Copyright Protection for Philippine Publications


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Plenary Paper delivered at the 12th Congress of Southeast Asian Librarians on Information Resources Empowerment: Enhancing Knowledge Heritage, held at the International Convention Center, Berakas, Brunei Darussalam, 2003 Oct 19

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  • Copyright Protection for Philippine Publications

    1. 1. Copyright Protection for Philippine Publications by Fe Angela M. Verzosa
    2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Libraries share with users liability for any copyright publication. </li></ul><ul><li>Donors expect to be protected from injury to rights they retain in the materials deposited or donated. </li></ul><ul><li>However, librarians must serve the demands of research and scholarship. </li></ul><ul><li>IT has made it harder to enforce Copyright Law. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Outline <ul><li>What copyright problems are encountered in Philippine libraries and archives? </li></ul><ul><li>What is protected by Phil Copyright Law? </li></ul><ul><li>What reproduction rights do libraries and archives have under this law? </li></ul><ul><li>How can libraries avoid copyright liability? </li></ul><ul><li>What can Filipino librarians do to help in the enforcement of the law? </li></ul>
    4. 4. Overview of copyright protection in the Philippines <ul><li>Under the Philippine Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual Property Code (RA 8293) of 1998 </li></ul><ul><li>Berne Convention </li></ul>
    5. 5. Intellectual Piracy <ul><li>Intellectual theft has become a lucrative industry </li></ul><ul><li>Pirates from other parts in Asia bring their business to the Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>Software industry lost P1.4 B in revenues due to 51 % piracy rate , based on year 2000 figures </li></ul><ul><li>Sound recording industry lost P 65M due to 33% piracy rate </li></ul><ul><li>Entertainment software industry lost P 2B due to 98 % piracy rate </li></ul>
    6. 6. Copyright problems encountered <ul><li>Photocopying multiple copies of textbook to avoid purchase </li></ul><ul><li>Photocopying an entire thesis without author’s permission </li></ul><ul><li>Arranging with faculty multiple copying of materials for class use </li></ul><ul><li>Requesting thru interlibrary loan photocopy of an entire book to accommodate user request </li></ul>
    7. 7. Other Copyright problems <ul><li>Allowing unsupervised copying </li></ul><ul><li>Making extra copies of films/videos </li></ul><ul><li>Supplying chapters or articles from journal for document delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Buying pirated editions to economize </li></ul>
    8. 8. What is Intellectual Property Code (RA No. 8293) ? <ul><li>Prescribes the law on – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyright and Related rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trademarks and Service Marks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geographic Indications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial Designs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Layout Designs of Integrated Circuits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection of Undisclosed Information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Establishes the Property Intellectual Office, providing for its powers and functions </li></ul>
    9. 9. Copyright <ul><li>Works are protected from the moment of creation. </li></ul><ul><li>Not protected are ideas, procedure, system, method of operation, discovery, concept or mere data </li></ul><ul><li>No copyright for government works (but prior approval from the gov’t agency is required for the exploitation of such work for profit) </li></ul>
    10. 10. Copyright protects creators of: <ul><li>Original work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>literary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dramatic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>musical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>artistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>other forms of expressions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sound recordings </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>audiovisual/cinematographic works </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sound/tv broadcasts </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pictorial illustrations and advertisements </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>other scholarly or scientific works </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Derivative (or new) works <ul><li>Dramatizations, translations, adaptations, abridgements, arrangement, and other alterations of literary or artistic works </li></ul><ul><li>Collections of literary, scholarly or artistic works, and compilations of data and other materials which are original by reason of the selection or coordination or arrangement of their contents </li></ul>
    12. 12. New Works Protected <ul><li>Computer programs </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia </li></ul><ul><li>Databases </li></ul><ul><li>Software protected as a literary work </li></ul>
    13. 13. Exclusive rights of creators of: <ul><li>literary, dramatic, & musical works </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reproduce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>publish if unpublished </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>perform in public/ or display in public </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>broadcast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>include in cable program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>make an adaptation/ dramatization / translation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to first sale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rental right </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Exclusive rights of creators of : (cont) <ul><li>artistic works </li></ul><ul><li>reproduce </li></ul><ul><li>include in a TV broadcast </li></ul><ul><li>display in public </li></ul><ul><li>include in a cable program </li></ul><ul><li>right to first sale </li></ul>
    15. 15. Right to make commercial rental arrangements <ul><li>applies to : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>computer programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sound recordings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cinematographic works </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Infringement under E-Commerce Act <ul><li>Piracy or the unauthorized copying, </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction, dissemination, distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Importation, use </li></ul><ul><li>Removal, alteration, substitution, modification </li></ul><ul><li>Storage, uploading, downloading </li></ul><ul><li>Communicating, making available to the public, or broadcasting </li></ul>of protected material, electronic signature, or copyrighted works thru the use of telecommunication network (INTERNET)
    17. 17. Copyright Ownership <ul><li>Generally owned by author/creator : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>literary works </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>artistic works </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>if work is not part of regular duties of employment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>audiovisual works </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>letters </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. <ul><li>Except: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>works created as part of regular duties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>commissioned photos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>engravings, drawings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>paintings, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>anonymous works </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pseudonymous works </li></ul></ul>Copyright Ownership
