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  • Foetal anasarca (hydrops foetalis) in an 8 month gestation male bovine foetus. The carcase showed a huge amount of sub cutaneous oedema with pockets full with fluid. Internally the gall bladder was hugely distended but the other internal organs as well as the brain appeared normal. There was no other case in the herd. Hydrops foetalis is defined as a state of excessive fluid accumulation in the extravascular compartment of the foetus, leading to widespread soft tissue oedema and/or accumulation of fluid in the foetal body cavities. A search in the literature relates the condition in some cases to circulatory malfunction and others to a recessive gene. A case was reported where it was present with pulmonary agenesis.
  • When submitting blood samples for testing please give age & history of the animals as the tests we do are based on the case. The following gives an indication on what tests we do in different situations. BVD antigen Elisa is carried out on bloods from animals with suspect clinical signs. BVD antigen Elisa is carried out on calves 3-6 months old. (maternal antibodies persist for around 6 months and it is pointless doing antibody tests on animals <6 months old. BVD PCR is carried out on calves <3 months old. (the level of maternal antibodies can mask the virus at this age and prevent the Elisa test detecting it.). BVD antibody Elisa is the preferred test for weanlings 9-12 months old with a view to establishing if virus has been circulating in the herd in the recent past. (serum samples from six weanlings 9-12 months is preferred) A bulk tank sample ( around 50 ml) from a dairy herd taken when the majority of the herd are milking, tested for antigen gives information if there is a persistently infected animals among the cows.
  • Johnfagan

    1. 1. Case studies from the post mortem room John Fagan SRO Regional Veterinary Laboratory Athlone.
    2. 2. Outline of Talk <ul><li>Outline of cases </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly occurring & emerging/unusual conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Herd Investigation - Case History </li></ul><ul><li>Ask Questions </li></ul>
    3. 5. Fungal Placentitis X 20
    4. 6. Bovine Foetal Culture Results 0% 0% 0% Brucella spp 1647 0.9% 1.6% 4.5% 7.0% 5.8% 2007 2014 1977 Total 1.2% 0.5% Aspergillus spp 1.8% 1.3% Listeria monocytogenes 2.7% 4.1% Bacillus licheniformis 4.6% 6.1% Salmonella dublin 5.6% 6.9% A pyogenes 2008 2006
    5. 7. Other Bovine Foetal Results 2008 2007 Agent 5.7% 5.6% Percentage 46 38 No. Positive 812 683 No. tested BVD virus 6% 4.9% Percentage 65 38 No. Positive 1080 771 No. tested Neospora caninum 4.0% 3.2% Percentage 22 14 No. Positive (>1:100) 544 431 No. tested L hardjo
    6. 8. Foetal Hydrops
    7. 9. Ovine Abortion Toxoplasmosis EAE
    8. 10. <ul><li>Full term stillborn calf </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical Signs: deformed, swollen belly. </li></ul><ul><li>PME findings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>excess abdominal and pleural fluids, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a large pale fibrotic liver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a defect in the inter-ventricular septum. </li></ul></ul>
    9. 11. Another Cardiac Defect
    10. 12. Thyroid <ul><li>Goitre is an indicator of deficient dietary iodine. </li></ul><ul><li>Confirmatory histology - Thyroidal hyperplasia </li></ul>
    11. 13. Failure to supply a history can lead to lesions being missed eg spinal abscess
    12. 14. SPINAL ABSCESS
    13. 15. Postpartum death in a Calf <ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large full term charolais calf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Died 6 hours after an assisted birth in which hip lock was reported. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unable to stand and developed respiratory difficulties prior to death. </li></ul></ul>
    14. 16. Vertebral Column Damage
    15. 17. Vertebral Column Damage <ul><li>Arises from: </li></ul><ul><li>Traction on front quarters of calf towards heels of cow while the hips are locked in the pelvis. </li></ul>
    16. 19. 6 week old calf <ul><li>Clinical Signs: Hooves, tips of ears and tail falling off </li></ul><ul><li>Gross postmortem examination - pericardium was attached to the heart. There were no other lesions. </li></ul>
    17. 20. Results of Laboratory Tests <ul><li>Salm dublin was isolated from the gall bladder and faeces. </li></ul><ul><li>Salmonella serology was also positive. </li></ul><ul><li>Histopathological examination showed no specific changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Kidney selenium at 17.80 µmol/kg is normal. (Normal Range 5 - 20 micromoles/kg Wet Matter) </li></ul>
    18. 21. Diagnosis <ul><li>Chronic Salmonellosis </li></ul><ul><li>A pleasant surprise to be able to isolate Salm dublin from this case. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually fail to get an isolate from these cases. </li></ul>
    19. 22. Circulatory System Conditions
    20. 23. 1.5 year old Heifer <ul><li>Clinical Signs: Sudden Death </li></ul>
    21. 24. Suppurative embolic focal pneumonia.
