Security Management and Disaster Preparedness for Archival Collections


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presented at the PAARL Seminar-workshop on “Strategic Organization and Management of Archival Programs,” held in Vigan, Ilocos Sur, Philippines on 22 March 2005.

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Security Management and Disaster Preparedness for Archival Collections

  1. 1. Security Management and Disaster Preparedness for Archival Collections by Fe Angela M. Verzosa
  2. 2. preservation and security <ul><li>preservation as a basic archival function </li></ul><ul><li>security as a basic library function </li></ul><ul><li>security as a basic archival function for </li></ul><ul><li>records control </li></ul><ul><li>records storage </li></ul><ul><li>records use </li></ul>
  3. 3. preservation <ul><li>“ the acquisition, organization and distribution of resources (human, physical, monetary) to ensure adequate protection of historical and cultural information of enduring value and access for present and future generations.” Paul Conway </li></ul>
  4. 4. Security is a basic function <ul><li>freedom from danger </li></ul><ul><li>protection from unauthorized access </li></ul><ul><li>loss avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>damage prevention </li></ul><ul><li>reduction of long-term threat posed by improper environmental conditions </li></ul>
  5. 5. Evaluating security needs <ul><li>Different types of repositories </li></ul><ul><li>university/college archives </li></ul><ul><li>government archives </li></ul><ul><li>business archives </li></ul><ul><li>research institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Different repository areas </li></ul><ul><li>stack and processing areas </li></ul><ul><li>reading/exhibit areas </li></ul><ul><li>office/staff areas </li></ul><ul><li>Developing a security plan </li></ul>
  6. 6. Security Plan <ul><li>Identify the assets, threats </li></ul><ul><li>Assess vulnerability </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate existing policies/procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Write-out policy statements </li></ul><ul><li>Establish priorities </li></ul><ul><li>Identify persons responsible and areas of responsibilities </li></ul>
  7. 7. Assets <ul><li>Archives and manuscripts </li></ul><ul><li>Books and audio-visual materials </li></ul><ul><li>Computers and electronic resources </li></ul><ul><li>Furniture and Equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Staff </li></ul>
  8. 8. identification of items <ul><li>conduct an inventory / holdings list </li></ul><ul><li>classify items of value </li></ul><ul><li>separate valuable originals </li></ul><ul><li>mark/label materials </li></ul><ul><li>service only processed materials </li></ul><ul><li>keep a record of checked-out items </li></ul>
  9. 9. Threats <ul><li>Theft or loss </li></ul><ul><li>Damage/Destruction by fire, earthquake, or flood </li></ul><ul><li>Damage by neglect </li></ul>
  10. 10. Vulnerability <ul><li>Open or closed areas </li></ul><ul><li>Trustworthy staff </li></ul><ul><li>High or low crime rate in area </li></ul><ul><li>Opening/closing hours </li></ul><ul><li>Disaster preparedness plan </li></ul><ul><li>Fire suppression system </li></ul><ul><li>Heat and humidity controls </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation program </li></ul>
  11. 11. assessment process <ul><li>begin with gathering info on existing policies to know the limits of what can/cannot be done. </li></ul><ul><li>determine the requirements of every area by conducting a survey of the exterior and the interior environments </li></ul><ul><li>identify possible threats to the holdings </li></ul><ul><li>examine archival/library operations, personnel movements, patron behavior, etc. </li></ul>
  12. 12. access policies <ul><li>physical access and / or intellectual access </li></ul><ul><li>free access vs. restricted access </li></ul><ul><li>open stacks vs. closed stacks </li></ul><ul><li>use of passwords for computer access </li></ul><ul><li>admittance regulations </li></ul><ul><li>who should have access </li></ul><ul><li>points of access </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>deterring thefts </li></ul><ul><li>identifying or marking items </li></ul><ul><li>controlling the exterior environment </li></ul><ul><li>securing the interior environment </li></ul><ul><li>insuring valuable materials/vital documents </li></ul>Loss avoidance
  14. 14. Guards as first line of security <ul><li>courteous and respectable </li></ul><ul><li>knowledge of the law and common sense </li></ul><ul><li>observant and alert </li></ul><ul><li>firm and thorough in the performance of duties </li></ul><ul><li>honest and diligent </li></ul><ul><li>focused on the job </li></ul>
