Tom has lived in Boston for twenty years. They didn't come to the party last night. I was cooking dinner when you telephoned. What are you doing tomorrow afternoon?
Auxiliaries in Question Tags
Tag: Auxiliary verb + subject pronoun.
Positive statement + negative tag
Negative statement+ positive tag
They enjoy learning English, don't they? He won't agree with me, will he?
Auxiliaries in short answers
Suject + auxiliary verb (affirmative or negative)
Do you live in England? - No, I don't. Has she been to Paris? - Yes, she has.
With a positive statement: So+auxiliary verb+ subject
With a negative statement: Nor/ Neither+ auxiliary+ subject.
I went to the beach last weekend. - So did I. I'm working very hard at the moment. - So is she.
They haven't worked here long. - Neither have I. We won't be able to come next week. - Neither will I
Have a go at auxiliaries!
He ____ come to school yesterday because he was ill.
She ____ been working in the garden since two this afternoon.
I'm afraid I ____ be able to come to the party. I have to study.
You've visited London, ______ you?
didn´t has Won’t Haven’t
I don't like country music. - Neither _____ I.
They won't come to the party, _____ they?
Mom _____ been working for two hours when I telephoned.
I think they are fantastic! - So _____ she.
What _____ they doing?
Mary hasn't enjoyed herself so much for a long time. - Neither _____ I.
You've visited London, _________ you?
They _____ going to attend a meeting in Chicago next week.
Why _____ you buy that?! It's ugly!
She __________ often go to the movies.
do will had does are are did Haven’t Doesn’t have
Introduction + wh-/if + subject+verb + objects...
Remember do,does,did are never used in indirect questions!
When does the next train arrive? - Direct question - Do you know when the next train arrives? - Indirect question
Do this exercise:
Who built that enormous bridge? I wonder...
who built that enormous bridge
Did Benjamin Franklin write 'Poor Richard's Almanac'? I can't remember ....
if B. F. wrote ...
Who did you meet at the party? I'd like to know ...
who you met at the party .
When was the film produced? Nobody remembers .. ....when the film was produced Have they flown an ultralight too? I don't know ... ....if they have flown an ultralight too. What is it called in English? I can't remember .... ....it is called in English
VERBS + INFINITIVE afford, agree, appear, arrange, ask, attempt, care, choose, dare, decidedeserve, expect, forget, happen, help, hope, learn, manage, offer, pretend, promise, refuse, seem, threaten, want, wish Examples: Thelma´s boss refuses to give her a pay rise. I´ve arranged to se e the doctor on Tuesday.
VERBS + -ING These verbs include: admit, appreciate, avoid, consider, delay, deny, dislike, enjoy, face, fancy, feel like, finish, forgive, give up, can´t help, imagine, keep, look forward to, mind, miss, practise, put off, resist, risk, can´t stand, suggest, understand Examples: Andrew admitted cheating in the exam. Elena has given up smoking.
Add the correct form of the verb in brackets. 1. I miss __________ tennis with him. (play)
2. Jane wants __________ to Paris in
3. Her boss knew that she was pretending __________ ill. (be) 4. I don´t feel like __________ today. (cook)
playing To go To be cooking
A few more exercises
5. He managed __________ the report before he went home. (finish) 6. We agreed __________ them . (help ) 7. Good news! I´ve given up __________ ! (smoke) 8. Do you fancy __________ to the cinema tonight? (go) 9. I haven´t finished __________ the newspaper yet. (read)
To finish smoking To help going reading
Present Real Conditionals
If / When ... Simple Present ..., ... Simple Present
Simple Present ... if / when ... Simple Present ...
USEThe Present Real Conditional is used to talk about what you normally do in real-life situations.
If the weather is nice, she walks to work.
Present Unreal Conditional
If ... Simple Past ..., ... would + verb ...
The Present Unreal Conditional is used to talk about what you would generally do in imaginary situations.
If I owned a car, I would drive to work. But I don't own a car.
Past Unreal Conditional
If ... Past Perfect ..., ... would have + past participle .
USE: The Past Unreal Conditional is used to talk about imaginary situations in the past. You can describe what you would have done differently or how something could have happened differently if circumstances had been different.
If I had owned a car, I would have driven to work. But I didn't own one, so I took the bus.
More about conditionals
Mixed Conditional Patterns
PAST PRESENT Examples:
If I had won the lottery, I would be rich. But I didn't win the lottery in the past and I am not rich now.
PRESENT PAST Examples:
If I were rich, I would have bought that Ferrari we saw yesterday. But I am not currently rich and that is why I didn't buy the Ferrari yesterday.
Complete with the correct tense
If I (have) enough money in my twenties, I (backpack) around Europe. But, unfortunately, I was broke.
... If I had had...I would have backpacked
She would have been here earlier if she (miss, not) the train.
If she hadn’t missed
Thank you for helping me study. If you hadn't tutored me, I (fail) the test.
Would have failed
I'm sorry, I didn't know you were allergic to chocolate. If I (know) , I (make) you a vanilla birthday cake.
If I had known... would have made...
Did you hear that Margaret won $2,000 in Las Vegas, and she used the money to buy a new washing machine and dryer? How boring! If I (win) that much money, I (go) to Tahiti for a couple of weeks.
If I had won.. Would have gone
Tom is not going to come to dinner tomorrow because you insulted him yesterday. But, he (come) if you (insult) him.
Would come...hadn’t insulted
Marie is unhappy because she gave up her career when she got married. But, Marie (be) happy if she (give, not) up her career when she got married.
Would be happy...if she hadn’t given
Nicole speaks Chinese fluently because she lived in China for ten years.
But, Nicole (speak, not) Chinese fluently if she (live, not) in China for ten years.
wouldn’t speak...if he hadn’t lived
A strong wind __________ through the trees
In her dreams that night, Diana had __________ in a pool of warm cocoa
Becky had both an empty wallet and stomach, so she __________ a chocolate bar from the candy rack.
Chauncey wouldn’t have __________ some of the squid eyeball stew if a long, gray tentacle hadn't dangled over the side of the bowl.
My grandmother doesn't trust banks, so she has __________ money all over the house.
Word of the week
What is a digital native?
person who has grown up in a world with digital technology such as the Internet and mobile phones
What are digital immigrants?
their antithesis, being the folks born earlier who, either reluctantly or enthusiastically, have adapted to the digital world and incorporated its tools into their
What is a chad?
a small piece of paper or card which is left over when holes are punched in voting slips, data cards, etc.