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General Secondary School “Hristo Botev” - AytosBUILDING A GREEN EUROPE
Soil PollutantsThe economic activities have anadverse effect on the fertile soils.These are: Workable ground reduction; Degraded ground increase; Ground pollution with a large – scale m
The reduction of the workable grounds is related to their deprivation for building of: Industrial enterprises, roads, Pipelines and others. Important areas are taken away by urban sprawl.
The soil degradation is related to the erosion. About 80% of cultivated grounds are liable to water erosion and about 30% of them are liable to wind erosion. The most affected areas are: The Balkans, Kraishteto, The Eastern Rodopes. In these regions an important part of the ground is abandoned and is not cultivated. The average annual soil layer taken away by the water erosion is 136 700 000 tonnes.
The total areas of acid soils are 56% of the country territory. It is an established fact that the percentage of acid soils in the agriculture areas increases due to the pollution: Plovdiv area, Pazardjik area, Sofia area, Burgas area and others.
The soil pollution with large – scale metals is characteristic ofregions with polluted atmosphere air, throwing out waste water,pesticides in the agriculture and road traffic.The cultivated areas polluted with large – scale metals are about 470 000 hectares. The most important part of this kind of fieldsis in Sofia, Plovdiv, Montana, Haskovo regions.
How to solve the problem?It is necessary to apply soilprevention activities andagronomical projects. It hasto be voted measures of theconservation of groundresources as an importantpart of the nature.
Water pollutants The most important part of water pollution in Bulgaria is due to throwing away of waste water by factories and enterprises. It can be accidental or intentional. This kind of pollution is as a result of throwing away in the water basins of non – toxic organic substances like: Waste from dairying enterprises, Waste waters, Fertilizer liquids, Scraps of food and others.
Effects of toxic pollution: Fish dies when chemical refuse is thrown in rivers, lakes and seas. Extermination of water fauna and vegetation. It is blameworthy to throw away toxic waste: Metal solutions Oil products The consequences can be dangerous.
Air pollutants The main air pollutants are: Heavy industry, Chemical industry, Metallurgy, Machinery construction plants and others. Outdated technologies and damped productioncapacities don’t correspond to the requirements forenvironment protection. The disturbed ecological balance is due to trans bordertransportation of dangerous substances as in the case ofBulgarian settlements along the river Danube.
In Bulgaria the most important atmosphere pollutant are the dust, sulphurous dioxide, nitric oxide and lead aerosols. In some regions to the pollutants can be added ammonia, phenol, hydrogen sulphide and others.
Ways of nature protectionThe campaign against the pollution has to be ledthrough : 1. Substitution of coal by liquid or gaseous fuel ; 2. Usage of fuel with low quantity of ash andsulphur; 3. Close down our outdated damped productioncapacities which could not be made up to date, 4. Changes in our power development, 5. Usage of renewable energy sources which arenot traditional for our country, 6. Bring into use central heating in the houses anddust – catchers in the main branches of industry .
Thanks for your attention!Made by Tsvetelina Ivanova – 9a grade From General Secondary School “Hristo Botev” – Aytos, Bulgaria
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission.This presentation reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be heldresponsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.