    19. 19. Copyright Duration <ul><li>Life time plus 50 years after death </li></ul><ul><ul><li>literary works and unpublished works </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>works of joint authorship (from death of last surviving author) </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Copyright Duration <ul><li>50 years from the date of publication/making </li></ul><ul><li>anonymous/pseudonymous works </li></ul><ul><li>photographic and audiovisual works </li></ul><ul><li>sound recordings and performances </li></ul>
    21. 21. <ul><li>First Offense: imprisonment of 1 to 3 years and fine of P 50,000 to P 150,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Second Offense: imprisonment of 3 to 6 years and fine of P 150,000 to P 300,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Third Offense: imprisonment of 6 to 9 years and fine of P500,000 to P1.5 M </li></ul>Penalties
    22. 22. What the Law may allow under certain conditions - <ul><li>Recitation or performance of a work </li></ul><ul><li>Quoting from a published work </li></ul><ul><li>Reproducing and communicating to the public any literary, scientific or artistic work </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusion of a work in a publication </li></ul><ul><li>Recording of a work by an educational institution </li></ul><ul><li>Use of government-controlled works </li></ul><ul><li>Public display of original or copy of a work </li></ul><ul><li>Use of any work for legal purposes </li></ul>
    23. 23. <ul><li>provided copies are not for commercial advantage </li></ul><ul><li>solely for purposes of research and private study </li></ul>Library retains right to reproduce -
    24. 24. <ul><li>Original works whose fragility/rarity justifies their not being lent out ; </li></ul><ul><li>Articles contained in composite works or brief portions of other published works, for reason of expediency, for purposes of research and private study, instead of lending the entire volumes containing them; </li></ul><ul><li>For preservation or replacement of lost, stolen, destroyed, unusable copy, provided, they are out of stock. </li></ul>Library has right to reproduce -
    25. 25. <ul><li>out of print, out of stock, rare </li></ul><ul><li>for preservation </li></ul><ul><li>For security (as in back-up copy for computer programs) </li></ul><ul><li>Fair use for purposes of scholarship, research and private study, criticism and review, news reporting, classroom teaching and similar purposes (provided it is not for an entire book or a substantial part of it) </li></ul>General defenses against Copyright
    26. 26. Factors in determining what is “fair use” <ul><li>purpose and character of the use </li></ul><ul><li>nature of the copyrighted work </li></ul><ul><li>amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the work as a whole </li></ul><ul><li>effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the work </li></ul>
    27. 27. Acceptable conditions for classroom copying <ul><li>single copy (not an entire book, or database, or computer program) for teaching / research </li></ul><ul><li>multiple copies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provided copy is brief, and for one course </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provided such copy is not repeated by the same faculty for the same material from term to term </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provided such copying is done at the instance of the individual faculty and not by a higher authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provided only the actual photocopying cost is charged to the student </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Copyrighted Publications 1992-1998
    29. 29. Copyrighted Publications 1998-2002
    30. 30. How can Libraries/Archives avoid copyright liability <ul><li>Post a warning sign on every location of unsupervised copying machines re copyright restrictions </li></ul><ul><li>Include in published rules that the library reserves the right to refuse to accept a copying request </li></ul><ul><li>Remind users that copying the books lent out may exceed fair use privileges in violation of copyright </li></ul>
    31. 31. Library policies implementing Copyright Law <ul><li>Include photocopying guidelines in Library Guide and library orientation program </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid library arrangement for systematic reproduction of multiple copies for users </li></ul><ul><li>Include policy of requesting author’s / publishers permission to photocopy his/her textbook </li></ul><ul><li>Prohibit copying of copyrighted materials not allowed by fair use, license agreement, or permission of copyright owner </li></ul><ul><li>Include in student/faculty handbook rules that place liability for willful infringement on student/faculty violators </li></ul><ul><li>Keep records regarding requests for permissions, responses to requests, and license agreements </li></ul>
    32. 32. OTHER Library policies… <ul><li>Document delivery policy </li></ul><ul><li>Interlibrary loan policy </li></ul><ul><li>Photocopying/digitizing Preservation Copies </li></ul><ul><li>Policy on Non-book materials Reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Guidelines for Fair Use of Copyrighted Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Guidelines for Fair Use of Unpublished Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Guidelines for Use of Films and Video </li></ul><ul><li>Guidelines on Photographic Services </li></ul>
    33. 33. Promoting Copyright Law enforcement… <ul><li>By discussing copyright problems encountered in the workplace during meetings with staff </li></ul><ul><li>By discussing copyright policies during Student/Faculty Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>By encouraging librarians and staff to attend seminars on Copyright Law </li></ul><ul><li>By strict implementation of library policies related to copyright protection </li></ul><ul><li>By reporting violations to proper authorities </li></ul>
    34. 34. NEW DEVELOPMENTS Proposed bill to provide for the protection of Community Intellectual Rights of Indigenous Peoples HB 3182 amending Copyright Law
    35. 35. Amendments proposed by HB 3182 to respond to intellectual piracy Recommends more stringent penalties for rights-violators, particularly in the Internet, and immediate judicial relief and alternate legal options for victims
    36. 36. Amendments proposed by HB 3182 to respond to intellectual piracy <ul><li>Provides similar rights accorded to authors to – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>performers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>phonogram producers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>broadcasters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>by acknowledging their right to control or be compensated for the various ways in which their works are used or enjoyed by others. </li></ul>
    37. 37. Amendments proposed by HB 3182 to respond to intellectual piracy rights-holders may use technology to protect their own rights and to license their own works online
    38. 38. Impact of Amendments under HB 3182 Extends copyright protection to 70 years after death Extension up to 95 years for anonymous or pseudonymous works, and audiovisual works
    39. 39. Good day to all!