Bird flu

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  • Migratory waterfowl are widely considered to be the reservoirs of avian influenza virus. Feces and respiratory secretions contain large amounts of virus, which can infect a new host through the conjunctiva or respiratory tract. Avian influenza virus can spread by aerosols when birds are in close proximity, and might also be transmitted through shared drinking water. The virus appears to be present in eggs laid by infected hens, but they are unlikely to survive and hatch. Fomites and infected birds can transmit the disease between flocks. In one outbreak in Pennsylvania, the virus may have been spread by garbage flies. Airborne dissemination may be possible as well as movement of infected poultry. In experimental studies AI viruses can be excreted in the feces and maintained in the environment and can re-emerge after a significantly stressful event. Once a flock is infected, it should be considered a potential source of virus for life.
  • Incubation period is from 3-14 days and is dependent on the dose of virus, the route of exposure, the species exposed. Some birds are found dead prior to observance of any clinical signs. There may be neurological signs and reduction in normal vocalizations. Depression is common as is a precipitous drop in egg production. Respiratory signs are less prominent but can include rales, sneezing and coughing. In mature chickens, the combs and wattles are often swollen and may be cyanotic. Conjunctivitis, edema of the head and neck, coughing, sneezing and nasal discharge may also be seen. Egg production in hens stops; the last eggs laid often have no shells. Death is common, but severely affected hens occasionally recover. (Photos: ISU-FAD course by Dr. Corrie Brown, showing a dead bird [top] and cyanotic comb and wattles [bottom].)
  • Bird flu