    22. 25. Posterior vena cava
    23. 26. Posterior vena cava
    24. 27. Liver enlarged & congested
    25. 28. <ul><ul><li>Purulent foci in the kidneys. </li></ul></ul>
    26. 29. Diagnosis <ul><li>Posterior Vena Cava Thrombosis </li></ul><ul><li>Aetiology </li></ul><ul><li>Rumen acidosis predisposes to liver abscessation in cattle. </li></ul><ul><li>A liver abscess erodes wall of the posterior vena cava setting up an infected thrombus. </li></ul><ul><li>Septic emboli are released into blood stream which can result in the focal septic pneumonia and kidney abscesses. </li></ul>
    27. 30. PVC Thrombosis (2)
    28. 31. 18 month old heifer <ul><li>Clinical Signs: Perfect when last seen by herdowner. </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd loss in a week. </li></ul><ul><li>Diet: Grass & meals. </li></ul><ul><li>No vaccinations. </li></ul>
    29. 32. <ul><li>Condition: V Good Preservation: Poor </li></ul><ul><li>PME Findings - a very large abscess in the inter ventricular septum in the heart. </li></ul><ul><li>A pyogenes isolated from the abscess. </li></ul>
    30. 33. Diagnosis <ul><li>Myocardial Abscess </li></ul><ul><li>Aetiology </li></ul><ul><li>Septic embolus lodged in heart muscle – possibly originating from infected umbilicus. </li></ul><ul><li>Myocardial abscesses have also been associated wit Mycoplasma bovis, Histophilus somni. </li></ul>
    31. 34. Another Myocardial Abscess
    32. 35. 4 year old Cow <ul><li>Clinical Signs: Stiffness, lameness, repeated photosynthesization. </li></ul><ul><li>PM Findings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Endocarditis of the tricuspid and pulmonary artery valves. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subcutaneous septic foci around both fetlocks, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>septic infarcts in the kidneys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>focal pneumonia. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Streptococcus dysgalactiae isolated from the lung & heart. </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosis: Endocarditis and associated embolism. </li></ul>
    33. 36. Vegetative Endocarditis Vegetative Endocarditis
    34. 37. Respiratory Tract Conditions
    35. 38. IBR <ul><li>Tracheitis, Bronchitis </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary bacterial pneumonia – Pasteurella sp, Mannheimia sp, A pyogenes. </li></ul><ul><li>Antibody positive animals can harbour the virus and spread intermittently. </li></ul>
    36. 39. IBR (Calf) <ul><li>1 month old calf that had been treated for pneumonia, appeared to respond but relapsed & pined. </li></ul><ul><li>PME - AV pneumonia, pulmonary oedema. </li></ul><ul><li>PCR Lung – BHV1 positive. </li></ul><ul><li>Histopath - foci of coagulative necrosis in the liver which is consistent with congenital IBR infection. </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosis: Congenital IBR infection. </li></ul>
    37. 40. Pneumonia - Mannheimia haemolytica <ul><li>Antero ventral distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Sharp demarcation. </li></ul><ul><li>Grey hepatisation </li></ul><ul><li>Fibrinous pleurisy. </li></ul>
    38. 41. <ul><li>Found in Calves </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple aetiology </li></ul>Enzootic Pneumonia
    39. 42. Hoose <ul><li>Lungs very expanded </li></ul><ul><li>Diaphragmatic lobes affected </li></ul><ul><li>Emphysema, oedema, patchy areas of consolidation in diaphragmatic lobes. </li></ul><ul><li>Hooseworms in airways ? open down to smaller airways </li></ul>
    40. 43. Hoose worms <ul><li>Hoose </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-patent 7-25days pi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Patent 25days + pi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post patent – worms expelled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinfection – affects partially immune adults. </li></ul></ul>
    41. 44. Hoose <ul><li>Histopath lesions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eosinophils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atelectasis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyaline membranes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type 2 epithelialisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fibrosis in chronic cases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross sections of larvae. </li></ul></ul>RSV RSV Parasitic Pneum Parasitic Pneum
    42. 45. BRSV <ul><li>Gross Lesions </li></ul><ul><li>Antero ventral lobe lesions – atelectic & rubbery. </li></ul><ul><li>Diaphragmatic lobe lesions – fail to collapse, oedematous, heavy firm to touch. </li></ul>
    43. 46. BRSV <ul><li>Bronchointerstitial pneumonia, </li></ul><ul><li>Necrotizing bronchiolitis </li></ul><ul><li>Bronchiolar and epithelial syncytiae </li></ul><ul><li>Exudative or proliferative alveolitis. </li></ul>BRSV BRSV
