anus Mouth Mouth Gastrovascular cavity Gastrovascular cavity Pharynx Pharynx Pharynx Crop Crop Gizzard Intestine Intestine Rectum Anus Anus Stomach and digestive glands
  7. 7. Mammalian Teeth <ul><li>Incisors – cut food </li></ul><ul><li>Canine – pointed to stab, hold, tear food </li></ul><ul><li>Molars and pre-molars – flat surfaces to grind and chew food </li></ul>
  8. 8. Figure 32–4 The Jaws and Teeth of Mammals Section 32-1 CARNIVORE HERBIVORE Jaw joint Jaw joint Wolf Horse Molars crush and grind food. The ridged shape of the wolf’s molars and premolars allows them to interlock during chewing, like the blades of scissors. The broad, flattened molars and premolars of horses are adapted for grinding tough plants. Chisel-like incisors are used for cutting, gnawing, and grooming. Canines are pointed teeth. Carnivores use them for piercing, gripping, and tearing. In herbivores, they are reduced or absent.
  9. 9. Digestion <ul><li>The digestive systems of many vertebrates have organs that are well adapted for different feeding habits. </li></ul><ul><li>Carnivores, such as sharks have short digestive tracts that produce fast-acting digestive enzymes. </li></ul><ul><li>Herbivores have long intestines that have large colonies of bacteria that help in digesting the cellulose fibers in plant tissues. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Figure 33–8: The Digestive Systems of Vertebrates Section 33-3 Esophagus Stomach Intestine Liver Gallbladder Pancreas Cloaca Crop Gizzard Cecum Rectum Shark Salamander Lizard Pigeon Cow
  11. 11. Respiration in animals <ul><li>Whether they live in water or on land, all animals must respire. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To respire means to take in oxygen and give off carbon dioxide. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some animals rely of simple diffusion through their skin to respire. </li></ul><ul><li>While others… </li></ul><ul><li>Have developed large complex organ systems for respiration. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Invertebrate respiration <ul><li>Invertebrate respiratory organs have </li></ul><ul><ul><li>large surface areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are in contact with air or water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If require diffusion they must be moist. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Aquatic invertebrates <ul><li>Aquatic animals have natural moist respiratory surfaces, and some respire through diffusion through their skin. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: jellyfish and anemones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some larger aquatic animals like worms and annelids exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide through gills. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gills are organs that have lots of blood vessels that bring blood close to the surface for gas exchange. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Terrestrial Invertebrates <ul><li>Terrestrial invertebrates have respiratory surfaces covered with water or mucus. (This reduces water loss) </li></ul><ul><li>There are many different respiratory specialized organs in terrestrial invertebrates. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spiders use parallel book lungs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insects use openings called spiracles where air enters the body and passes through a network of tracheal tubes for gas exchange </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Snails have a mantel cavity that is lined with moist tissue and an extensive surface area of blood vessels. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Figure 29–9 Invertebrate Respiratory Systems Section 29-2 Mollusk Insect Spider Gill Siphons Movement of water Book lung Airflow Tracheal tubes Spiracles
  16. 16. Vertebrate respiratory systems <ul><li>Chordates have one of two basic structures for respiration: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gills – for aquatic chordates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: tunicates, fish and amphibians </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lungs - for terrestrial chordates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: adult amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Aquatic Gills <ul><li>Water flows through the mouth then over the gills where oxygen is removed </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide and water are then pumped out through the operculum </li></ul>
  18. 18. Vertebrate lungs <ul><li>The basic function of all of the different types of respiratory organ systems is to bring oxygen rich air from outside the body through the trachea and into the lungs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This allows for oxygen to reach the blood stream and carbon dioxide to leave the blood stream. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Vertebrate lungs <ul><li>As you move from amphibians to mammals the surface area of the lungs increase in order to allow a great amount of gas exchange (or a two way flow of air). </li></ul><ul><li>Birds, by contrast birds have lungs and air sacs which have only a one-way flow of air This allows for them to have constant contact with fresh air. This adaptation enables them to fly at high altitudes where there is less oxygen. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Figure 33–10: Vertebrate Lungs Section 33-3 Salamander Lizard Pigeon Primate Nostrils, mouth, and throat Trachea Lung Air sac
  21. 21. Animal circulation <ul><li>Circulation systems are the systems used to transport oxygen through the body to the cells so they can perform the essential process of cellular respiration. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Invertebrate Circulatory systems <ul><li>Invertebrate circulatory system can range from a system where cells simply do diffusion to take in oxygen or systems with many hearts and even systems with one heart. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The heart in any circulatory system is simply used for pumping the blood. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Circulatory systems can either open systems or closed systems. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Open circulatory systems <ul><li>Blood is pumped through a system of vessels BUT is only partially contained in these vessels. Most of the time the blood is pumped through open cavities. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This system is beneficial to arthropods and mollusks because the blood comes into direct contact organs and tissues. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Closed circulatory systems <ul><li>A closed system forces blood through vessels that extend throughout the body of the organism. Since the system is “closed” the blood never leaves the vessels. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This system is beneficial to larger organisms because the blood is kept at a higher pressure which allows for more efficient circulation within the organism. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Figure 29–10 Invertebrate Circulatory Systems Section 29-2 Insect: Open Circulatory System Annelid: Closed Circulatory System Heartlike structures Blood vessels Heartlike structure Small vessels in tissues Blood vessels Hearts Heart Sinuses and organs
