Personality Pcm


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Personality Pcm

  1. 1. Personality ” He who knows others is clever, he who knows himself is enlightened” Lao-Tzu
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>1/ Identify factors determining personality </li></ul><ul><li>2/ Explain the “Big Five” personality dimensions and identify your own profile </li></ul><ul><li>3/ Define the impact of the major personality traits on the work behavior and job performance </li></ul>
  3. 3. Personality <ul><li>Physical and mental characteristics which are responsible for a person’s identity and determine his/her unique adjustments to the environment </li></ul>
  4. 4. What determines your personality? <ul><li>Heredity ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shyness, fear, aggressiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separated twins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(parental environment?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job satisfaction is stable over time and across jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environment ? </li></ul><ul><li>(cultural factors, family, group membership) </li></ul><ul><li>PERSONALITY </li></ul>“ Me and my circumstances are one and the same thing!” Ortega i Gasset
  5. 5. Personality Traits <ul><li>Trait : underlying dimension along which people differ one from another </li></ul><ul><li>At least partly genetically and biologically determined => rather stable </li></ul><ul><li>Any relation between personality, behaviour and job performance ? (=> Psychometrics: testing and assessment of intelligence, ability and personality; e.g. screening candidates !) </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Big Five Dimensions Costa et McCrae (1992) <ul><li>Broad acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>5 major personal dimensions (independent): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extroversion : sociability; assertiveness; activity; positive emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agreeableness : altruism; trust; modesty; cooperation; avoiding conflicts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conscientiousness : order; responsibility; achievement striving; focusing on goals and deadlines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional stability ( vs Neuroticism): anxiety; tension; impulsiveness; relaxation; security; discouragement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Openness to experience : fantasy; aesthetics; feelings; ideas; curiosity; values </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Big Five Dimensions Openness to experience Emotional stability Conscientiousness Agreeableness Extroversion A person may have low, moderate, or high degree of each of these factors Moderate High Low
  8. 8. Big Five <ul><li>Universal : consistent across cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Stabilized personality structure by age 30, </li></ul><ul><li>but some changes after 30 : environment matters! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consciousness, Agreeableness increase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neuroticism and Extroversion decline for women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Openness declines (very slowly) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>U S A : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Population-dense areas are associated with higher Openness and lower Agreeableness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnically diversed states shows higher Openness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Places with higher precipitation have higher rates of Neuroticism </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Big Five: correlations with behaviour and performance <ul><li>Conscientiousness (self-discipline, obligation, persistance): the strongest positive correlation with job performance, job knowledge, job commitment and training results </li></ul><ul><li>Extroversion : with promotions, salary level and career satisfaction (managerial and sales positions) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Big Five: correlations with behaviour and performance (cont.) <ul><li>Openness : with training competencies </li></ul><ul><li>Low emotional stability : negatively with job satisfaction; no correlation with performance! </li></ul>
  11. 11. Big Five: other correlations <ul><li>with Organizational Cultures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extroversion : team-oriented and agressive cultures (sales positions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agreeableness : supportive cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Openness : innovative cultures </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Big 5: General Correlations <ul><li>Extroverted people (vs introverted): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Happier in their jobs and life, have more friends, spend more time in social situations; but more impulsive (higher absenteism) and more likely to engage in risky behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Agreeable people: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better in school (children); less likely to have risky behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conscientious people : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Live longer, engage in less risky conduct; but do not adapt as well to changing contexts, have more trouble in learning complex skills, less creative </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emotionally stable people: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Happier, more satisfied (job and life), fewer health complaints; less fast and less relevant reactions in bad moods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Open people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More creative (science and art), less religious, cope better with change and organizational uncertainties </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. bigfive /
  14. 14. Problems with testing <ul><li>Certain traits may be cardinal (pervasive across all situations) or secondary (evident only in quite restricted situations) </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals are not trapped in the categories: scores reveal tendencies and perferences </li></ul><ul><li>Some people will not fit in with generalizations ! </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology: circularity of traits </li></ul><ul><li>If you want other people pass your test: 70% of candidates may meet the minimum pass rate </li></ul>
  15. 16. Locus of Control : degree to which people believe they are masters of their own fate <ul><li>Believe that their own actions influence what happens to them . </li></ul><ul><li>People are easier to motivate </li></ul><ul><li>Believe events in their life happen because of luck, or chance. </li></ul><ul><li>May feel helpless to change things. </li></ul>Internal External - Internals are more likely to emerge as group leaders - Groups led by internals perform better - Internally controlled CEOs select risky and innovative strategies to a higher degree - Internally controlled CEOs are more future oriented and more entrepreneurial .
  16. 17. Machiavellian Personality (“If it works, use it”) <ul><li>Mach scale: </li></ul><ul><li>w illingness to put self-interests and own preferences above the interests of the group, and the ability to influence and manipulate others for personal gain </li></ul><ul><li>High Machs : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>view human nature cynically, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>show few scruples, lack honesty, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rely on emotional appeals, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more flexible in behavior, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are persuaded less and persuade others more </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Situational factors: </li></ul><ul><li>interacting face to face with others rather than indirectly (autonomy); </li></ul><ul><li>situation having minimum or flexible rules (norms) allowing improvisation </li></ul><ul><li>emotional involvement with irrelevant details distracting low Machs </li></ul>
  17. 18. Machiavellian Personality and Leadership <ul><li>There are no very clear stable linkages to leadership, but: </li></ul><ul><li>High Machs tend to be more successful , but not effective leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Medium Machs tend to be most effective leaders (good negotiators, do not abuse their power, focus on group goals) </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-cultural differences: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chineese managers score higher on the Mach scale than US managers </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Examples of individuals exemplifying personality traits (Big 5 Model) Jagger Thatcher Control, discipline Marilyn Monroe Copernicus Self-sufficiency, independance Queen Victoria Karl Marx Radicality, Experimentation Henry Ford Van Gogh Imagination, non-conventionality Hamlet Washington Emotional stability Low High Dimension