    44. 47. Fungal Hyphae in Lung
    45. 48. Fungal Septicaemia <ul><li>2 week old calf </li></ul><ul><li>PME Findings - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>necrotic enteritis with associated peritonitis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Echymoses on the surfaces of the rumen, reticulum and omasum and in the lungs. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HPE Findings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>granulomatous pneumonia with fungal hyphae evident, thrombi with fungal hyphae in the intestinal wall and a nephrosis. </li></ul></ul>
    46. 49. Conditions affecting the Liver
    47. 50. Fatty Liver <ul><li>8 year old cow calved 3 weeks </li></ul><ul><li>Sick since calving. </li></ul><ul><li>Scour which was sometimes bloody. No response to treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Others affected in herd – anaemia, low temperatures. </li></ul><ul><li>PME: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liver was very yellow in appearance and enlarged. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A cut portion of the liver floated in water. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sub cut & pulmonary oedema </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urine ketone levels - very high. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diagnosis: Fatty liver . </li></ul>
    48. 51. <ul><li>Black Disease ( Clostridium novyii) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focal necrotic hepatitis,multiple lesions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BHU (Clostridium haemolyticum) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lesion similar to black disease - larger and single </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>haemoglobinurea </li></ul></ul>
    49. 52. Liver Fluke
    50. 53. Alpaca TB
    51. 54. ALPACA TB
    52. 55. ALPACA TB
    53. 56. Gastro-Enteric Conditions
    54. 57. Mucosal Disease Lesions <ul><li>Ulceration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mouth/pharynx </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oesophagus (boat shaped ulcers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abomasum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small intestine ( peyer’s patches) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large intestine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Carcasses with multiple system lesions are worth checking for BVD virus. </li></ul>
    55. 58. Mucosal Disease
    56. 60. Ostertagiasis
    57. 61. Abomasal Ulceration and Perforation
    58. 62. Rumen Fluke Photo: Cosme Sanchez RO Cork
    59. 63. PME OF 2 YR OLD BULLOCK <ul><li>History: Presented severely depressed, apparently choking by the herdowner. Seemed fine the day before. </li></ul><ul><li>PM Findings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The abomasal mucosa was hyperaemic and oedematous. The rumenal contents were strong smelling of fermentation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The rumen contained large quantities of fodder, grain, soya and what appeared to be fodder beet. </li></ul></ul>
    60. 64. PME OF 2 YR OLD BULLOCK(2) <ul><li>Rumen contents pH - 4.9. This value when considered with gross findings is indicative of ruminal acidosis. </li></ul><ul><li>HISTOLOGY: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Severe congestion and haemorrhage in the kidney cortex. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No other lesions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diagnosis: Ruminal acidosis. </li></ul>
    61. 65. Oesophageal Choke
    62. 66. <ul><li>Musculo-skeletal system </li></ul>
    63. 68. Limb deformity and joint laxity in newborn calves <ul><li>Seen mostly late Spring </li></ul><ul><li>Suckler Herds </li></ul><ul><li>Particularly bad in 2009. </li></ul>
    64. 69. Limb deformity and joint laxity in newborn calves <ul><li>has been attributed to various factors, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mineral deficiencies (particularly manganese), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>viral infections (especially BVD), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hereditary causes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ingestion of teratogens/mycotoxins, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The evidence has been equivocal. </li></ul><ul><li>Many of these cases are associated with the exclusive feeding of pit silage </li></ul><ul><li>including some hay or rolled barley (25% of total dry matter content) with the silage has been reported to eliminate/reduce the problem in some herds. (Gunn & Caldow, Vet Rec Aug 12th 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Another risk factor that has been identified in many cases is the spreading of high levels of lime on grass. This has been associated with low manganese uptake. </li></ul>