  26. 26. Vertebrate circulatory systems <ul><li>Chordate circulatory systems range from a single loop system (found in organisms with gills) to double loop systems. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Double loop systems of most reptiles have three chambered hearts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Double loop systems of crocodiles, birds and mammals have four chambered hearts. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Figure 33–11 The Circulatory Systems of Vertebrates Section 33-3 Double-Loop Circulatory System Single-Loop Circulatory System FISHES MOST REPTILES CROCODILIANS, BIRDS, AND MAMMALS
  28. 28. Animal Excretion <ul><li>The main waste product created by animals is ammonia. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ammonia is a chemical that is toxic to animals and must be released through the excretory systems of animals. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most animals have systems that eliminate ammonia quickly or convert it into a less toxic substance first then removed from body. </li></ul><ul><li>Animals excretory systems can be very complex with the main organ being the kidney’s to extremely simple with cells that simply pump the chemicals out. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Aquatic Invertebrate excretion <ul><li>Some aquatic invertebrates simply diffuse ammonia out their bodies into the surrounding water where it is diluted and carried away. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: sponges, cnidarians, and some round worms. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other aquatic invertebrates swell up with water, dilute the wastes and excrete the wastes through tiny pores in their skin. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Terrestrial Invertebrate excretion <ul><li>Many terrestrial invertebrates convert ammonia into urea. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urea is a simpler nitrogenous compound that is much less toxic than ammonia. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This urea is eliminated from the body in urine </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Figure 29–11 Invertebrate Excretory Systems Section 29-2 Annelid Arthropod Flatworm Malpighian tubules Digestive tract Nephridia Excretory pore Excretory tubule Flame cell Flame cells Excretory tubules Nephrostome
  32. 32. Vertebrate Excretion <ul><li>Aquatic vertebrates kidneys and rely on gill slits to release excretory wastes into surrounding water for dilution. </li></ul><ul><li>Terrestrial vertebrates rely on the kidney’s to filter out the ammonia and change it into urea and send it to be released in urine. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Response to the environment <ul><li>All animals respond to their environment through specialized cells called nerve cells. </li></ul><ul><li>In most animals nerve cells hook together to form the nervous system. </li></ul><ul><li>Nervous systems can range from fairly simple to extremely complex. </li></ul><ul><li>The arrangement of nerve cells from phylum to phylum can be dramatically different. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Figure 29–12 Invertebrate Nervous Systems Section 29-2 Ganglia Ganglia Brain Brain Nerve Cells Arthropod Mollusk Cnidarian Flatworm
  35. 35. Reproduction: Early Development of an Animal Embryo  <ul><li>During the early development of animal embryos, cells divide to produce a hollow ball of cells called a blastula. </li></ul><ul><li>An opening called a blastopore forms in this ball. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In protostomes, the blastopore develops into the mouth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In deuterostomes, the blastopore forms an anus.   </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Animal Body Types <ul><li>Symmetry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With the exception of sponges all animals exhibit some kind of body symmetry. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Radial symmetry : where any number of imaginary planes can be drawn through the center of the organism giving the body equal halves. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bilateral symmetry : only have a single imaginary plane that divides the organism into two equal halves. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Figure 26–5 Body Symmetry Section 26-1 Radial Symmetry Bilateral Symmetry Planes of symmetry Plane of symmetry Ventral side Dorsal side Posterior end Anterior end
  38. 38. Animal Body Types <ul><li>Cavity Formation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acoelomates are animals that do not have a cavity or open coelom between the tissues (ectoderm and endoderm) of the body. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pseudocoelomates are animals that have a partially lined cavity with mesoderm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A coelomate is an animal that is completely lined with tissue derived from mesoderm. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Note: Refer to the cladogram to distinguish between the different organisms that have these characteristics and how they have evolved. </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Invertebrate Cladogram Section 29-1 Radial Symmetry Deuterostome Development Coelom Pseudocoelom Protostome Development Radial Symmetry Three Germ Layers; Bilateral Symmetry Tissues Multicellularity Chordates Echinoderms Arthropods Annelids Mollusks Roundworms Flatworms Cnidarians Sponges Single-celled ancestor
  40. 40. Figure 33–2 A Cladogram of Chordates Section 33-1 Nonvertebrate chordates Jawless fishes Cartilaginous fishes Bony fishes Amphibians Reptiles Birds Mammals
  41. 41. Figure 33–4 Diversity of Chordates Section 33-1
  42. 42. Directional Anatomy Terms