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Welfare of laying hens

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  1. 1. Welfare Inspection Of Laying Hens- Caged & Alternative <ul><li>Jarlath O’ Connor VI </li></ul><ul><li>Animal Health And Welfare Division </li></ul>
  2. 2. Systems
  3. 3. Where in Ireland? <ul><li>Main players </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monaghan (37%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cavan (14%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rest (49%) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. System Distribution? <ul><li>Main players </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monaghan (66%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cavan (1%)? </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. System Distribution? <ul><li>Main players </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cavan (21%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monaghan (20%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rest (39%) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Alternative Systems <ul><li>S.I. 98/2002 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All built/rebuilt/re-instated > 01/01/2002 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For all > 01/01/2007 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Facilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One nest/ 7 hens </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Group nests- 1m 2 /120 hens </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Alternative Systems <ul><li>Perches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No sharp edges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not above litter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15 cm/hen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30 cm horiz. b/t perches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20 cm horiz. b/t perch and wall </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No more than 4 levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>< 54 cm headroom b/t levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equal food and water access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Droppings </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Cage Systems <ul><li>Un-enriched (conventional) Cages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From 01/01/2003 but not > 01/01/2012 hens may be kept in un-enriched cages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>550 cm 2 /hen unrestricted </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Height >40 cm over 65% of cage or not < 35 cm at any point </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Cage Systems <ul><li>Un-enriched (conventional) Cages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From 01/01/2003 on: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Floor support forward facing claws </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slope of floor not > 14% or 8 degrees </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Cage Systems <ul><li>CAGE SLOPE </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Cage depth (R) 50 cm </li></ul><ul><li>Cage Height at back (P) 33 cm </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Cage height at front (S) 40 cm </li></ul><ul><li>Floor slope (8 0 ) 7.9 0 </li></ul><ul><li>(To Calculate: Tan x 0 = Q/R) </li></ul><ul><li>(Therefore slope = x 0 = Tan -1 [(S-P) / R] ) </li></ul>P Q R S
  11. 11. Cage Systems <ul><li>Un-enriched (conventional) Cages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From 01/01/2003 on: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cage fitted with suitable claw shortener </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Cage Systems <ul><li>Enriched Cages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From 01/01/2003 on: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Total area of > 2000 cm 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>750 cm 2 /hen (at least 600 cm 2 usuable/ hen) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Height > 20 cm at every point </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Cage Systems <ul><li>Enriched Cages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From 01/01/2003 on: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Litter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>15 cm perch/hen/cage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Claw shortener </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Is ventilation satisfactory? <ul><li>Ventilation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep temp., gas, dust and rel. humidity within healthy limits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum Vent. Rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum Vent. Rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air circulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uniform </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Draught-free </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Is ventilation satisfactory? <ul><li>Noxious gas build-up? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poor Ventilation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low ambient temp. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Waste removal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wet litter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ammonia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5-15: Detectable by smell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10-20: Adverse effects on humans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>25-50: Increased risk of resp. dis. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>50+: Direct effect on layers R.R/eyes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Is ventilation satisfactory? <ul><li>What to look for? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermometers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automated thermostats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air quality in shed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Litter quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faeces disposal </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. How long is rest period where artificial light is used? <ul><li>Lighting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Darkness is deprivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S.I. 98/2002 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Light sufficient to allow hens see eachother, be seen, to investigate and act normally </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>24 hr cycle with twilight and 8 hours uninterrupted darkness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>35-65 lux </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage of cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower tiers of cages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aggression </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Localised bunching </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forced moulting </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Litter adequacy/condition? <ul><li>S.I. 98/2002 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mites </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Worms </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviour </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Foraging </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scratching </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enriched cages? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adequate litter to allow pecking/scratching/hen </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Equipment Maintenance <ul><ul><li>Questions? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How regularly is automated equipment checked? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>> once/day </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What alternatives are present should feeding or environmental equipment breakdown? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Action plan </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is there a functioning alarm system and generator? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must be present </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Are the hens provided with adequate feed and water? <ul><li>Feeders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>S.I. 98/2002 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unrestricted access </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10 cm linear feeder/hen </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4 cm circular feeder/hen </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Un-enriched </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10 cm feeder/hen </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enriched </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>12 cm feeder/hen </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Are the hens provided with adequate feed and water? <ul><li>Water supply </li></ul><ul><ul><li>S.I. 98/2002 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unrestricted access </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.5 cm/hen continous drinkers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 cm/hen circular trough </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One nipple-drinker or cup/ 10 hens </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plumbed drinking points – 2 nipple-drinkers or cups within reach of each hen </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Are the hens provided with adequate feed and water? <ul><li>Water supply </li></ul><ul><ul><li>S.I. 98/2002 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Un-enriched </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unrestricted access </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10 cm linear trough/hen </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plumbed drinking points – 2 nipple-drinkers or cups/cage </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enriched </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unrestricted access </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plumbed drinking points – 2 nipple-drinkers or cups/hen/cage </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. The End

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