    65. 71. Poisons
    66. 72. Copper <ul><li>Jaundiced liver </li></ul><ul><li>“ Black” kidneys </li></ul><ul><li>Test liver & kidney copper. </li></ul>
    67. 73. Ragwort <ul><li>Gross - liver very firm </li></ul><ul><li>Histopath </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cirrhosis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clin Path </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Raised liver enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low serum albumen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive Woolfe test. </li></ul></ul>
    68. 74. Poisons <ul><li>Lead </li></ul><ul><li>Renal & thymic haemorrhages </li></ul><ul><li>Fish like muscle in hind limbs </li></ul><ul><li>Test kidney cortex for lead content </li></ul><ul><li>Cobalt </li></ul><ul><li>Over zealous supplementation in young calves before the rumen is developed. </li></ul><ul><li>Test Liver. </li></ul>
    69. 75. Poisons <ul><li>Ferns </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple haemorrhages throughout body. </li></ul><ul><li>Clinpath </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low white cell count </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low thrombocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Yew Tree </li></ul><ul><li>Supportive History </li></ul><ul><li>No visible lesions </li></ul><ul><li>Yew leaves in rumen contents. </li></ul>
    70. 76. Emerging Disease
    71. 77. Bleeding Calf Syndrome <ul><li>Germany, UK, France, Italy, Holland (1 case in N Ireland) </li></ul><ul><li>Haemorrhagic condition of calves < 1 month old. </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical signs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>persistent fever, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>excessive bleeding from their mucous membranes or from the tiniest of cuts in skin. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some affected calves may die very quickly. </li></ul></ul>
    72. 78. Bleeding Calf Disorder (2) <ul><li>The bleeding is caused by almost complete destruction of the bone marrow of the calf </li></ul><ul><li>Most affected calves die. </li></ul><ul><li>Epidemiological investigation ongoing. </li></ul><ul><li>DAFF are offering free post-mortem examinations on calves that are suspicious cases. </li></ul>
    73. 80. Herd Investigation
    74. 81. Multiple Cattle Deaths <ul><li>Initial History – cows dying at or just before calving </li></ul><ul><li>Cow PME – dead emphysematous foetus, peritonitis – suspect salmonellosis, no pathogen isolated. </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccination for Salmonellosis recommended. </li></ul><ul><li>Deaths continued </li></ul>
    75. 82. Multiple Cattle Deaths (2) <ul><li>PME on Calves –peritonitis </li></ul><ul><li>PMEs on 2 X 2 year old bullocks. Both showed peritonitis with evidence of septicaemia/toxaemia. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clostridium sordellii was isolated from both. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Began to consider if there was clostridial involvement. </li></ul>
    76. 83. Taking Stock <ul><li>Confusing picture. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enormous losses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different age groups affected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On different farms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No pattern to disease outbreaks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Farm Visit organised </li></ul><ul><li>4 different outfarms </li></ul>
    77. 84. Farm 1 <ul><li>Suckler cows and calves grazing </li></ul><ul><li>Some cows holding tails out – described as having been affected. </li></ul><ul><li>Cows put into crush to facilitate blood sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Unusual smell detected </li></ul><ul><li>Rectal examinations revealed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peri vaginal swellings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Damage to rectal mucosa </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interference with animals suspected. </li></ul>
    78. 85. Outfarm 2 <ul><li>Carcase of calf present </li></ul><ul><li>On farm PME – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>septic peritonitis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rectum dissected out </li></ul></ul>
    79. 89. <ul><li>Farmer shown the damaged rectum & notified of suspicions and advised to contact Gardai. </li></ul><ul><li>DVO & Laboratory management notified. </li></ul>
    80. 90. Lessons Learned <ul><li>If you ever find unusual disease patterns in a herd where things don’t add up bear in mind the possibility of human interference with the animals. </li></ul>