The Changing Nature of Collection Development in Academic Libraries


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Presented at the seminar-workshop sponsored by the Center for Human Research and Development Foundation Inc. at PBSP Bldg, Intramuros, Manila, Philippines on 24 August 2006

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The Changing Nature of Collection Development in Academic Libraries

  1. 1. The Changing Nature of Collection Development in Academic Libraries By Fe Angela M. Verzosa
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Academic Libraries are user-centered organizations focused on patron satisfaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Academic Libraries value access to information as fundamental to higher education /research. </li></ul><ul><li>Up-to-date technology provides one of the best means to reach their goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Information Technology has brought significant changes to Academic Libraries </li></ul>
  3. 3. This presentation… <ul><li>Discusses collection management as an important library function </li></ul><ul><li>Presents the current or recent developments in collection management </li></ul><ul><li>Explores the ethical dilemmas librarians face in relation to these current developments and discusses their ethical responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Recommends measures towards enhancing library resources to meet the challenges and opportunities of today’s collection development efforts </li></ul>
  4. 4. Definition of Management “ the exercise of responsibility for the effective use of the human, financial and other resources available to meet an organization’s objectives .”
  5. 5. Collection Management involves… Collection management program Collection dev policy statement Collection assessment Funding & budgeting Selection – deselection Preservation Resource- sharing
  6. 6. 1. Collection assessment as the foundation for all other collection development activities assessment techniques assessment techniques collection-centered client-centered
  7. 7. <ul><li>shelflist analysis </li></ul><ul><li>bibliography-checking </li></ul><ul><li>shelf scanning </li></ul><ul><li>expert opinion </li></ul><ul><li>benchmarking </li></ul>COLLECTION – CENTERED assessment techniques
  8. 8. <ul><li>computer-assisted analysis </li></ul><ul><li>relative use analysis </li></ul><ul><li>circulation-inventory </li></ul><ul><li>ratio </li></ul>CLIENT – CENTERED assessment techniques
  9. 9. <ul><li>involves an analysis of the actual use of each class of books on the shelf </li></ul><ul><li>first determine what proportion of the collection each class occupies </li></ul><ul><li>then find out what proportion of the circulation usage it accounts for this technique will reveal differences between “expected” from actual behavior </li></ul>RELATIVE USE assessment technique
  10. 10. <ul><li>ex. There are 100 books in class B </li></ul><ul><li>This class occupies about 17 % of total collection. </li></ul><ul><li>The probability of its usage will suggest that 17% of the total circulation stats belong to this class. </li></ul><ul><li>If it does, then this portion of the collection is behaving exactly as expected. </li></ul><ul><li>If circulation is below 10%, then this class is underutilized. </li></ul><ul><li>If circulation is above 20%, then this collection is heavily used, and should be strengthened by an increase in titles. </li></ul>RELATIVE USE assessment technique
  11. 11. <ul><li>is the simplest approach in determining discrepancy between holdings and circulation usage. </li></ul><ul><li>The turn-over rate is the no. of times the books in a given class are borrowed divided by the no. of books in the class. </li></ul>Circulation-Inventory Ratio assessment technique
  12. 12. <ul><li>If there are 100 books on Philosophy, and for a period of six months, the total circulation figure for this class is 1000, then the formula is: </li></ul><ul><li>Circulation = 1000 Turn-over is </li></ul><ul><li>inventory = 100 10 per book </li></ul><ul><li>This suggests that every book is used at least ten times within six months. But this is not the exact or accurate assessment. </li></ul>Circulation-Inventory Ratio assessment technique
  13. 13. 2. Documenting Collection policies <ul><li>outline institutional goals </li></ul><ul><li>determine who are responsible for materials selection </li></ul><ul><li>identify tools for selection </li></ul><ul><li>Define criteria for selection </li></ul><ul><li>Define scope of particular collections and collecting levels </li></ul>
  14. 14. Institutional goals <ul><li>Support instructional, curricular, and research needs of the faculty </li></ul><ul><li>Support informational, classroom, and general reading interests of the students </li></ul><ul><li>Fast delivery of information resources </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate access into other research collections </li></ul><ul><li>Support extension programs of the university </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Formulating short and long –term plans for collection dev programs </li></ul><ul><li>Revision of collection policies </li></ul><ul><li>Conducting assessment studies on profile & quality of the collection </li></ul><ul><li>Searching, selecting, and assessing standard tools </li></ul><ul><li>Dissemination of information on new materials to clientele </li></ul><ul><li>Recommending titles for acquisition / subscription </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating, selecting, and de-selecting book/serial donations </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinating with faculty on deselection of holdings </li></ul>Collection development librarian is responsible for ….