  15. 15. deterring thefts <ul><li>learn to think like thieves </li></ul><ul><li>install security devises - locks, grills, alarms, cameras, timers </li></ul><ul><li>engage in close supervision </li></ul><ul><li>conduct surveillance </li></ul><ul><li>put up signages </li></ul>
  16. 16. what to do with thieves <ul><li>no action unless “caught in the act” </li></ul><ul><li>discreet apprehension w/ witness </li></ul><ul><li>detention for further investigation </li></ul><ul><li>prosecution (court action) </li></ul><ul><li>other disciplinary actions public / private apologies fines/penalties </li></ul><ul><li>suspension of archives/library privileges </li></ul>
  17. 17. controlling the exterior <ul><li>close watch of entrance/exits and access points </li></ul><ul><li>sufficient lighting </li></ul><ul><li>intrusion-detection system </li></ul><ul><li>knowledge of physical lay-out </li></ul><ul><li>obstructive landscaping </li></ul>
  18. 18. securing the interior <ul><li>know the physical lay-out </li></ul><ul><li>staff responsibility in closing </li></ul><ul><li>adequate lighting </li></ul><ul><li>area visibility from staff desk </li></ul><ul><li>user/visitor and staff logbooks </li></ul><ul><li>control of keys </li></ul>
  19. 19. insurance <ul><li>insure the building and its contents </li></ul><ul><li>insure only marketable items </li></ul><ul><li>consult appraiser for value </li></ul><ul><li>reappraise every five years </li></ul><ul><li>know the coverage of the policy </li></ul>
  20. 20. damage prevention <ul><li>environmental damage </li></ul><ul><li>fire and water damage </li></ul><ul><li>damage caused by pests </li></ul><ul><li>damage from mishandling, incorrect procedures, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>damage from frequent use </li></ul>
  21. 21. Space considerations <ul><li>space for work, stack room, and reading room </li></ul><ul><li>free from flooding, dampness, and extreme temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>free from uncontrolled lighting conditions </li></ul><ul><li>security-safe, sheltered but accessible </li></ul>
  22. 22. facilities & equipment <ul><li>fireproofing </li></ul><ul><li>airconditioning </li></ul><ul><li>humidity control </li></ul><ul><li>smoke and heat detectors </li></ul><ul><li>double locks </li></ul><ul><li>security alarm </li></ul><ul><li>ultraviolet filter screens </li></ul><ul><li>heavy curtains </li></ul><ul><li>acid-free boxes </li></ul><ul><li>acid-free folders </li></ul><ul><li>rust-free supplies </li></ul>
  23. 23. COMMON HAZARDS <ul><li>temperature </li></ul><ul><li>humidity </li></ul><ul><li>light </li></ul><ul><li>insects and rodents </li></ul><ul><li>fungi, mold, mildew </li></ul><ul><li>acid </li></ul><ul><li>fire </li></ul><ul><li>water </li></ul><ul><li>PEOPLE using ink/pens using adhesives laminating folding, tearing spilling food/drink bending, tracing stealing/mutilating </li></ul>
  24. 24. retarding deterioration <ul><li>temperature and humidity control </li></ul><ul><li>filtration screens against dirt and air pollutants </li></ul><ul><li>filters against ultraviolet and infrared rays </li></ul><ul><li>deacidification </li></ul><ul><li>acid-free/rust-free storage facilities </li></ul><ul><li>careful handling </li></ul><ul><li>good housekeeping (and pest control) </li></ul>
  25. 25. preservation priorities <ul><li>high-quality informational content </li></ul><ul><li>significant current/projected use </li></ul><ul><li>physical condition of original format </li></ul><ul><li>cost-effectiveness of treatment </li></ul>
  26. 26. preservation options conditions <ul><ul><ul><li>actions </li></ul></ul></ul>damaged fragile and endangered frequently used pest-infested <ul><li>in-house treatment </li></ul><ul><li>deacidification </li></ul><ul><li>lab conservation </li></ul><ul><li>encapsulation </li></ul><ul><li>lamination </li></ul><ul><li>microfilming </li></ul><ul><li>digitization </li></ul><ul><li>photocopying </li></ul><ul><li>fumigation </li></ul>
  27. 27. Starting a preservation program <ul><li>examine the environment </li></ul><ul><li>improve the environment </li></ul><ul><li>examine the materials / establish priorities for treatment </li></ul><ul><li>separate materials for in-house treatment from those requiring professional care </li></ul><ul><li>establish a work room for remedial treatment </li></ul><ul><li>supervise in-house repairs and restoration </li></ul><ul><li>work with a professional conservator </li></ul><ul><li>keep informed </li></ul>
  28. 28. Thank you very much . <ul><ul><li>Let’s all have a nice day . </li></ul></ul>