Prosessfase 4 
Evaluere strategier og tiltak å evaluere teknikker

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Prosessfase 4 Evaluere strategier og tiltak: Å evaluere teknikker
Evaluating Strategies and Measures
This module provides an introduction to evaluating adaptation strategies and measures and covers the following:
• •
The value of monitoring and evaluation processes How to critically evaluate adaptation actions

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Prosessfase 4 
Evaluere strategier og tiltak å evaluere teknikker

  1. 1. Evaluere strategier og tiltak: Klimatilpasning Å evaluere teknikker
  2. 2. Prosessfase 4 Evaluere strategier og tiltak: Å evaluere teknikker Evaluating Strategies and Measures This module provides an introduction to evaluating adaptation strategies and measures and covers the following: • The value of monitoring and evaluation processes • How to critically evaluate adaptation actions Klimatilpasning C.Aall & D.Davies, 2012Nettbasert opplæringressurs
  3. 3. Prosessfase 4 Evaluere strategier og tiltak: Å evaluere teknikker Monitoring and evaluation Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) is critical if any understanding of if and how adaptations have achieved their objectives. This is particularly important in the new field of adaptation to climate change, where actions are still being defined and tested. Showing which adaptation interventions lead to desired results is important in securing funding, since financial resources are being made available specifically for adaptation measures and funders want proof of how they enable adaptation. Ilona Porsché, GIZ India, and Heather McGray, World Resources Institute (WRI) 2011 A goal of M&E is to determine whether the identified factors, such as an increase in biodiversity or increased water storage capacity, are indeed resulting in greater resilience or sufficient water availability. In the latter example it could be, for instance, that increasing storage capacity is not addressing risks adequately if it becomes apparent that precipitation is declining in real terms and not only changing in temporal distribution. Here it could then become necessary to broaden the approach to addressing the climate risk of reduced water availability, for example through market mechanisms that create a demand for less water-intensive agricultural produce. Ilona Porsché, GIZ India, and Heather McGray, World Resources Institute (WRI) 2011 http://www.gtz.de/en/themen/umwelt-infrastruktur/umweltpolitik/34279.htm Klimatilpasning C.Aall & D.Davies, 2012Nettbasert opplæringressurs
  4. 4. Prosessfase 4 Evaluere strategier og tiltak: Å evaluere teknikker Monitoring and evaluation It is more important than ever to ensure the effectiveness, equity and efficiency of adaptation interventions. Robust monitoring and evaluation (M&E) is an essential part of this, both to ensure that the prospective benefits of interventions are being realised and to help improve the design of future interventions. M&E frameworks for adaptation should combine qualitative, quantitative and binary indicators. On their own, any category of indicator is not enough. For instance, the development of a policy framework does not ensure its implementation and sustainability. It therefore needs to be complemented with quantitative indicators that for example measure the number of projects that have been developed in response to the policy or the number of households benefitting. Qualitative indicators are needed to assess the change brought about by the policy. Such differentiation helps clarify the relative contribution of each activity towards the long-term objective. In some cases, surveys, focus group discussions or other means of direct consultation with beneficiaries is needed in order to assess the level of change (Lamhauge, Lanzi and, Agrawala, 2012) Lamhauge, N., E. Lanzi and S. Agrawala (2012), “Monitoring and Evaluation for Adaptation: Lessons from Development Co-operation Agencies”, OECD Environment Working Papers, No. 38, OECD Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg20mj6c2bw-en Klimatilpasning C.Aall & D.Davies, 2012Nettbasert opplæringressurs
  5. 5. Prosessfase 4 Evaluere strategier og tiltak: Å evaluere teknikker Sette i gang tilpasningstiltak lokalt Den tradisjonelle tilnærmingen til igangsetting av lokale klimatilpasningsstrategier er å starte med å analysere fellesskapets klimasårbarhet. En strategi for tilpasning kan deretter utarbeides og følges opp med tiltak for tilpasning. Noen få utdypningspunkter: Der er nyttig å skille mellom en bred tilnærming, der en rekke temaer og klimaparametere er analyserte, og en smal tilnærming, der bare et utvalg av problemområdene er analyserte. Politikkfeltene der klimatilpasning kan utføres omfatter energi, beskyttelse av sivile lover, fysisk planlegging, biologisk mangfoldighet, forurensing osv. Tilpasningshensyn eller tilpasningstiltak kan integreres i flere plandokumenter som for eksempel kommunale planer, risiko- og sårbarhetsanalyser, sektorplaner, budsjetter osv Klimatilpasning C.Aall & D.Davies, 2012Nettbasert opplæringressurs
  6. 6. Prosessfase 4 Evaluere strategier og tiltak: Å evaluere teknikker Demings kvalitetssirkel Klimatilpasning C.Aall & D.Davies, 2012Nettbasert opplæringressurs
  7. 7. Prosessfase 4 Evaluere strategier og tiltak: Å evaluere teknikker Miljørevisjon i Norge Kategori 1 eksternrevisjon - Obligatorisk interne kontrollsystem brukt på kommunalt avfall, vann- og kloakkstyring med ekstern regjeringsrevisjon Kategori 2 miljøtilstandsrapporter - Ikke-obligatorisk regjeringsoppsettssystem for å presentere en online miljøtilstandsrapport (SoE) - Ikke-obligatorisk regjeringsoppsettssystem av bærekraftige indikatorer Kategori 3 internrevisjon - Obligatorisk system av interne styringsrevisjoner (én revisjon skal gjennomføres hvert år) som kan forstå deler av miljøpolitikken (men det gjør de svært sjelden!) - Miljørevisjonsprosjektet fra 1994-96 skulle bane vei for ikke- obligatorisk kommunal miljørevisjon ved hjelp av å lage en håndbo Klimatilpasning C.Aall & D.Davies, 2012Nettbasert opplæringressurs
  8. 8. Prosessfase 4 Evaluere strategier og tiltak: Å evaluere teknikker Final key points • A successful adaptation is one that achieves its goals under a changing climate. • This will only become apparent in the longer term, usually after the project has been completed and with the continued capacity to sustain the positive results of those actions. • Effective M&E for adaptation can track the interim results as a basis for understanding the degree to which climate pressures have affected the achievement and sustainability of development goals over time. • Growing climatic variability and the many uncertainties associated with climate change mean that there are limits to planning. • The assumptions, conditions and expectations at the start of an intervention are now even more unlikely to remain true for its duration or beyond. • M&E can provide feedback loops to help us to be flexible, respond rapidly and adjust appropriately to varied climatic changes, applying principles of adaptive management. All this is critical for sustainable development – and even more so now that the climate is changing. Ilona Porsché, GIZ India, and Heather McGray, World Resources Institute (WRI) 2011 http://www.gtz.de/en/themen/umwelt-infrastruktur/umweltpolitik/34279.htm Klimatilpasning C.Aall & D.Davies, 2012Nettbasert opplæringressurs

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