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Evaluating adaptation  - Avoiding maladaptation- training for adaptation
 

Evaluating adaptation - Avoiding maladaptation- training for adaptation

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Avoiding Maladaptation ...

Avoiding Maladaptation

This module provides a more detailed look at the issue of maladaptation and includes the following:
The links and conflicts between mitigation and adaptation
Adaptation and sustainable development
How to identify and avoid maladaptation
The potential for mal-mitigation

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Evaluating adaptation  - Avoiding maladaptation- training for adaptation Evaluating adaptation - Avoiding maladaptation- training for adaptation Presentation Transcript

  • Training for Adaptation Evaluating Adaptation:Avoiding Maladaptation
  • Process Stage 4Evaluating Adaptation: Avoiding MaladaptationAvoiding MaladaptationThis module provides a more detailed look at the issue of maladaptation and includes the following:• The links and conflicts between mitigation and adaptation• Adaptation and sustainable development• How to identify and avoid maladaptation• The potential for mal-mitigation Climate Adaptation D.Davies 2012 Online Training Resource
  • Process Stage 4Evaluating Adaptation: Avoiding MaladaptationDefining Maladaptation Attempts to define and find measures of successful adaptation imply that adaptation can beunsuccessful…given the spatial and temporal complexity of climate change problems and responses, it is likely that actions that are judged by one group to be successful adaptations will be judged by groups in other places and times as being unsuccessful.Yet unsuccessful adaptation need not mean that adaptation has significantly increased vulnerability— it may simply mean an action did not work. There is, however, the possibility that adaptation actionsdo positively increase the vulnerability of other groups and sectors in the future. Such outcomes have been referred to as ‘maladptations’. Barnett, J., & ONeill, S. (2010). Environmental Management. Environmental Management, 20(2), 211-213. Climate Adaptation D.Davies 2012Online Training Resource
  • Process Stage 4Evaluating Adaptation: Avoiding MaladaptationDefining MaladaptationMaladaptation occurs when adaptation measures do not increase resilience/ adaptive capacityor reduce vulnerability.Barnet and O’Neill identify five pathways to maladaptation (2010) - these occur in any adaptationproject that involves one or more of the following: 1)Increased greenhouse gas emissions- thus conflicting with mitigation measures 2)Disproportionately burden the most vulnerable 3)High opportunity costs 4)Reduced incentives to adapt 5)Set paths that limit the choices available to future generations - Barnett, J., & ONeill, S. (2010). Environmental Management. Environmental Management, 20(2), 211-213.Maladaptations can also be defined as those actions which are:• inappropriate, not proportionate or cost-ineffective solutions;• environmentally unsustainable;• in conflict with other long term policy objectives. Climate Adaptation D.Davies 2012Online Training Resource
  • Process Stage 4Evaluating Adaptation: Avoiding MaladaptationMaladaptationThe following case study example has been taken from Jon Barnett’s analysis of a new pipelineand desalinisation plant in Melbourne, Australia. Developed in response to record low rainfall inthe region, Barnett considers the project in terms of it’s potential pathways to mal-adaptation,and reveals the following:Potential increase in greenhouse emissions Barnett, J. (May 20, 2011). The Limits to Adaptation and Maladaptation [Adaptation Masterclass]. Retrieved from CAKE: http://www.cakex.org/virtual-library/limits-adaptation-and- maladaptation Climate Adaptation D.Davies 2012Online Training Resource
  • Process Stage 4Evaluating Adaptation: Avoiding MaladaptationMaladaptationPotentially reduced incentives to adaptPotentially reduced options for future adaptation Barnett, J. (May 20, 2011). The Limits to Adaptation and Maladaptation [Adaptation Masterclass]. Retrieved from CAKE: http://www.cakex.org/virtual-library/limits-adaptation-and- maladaptation Climate Adaptation D.Davies 2012Online Training Resource