  16. 16. Tools for selection <ul><li>ALA’s Books for College Libraries </li></ul><ul><li>ALA’s Guide to Reference Books </li></ul><ul><li>Katz’s Magazines for Libraries </li></ul><ul><li>ACRL’s Choice </li></ul><ul><li>Bowker’s Global Books in Print </li></ul><ul><li>Ulrich’s Plus </li></ul><ul><li>Bibliofile – cataloged books in the Library of Congress </li></ul>
  17. 17. Criteria for selection <ul><li>Anticipated or actual usage </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Reputation and authoritativeness </li></ul><ul><li>Timeliness of the publication </li></ul><ul><li>Strength of present holdings in the subject area or discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Literary quality </li></ul><ul><li>Level of treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Contribution to the field of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Availability </li></ul>
  18. 18. Collecting levels <ul><ul><ul><li>Level 1– Minimal/basic reference </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Level 2– Selective </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Level 3– Undergraduate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Level 4 – Comprehensive or Beginning research </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Level 5 – Exhaustive </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. MODEL COLLECTION POLICY <ul><li>Statement of purpose of institution /collection </li></ul><ul><li>Types of programs supported by collection </li></ul><ul><li>Clientele served by the collection </li></ul><ul><li>Priorities and limitations of the collection </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative agreements affecting this policy </li></ul><ul><li>Resource-sharing policy </li></ul><ul><li>De-accessioning policy </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures enforcing the collecting policy </li></ul>
  20. 20. Priorities/Limitations of the Collection <ul><li>Identified strengths </li></ul><ul><li>Collecting level </li></ul><ul><li>Identified weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>Desired level of collection to meet program needs </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical areas collected </li></ul><ul><li>Chronological periods collected </li></ul><ul><li>Subject areas collected </li></ul><ul><li>Languages, other than English, collected </li></ul><ul><li>Exclusions </li></ul>
  21. 21. 3. Financial Considerations <ul><li>matching funds with needs </li></ul><ul><li>setting limits on spending </li></ul><ul><li>monitoring expenditures </li></ul>
  22. 22. 4. Selection/deselection <ul><li>the point of no return </li></ul><ul><li>the decision-making process that implements collection goals articulated in the policy </li></ul>
  23. 23. 5. Resource-sharing <ul><li>the goal of many consortia is cooperative collection development. </li></ul><ul><li>by knowing their strengths/weaknesses, libraries could take advantage of the strengths and work together to cover the weaknesses. </li></ul>
  25. 25. 6. Preservation <ul><li>housing </li></ul><ul><li>handling </li></ul><ul><li>repairing </li></ul><ul><li>binding </li></ul><ul><li>photocopying </li></ul><ul><li>microfilming/ </li></ul><ul><li>digitizing </li></ul>
  26. 26. Managing our collection faces a crisis... * reduction in expenditures due to price increases *diminished resources *aging of the collection *digital formats are not less expensive *resource-sharing may not solve the problem
  27. 27. Collection Development: recent developments <ul><ul><li>price increases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>diminished resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>abundance of materials, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>published information. </li></ul></ul>*
  28. 28. Collection Development: recent developments <ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>academic budgets pay increasing homage to serials to the neglect of book purchases in spite of declining funds … </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Collection Development: recent developments <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>traditional concept of ownership is challenged by the idea of access (whether automated access to information or to information resources through document delivery or interlibrary lending) in lieu of ownership … </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Collection Development : recent developments emphasis is on intellectual content , rather than the traditional format
  31. 31. Collection Development: recent developments <ul><li>developing core collections rather than comprehensive holdings will dominate collection policies… </li></ul>
  32. 32. Collection Development : recent developments <ul><li>electronic networks such as the INTERNET are now a reality. Students and faculty are gaining access to a multitude of library catalogs worldwide. More capital funds are being re-channelled to buy computer equipment, licenses and access fees… </li></ul>
  33. 33. Collection Development: recent developments <ul><li>multimedia (interactive videos) and cd-rom technology are becoming more and more attractive than prints, because they present a better alternative to reading… </li></ul>
  34. 34. Interest in resource- sharing, collaborative purchasing, and cooperative collection has replaced the competitive instinct of librarians… Collection Development: recent developments
  35. 35. Surrender of copyright ownership by scholars and researchers and efforts of publishers to change international copyright laws… Collection Development: recent developments
  36. 36. Ethical dilemmas in collection development <ul><li>Inescapable because of these interrelated developments </li></ul><ul><li>Librarians forced to make choices with limited resources </li></ul><ul><li>Sign institutional licenses for access to electronic information </li></ul><ul><li>Abuse fair use doctrine and ignore copyright restrictions </li></ul>
  37. 37. Relevance of professional ethics <ul><li>Librarians’ responsibility to provide users with best possible services </li></ul><ul><li>provide free flow of information because Code of Ethics states that librarians “shall uphold and promote the right to information” </li></ul><ul><li>distribute the benefits of information access </li></ul><ul><li>abide by the provisions of intellectual property law </li></ul><ul><li>Recommend materials for purchase without any financial or pecuniary interest in them or in their suppliers or vendors. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Code of Ethics - specifics “ Librarians shall not engage in any activity that would result in a conflict of interest. They shall avoid to enter into transactions prejudicial to the library and to appropriate resources of the library for personal gain.” (amended)
  39. 39. <ul><li>“ Librarians shall refuse gifts or favors from clients and library suppliers for personal interest. They shall avoid using the library’s resources to the detriment of services which the library renders to its users. “ (amended) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Librarians should not accept gifts or favors that might lead to unfair library practice, nor offer any favor, service or things of value to obtain special advantage.” (original) </li></ul>Code of Ethics - specifics