    1. 1. Impact of Bird Flu on Animal Industry Speaker Dr chandan kumar
    2. 2. OverviewIntroduction Impact on Poultry industryEpidemiology Why India at risk?Geographical distribution Status in IndiaAvian Influenza World Scenario Forms of AI Human beings at risk Transmission Preventive measures Importance of H5N1 National and International Clinical Signs Organizations in response to AI Conclusions
    3. 3. IntroductionAvian influenza/Fowl plague/Fowl pestZoonotic Disease (apparently)Notifiable disease by OIEETIOLOGY:- Influenza virus Family- Orthomyxoviridae Genera- Type-A (Poultry, Wild birds, Swine, Horses Human beings, Sporadic cases in Cats) Type-B Type-C Affect only human beings
    4. 4. Epidemiology First case in Italy (1887)World wide distribution RESERVOIRS:- Free flying aquatic birds, ducks, geese. shore birds, gulls Isolation of virus from many avian species (ducks, geese, fowl, mynah, crow, swan, parrots, sea birds) Pig –Mixing vessel (for avian and mammalian influenza viruses) (Villamonds and Chandra,2001) Cases of bird flu in cats in Thailand, Germany and Australia with H5N1 in 2005. (Kuiken,2006) Cases of bid flu in dogs in U.S.A. with H5N1 in 2004 and 2005 . (Butler,2006)
    5. 5. Geographical Distribution (WHO 2008)
    6. 6. LPAI HPAIStrain H1-H16 Especially H5N1Clinical signs –less Clinical signs- more pronounced pronouncedVery less mortality High mortality up to 100%Not in OIE list A disease OIE list A notifiable disease (Villamonds and Chandra,2001)
    7. 7. Animal TransmissionInitial source of infection Other poultry, migratory water fowl, pet birdsFecal to oral route is common mode.Infected equipments, waterers, feeders, gunny bags,curtains, shoes, etc.Contaminated eggs in incubator.No vertical transmission. (Villamonds and Chandra,2001)
    8. 8. Human TransmissionDirect contact with infected chickens.Inhalation of dust generated from infectedpoultry faeces.Eating of improper cooked meat and eggs.If the virus mutates and combines with a humaninfluenza virus, it could be spread throughperson-to-person transmission in the same waythe ordinary human flu virus spreads. (WWW.WHO.INT)
    9. 9. Importance of H5N1First H5N1 strain (HPAI) in geese in southern china in 1996.It has done great economic losses in many countries.This strain has produced fatal zoonotic disease in human beings and can lead to global influenza pandemic.Majority of human population has no immunity to H5N1.From 2003 onwards the disease spread widely ,initially through East and South East Asia in 2003-04 and then Middle East ,Europe ,Africa and South Asia in 2005-06.Migratory birds played major role in spread of disease. (WWW.FAO.ORG)
    10. 10. H1H2 N1 N2 Subtypes of Influenza AH3 N3 VirusH4 N4H5 N5  Many subtypes (16H and 9N)H6 N6 H 16 is discovered recently.H7 N7H8 N8 HxNy- 144 combinationsH9 N9 (Fouchier et al.,2005)H10  Subtypes that usually infectH11 birds but that have alsoH12 caused infections in humans:H13 H5N1, H7N7, and H9N2 (Nicholson and Lancet, 2003)H14H15
    11. 11. Clinical Signs Sudden death. Lack of energy and appetite. Decreased egg production. Soft-shelled or misshapen eggs. Swelling of the head. Purple discoloration of the skin. Nasal discharge. Coughing, sneezing. Lack of coordination and diarrhoea. (Villamonds and Chandra,2001)
    12. 12. Impact on poultry industryLosses due to culling operations. Decrease in egg and meat prices. Loss of livelihood of small holder farmers. Temporary shift towards other sources of proteins. Loss of consumer confidence. Discouragement of people towards poultry farming. Severe demand shock for service sectors. Shifting of trades towards cooked poultry meat. Export ban on poultry products. (Burgos and Burgos, 2007)
    13. 13. Why India at risk Due to entrance of migratory birds. Sharing of boundaries with affected countries. Duck farming adjacent to rice farming. Backyard farming. (WWW.FRONTLINE.IN)
    14. 14. Status in India Total outbreaks – 10 (WHO,2008) Mainly 6 states are affected. Maharashtra Gujarat 2006 Madhya Pradesh Manipur 2007 West Bengal Tripura 2008 (WWW.FRONTLINE.IN)
    15. 15. Maharashtra First outbreak in Navapur (18 feb.2006) H5N1 strain affected 50 poultry farms at Navapur, initially it was diagnosed as NCD. (WWW.WHO.INT) Culling of 3 lakhs birds with in 3 K.M. radius of affected area. (Govt. of Maharashtra) Second outbreak in Jalgaon, then spread to Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh.
    16. 16.  Large commercial farms were affected. Chicken prices Rs. 32/kg to Rs.1 in Pune,Rs.5 in Mumbai and Rs. 15 in coimbatore. Main reason of spread of disease Affected farms did not notify the officials in time due to commercial reasons. Origin of virus Due to migratory birds Relation with Chinese outbreak in Dec.2005. (WWW.FRONTLINE.IN)
    17. 17. ManipurConfirmation of outbreak with H5N1 strain on 25 July 2007.Culling of 1.85 lakhs birds with in range 0-5 kms from affected zone.Entrance of virus from Myanmar through 1600 kms long porous border. (TIMES OF INDIA,2007)
    18. 18. West Bengal Confirmation of bird flu by HSADL, Bhopal and National institute of virology, Pune on 15 Jan.2008. One week time was taken to confirm the disease. Strain – H5N1 (HPAI) Possibilities of origin of virus: Through migratory birds By movement of poultry through the highly porous 2216 kms border with
    19. 19. (Union Ministry of Agriculture)
    20. 20. Economic losses in West Bengal Predominantly backyard poultry was affected. Kolkata market hit Chicken prices Rs.65/kg to Rs.40 Mutton prices Rs.180/kg to Rs.220 About 45 lakhs poultry population perished 1.5 lakhs from mortality 39 lakhs from culling operations Total loss around Rs.150 crores.
    21. 21. >>> 1.Compensation given by Govt. of India Rs. 40- Hen Rs. 30- Broiler Rs. 10- chick, duck, duckling Rs. 6- 1 kg poultry feed destroyed Total compensation for 39 lakhs poultry= 6 crores
    22. 22. >>> 2.Second phase of rehabilitation a) 7 lakhs families lost income from bird flu. Rs. 500- each family Rs. 500 x 7 lakhs = 35 crores b) loans on easy terms to buy fowls. Entire cost of this phase = 35 crores c) Providing alternative employments at cost of Rs.75 crores. (State Govt. of West Bengal)
    23. 23. World Scenario 140 millions poultry culling in S.E. Asia has caused loss of 8-12 billion US$.1. Change in market prices:- Egg prices - US$ 0.05 to US$ 0.03 Broiler prices - 62.5% (during first 2 months of 2004 in S.E. Asia) 15% in international prices. (Moonke,2004)
    24. 24. >>>2. Changes in trade In early 2004 EU imposed import ban on affected Asian countries. 91% in thai frozen chicken export in 2004. 23% in export of global poultry meat.. (Taha,2007)
    25. 25. >>>3.Effect on GDP 1.5% GDP in S.E. Asia. loss of 42 millions birds in Vietnam. loss of 64 millions birds in Thailand. loss of 3% national flock in Laos. (Mcleod et al.,2006)
    26. 26. Human beings at risk Potential of emergence of a new influenza virus antigenic drift antigenic shift Number of affected countries with avian influenza increasing. Number of avian and human cases increasing The majority of the human population has no immunity. High case fatality rate. No 100% effective vaccine. (WWW.WHO.INT)
    27. 27. How Human to Human Transmission Occurs (WWW.WHO.INT)
    28. 28. Prevention and Control 1. Disposal of infected birdsDeep burial Burning of carcass
    29. 29. >>> Ring vaccination 2.Ring vaccination 5 Km 2Km 3Km Depopulation Red alert Vaccination
    30. 30. >>>3. Do not allow mixed farming.4. Spraying of disinfectants in sheds.5. In case of positive diagnosis stop complete operation of the farm for at least 3 months after the last case.6. Develop effective disease surveillance.7. Formulation of emergency response teams for suggesting rapid control measures.8. Quick diagnosis of disease.
    31. 31. National and InternationalOrganizations in response to AI NATIONAL REFERENCE CENTERS1. National Institute of Virology, Pune2. HSADL, Bhopal REGIONAL REFERENCE CENTERS1.National Institute of Communicable Diseases, Delhi2.King Institute of Preventive Medicine, Chennai3.Virology Section, AIIMS, New Delhi4.NICED (Virus Unit), Kolkata
    32. 32. International Organisations1. WHO2. OIE – 171 reference lab. & 24 calloborating centers3. GLEWS- FAO+WHO+OIE4. UNSIC5. OFFLU
    33. 33. Conclusions Bird flu has done loss of millions of dollars and human losses in many parts of world. It is great threat to developing countries. Emergence of new strain of H5N1 can lead to global pandemic. In India there is lack of sufficient no. of expertise, inefficient disease surveillance and lack of rapid diagnosis to prevent the spread of disease in its initial phase.
    34. 34. >>>Good monitoring programmes especially during Sept.-Feb. of year can reduce the incidence of disease in India.It is very difficult to control the movement of migratory birds which are main cause of spread of disease. vaccination can help to bring down the levels of infection ,thus reducing the risk of transmission to humans and other poultry, and can reduce the socio-economic cost of control.

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