  • Process Stage 4Evaluating Adaptation: Avoiding MaladaptationLinks and Conflicts Between Mitigation and AdaptationThe level of climate-change impacts, is determined by both adaptation and mitigation efforts (Smithet al., 2001). However, only recently have policy-makers expressed an interest in exploring inter-relationships between adaptation and mitigation. Recognising the dual need for adaptation andmitigation, as well as the need to explore trade-offs and synergies between the two responses, weare faced with an array of questions:• How much adaptation and mitigation would be optimal, when, and in which combination?• Who would decide, and based on what criteria?• Are adaptation and mitigation substitutes or are they complementary to one another?• When and where is it best to invest in adaptation, and when and where in mitigation?• What is the potential for creating synergies between the two responses?• How do their costs and effectiveness vary over time?• How do the two responses affect, and how are they affected by, development pathways?These questions led the IPCC to include a chapter on the inter-relationships between adaptation andmitigation in its Fourth Assessment Report (AR4). http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg2/en/ch18s18-1-1.html Climate Adaptation D.Davies 2012Online Training Resource
  • Process Stage 4Evaluating Adaptation: Avoiding Maladaptation Climate Change 2007: Working Group II: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability A schematic overview of inter-relationships between adaptation, mitigation and impacts based on Holdridge’s life-zone classification scheme (Holdridge, 1947, 1967; M.L. Parry, personal communication) http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg2/en/ch18s18-1-1.html Climate Adaptation D.Davies 2012Online Training Resource
  • Process Stage 4Evaluating Adaptation: Avoiding MaladaptationLinks and Conflicts Between Mitigation and AdaptationAlthough the research on adaptationand mitigation has been ratherunconnected to date, it is clear thatboth the responses are equallyimportant and can help reduce the risksof climate change to natural and humansystems.For example, mitigation will have globalbenefits, whereas adaptation benefitsare from local to regional in scale.However, adaptation benefits can beimmediately visible as compared tomitigation, where the effects may not benoticeable until around the middle ofthe 21st century. Climate Adaptation D.Davies 2012Online Training Resource
  • Process Stage 4Evaluating Adaptation: Avoiding MaladaptationLinks and Conflicts Between Mitigation and Adaptation Adaptation alone cannot eliminate climate-related risks completely.Even with all the possible protective measures, climatechange will impose additional economic, social, andecological costs.In addition to adaptation measures taken privately andpublicly, global communities should cooperate withmitigating greenhouse gases through an efficient andeffective policy tool. Climate Adaptation D.Davies 2012Online Training Resource
  • Process Stage 4Evaluating Adaptation: Avoiding MaladaptationAvoiding MaladaptationTo avoid maladaptation both climatic and socio-economic factors of vulnerabilities have to beconsidered when developing policy responses.When planning adaptation measures, consider if itmay lead to one of the following -An increase in greenhouse-gas emissions -An increased pressure on biodiversity -An increase in other climate related vulnerabilitiesIf so, reconsider the measure. Climate Adaptation D.Davies 2012Online Training Resource
  • Process Stage 4Evaluating Adaptation: Avoiding MaladaptationLinkages between adaptation and mitigation, in the context ofsustainable development Example Mal-adaptations Source: Cohen, S. and Waddell, M., 2009. Climate Change in the 21st Century: McGill Queens University Press, Montreal. Climate Adaptation C. Aall & D.Davies 2012Online Training Resource
  • Process Stage 4Evaluating Adaptation: Avoiding MaladaptationInterconnection between climate change and biodiversityClimate change affects biodiversity and… Changes in biodiversity affects climate change• Conserving and sustainably managing biodiversity is critical to addressing climate change• Adaptation strategies that reduce the resilience of biodiversity to climate change are maladaptations. Climate Adaptation C. Aall & D.Davies 2012Online Training Resource
  • Process Stage 4Evaluating Adaptation: Avoiding MaladaptationNo-regret and co-benefit measuresNo-regret measures:-Adaptation measures that canbe justified under all plausible future scenarios.• Adaptation measures that produce other benefits.• Adaptation measures that are flexibleExample:Measures that address both climate change andbiodiversity loss and ecosystem service degradationin an integrated manner and achieve mutuallysupportive outcomes. Climate Adaptation C. Aall & D.Davies 2012Online Training Resource
  • Process Stage 4Evaluating Adaptation: Avoiding MaladaptationFinal key points• To avoid maladaptation both climatic and socio- economic factors of vulnerabilities have to be considered when developing policy responses.• When planning adaptation measures, consider if it may lead to one of the following -An increase in greenhouse-gas emissions -An increased pressure on biodiversity -An increase in other climate related vulnerabilities• If so, reconsider the measure. Climate Adaptation C. Aall & D.Davies 2012Online Training Resource