  40. 40. Code of Ethics - specifics <ul><li>In all instances, librarians should conduct their personal collecting in a manner that avoids impropriety and prevents any conflict with the library’s collecting activities. </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>All acquisition decisions must be based on the professional judgment of the librarian, with due consideration given to the objectives and policies of the institution. </li></ul><ul><li>While close relationships between librarians, dealers, and collectors are desirable, it is imperative that conflicts of interest do not arise. Conflicts clearly result when collections librarians accept substantial gifts, loans, entertainment, or personal discounts from dealers, vendors, or donors. </li></ul><ul><li>The issue of whether any entertainment should be accepted from these sources is problematic, and so librarians must make a judgment in each case as to whether the appearance of improper influence might result. Institutional policies regarding the acceptance of gifts or entertainment must also be observed. This may also include offers to travel, etc. </li></ul>Code of Ethics - specifics
  42. 42. <ul><li>Librarians should recognize and respect intellectual property rights. Examples of problems include: plagiarism in information literacy assignments (downloading large portions of text from electronic information sources); excessive copying that breaches the provisions for fair dealing for the purposes of research in the Copyright Law. </li></ul>Code of Ethics - specifics
  43. 43. <ul><li>Books and other library resources should be provided for the interest, information, and enlightenment of all library patrons. (original provision no. 21) </li></ul><ul><li>Materials should not be excluded because of the origin, background, or views of those contributing to their creation. Librarians should provide materials and information presenting all points of view on current and historical issues. (original provision no. 25) </li></ul><ul><li>Materials should not be proscribed or removed because of partisan or doctrinal disapproval. Librarians should challenge censorship in the fulfillment of their responsibility to provide info. </li></ul>Code of Ethics - specifics
  44. 44. Professional ethics <ul><li>important to librarianship because: </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics define our professional values and our professionalism, and inform library patrons about what we have to offer. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics raise the standards of librarianship </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics demonstrate commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics raise the profile and importance of our profession. </li></ul><ul><li>But, in ever-changing times, ethical frameworks are likely to require adjustment; therefore, we must continue to discuss and revise our values accordingly. Such measures will ensure that we can continue to provide relevant services, and this in turn, will secure our futures. New discussions and dialogues will shape the future of Philippine librarianship. </li></ul>
  45. 45. What are our ethical responsibilities? <ul><li>Be honest in giving available alternatives to gaining access to information </li></ul><ul><li>Be wise consumers of information products </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage technical innovations that benefit information users </li></ul><ul><li>Promote awareness to the importance of open access to information </li></ul><ul><li>Observe and implement judiciously laws and standards of professional practice </li></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>review present status of collection </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>assess strengths and weaknesses </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>identify unmet and emerging needs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>list priorities for acquisition </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Know what the library needs …
  47. 47. <ul><li>Developing core collections rather than comprehensive holdings is a priority. </li></ul><ul><li>Care should taken in updating. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis is on intellectual content , rather than the traditional format </li></ul><ul><li>Use shelf behavior and circulation usage to determine usefulness. </li></ul>Know how to keep collection current and useful …
  48. 48. <ul><li>Formulate short and long–term plans for collection development </li></ul><ul><li>Information should be collected in the most appropriate format. Usefulness, not format, is the deciding factor in acquisition. </li></ul><ul><li>Disseminate information on new materials for selection to clientele before acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>match funds with needs </li></ul><ul><li>set limits on spending </li></ul>Enhancing your library resources
  49. 49. <ul><li>Identification/selection of materials thru review sites and websites of vendors, publishers, traditional booksellers, libraries, academic institutions, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Web harvesting </li></ul><ul><li>Archiving web resources </li></ul><ul><li>Indexing archived documents </li></ul>Developing Online Collections
  50. 50. Resource-sharing, collaborative purchasing, and cooperative collection present alternatives to enhance collections, reduce not only acquisition costs. Enhancing with shared collections...
  51. 51. Benefits from Shared Collections <ul><li>Enhance library resources and services </li></ul><ul><li>Expand the breadth </li></ul><ul><li>and depth of collections </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce unnecessary </li></ul><ul><li>duplication </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce costs and space requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Maximize their use </li></ul>
  52. 52. Acquiring gifts and donations <ul><li>Manuscript collections and rare books </li></ul><ul><li>Local studies material </li></ul><ul><li>Personal/family papers </li></ul><ul><li>Periodical/serial titles of general interest </li></ul><ul><li>Reference material of timeless value </li></ul>
  53. 53. Summary & Recommendations <ul><li>Collection Development should undergo review to ensure acquisition, weeding and retention policies are unbiased and customer-focused, so that library users have access to current, relevant and authoritative information in their preferred format. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine storage conditions of the existing book stock . Provisions must made to store rare materials in conditions that will ensure preservation and a longer shelf life, whilst maintaining ease of access for library users. </li></ul><ul><li>With regard to the general book collection, cataloging and classification standards and procedures should be continuously reassessed to ensure that classification is in line with twenty-first-century thinking, which, consequently, should facilitate browsing. </li></ul>