Perception Pcm P1

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  • 1. Perception processes Part 1
  • 2.
    • Perception: cognitive process of interpreting one’s environment
  • 3. Hofstede’s experiences: What do you see?
  • 4. Hofstede’s experiences
  • 5. Implications for perception
    • Perception is selective (filtering)
    • Our past experience conditions our way of understanding the situation
    • Recency : We tend to remember recent information
    • Perception is culturally determined
  • 6. Suppression of ambiguity
    • We try to suppress ambiguity and uncertainty in our intuitive judgment and conscious perception
  • 7. Other Perceptual Biases
    • Suppression of ambiguity
    • Contrast errors
    • =>objects and people are perceived in a certain context
    • Halo effect : one trait forms a general impression
      • “ attractiveness” increases the likehood of the poor CV being asked for the interview
      • vs Horn effect : giving someone a poor appraisal on one quality
    • First impression error
      • “ I knew as soon as she walked through the door her face would fit the job”
  • 8. Insentivity to Sample Size
    • Most people choose C
    • Simple statistics : it is much more likely to observe 60% of male babies in a smaller sample than in a larger sample – a large sample is less likely deviated from the mean
  • 9. What do you think about this?
    • Advertizing strategy:
    • “ Four out of five dentists surveyed recommended sugarless gum for their patients who chewed gum! “
  • 10. Other Perceptual Biases (cont)
    • Hindsight biais
      • - People tend to surestimate what they really knew about the result – when the result is later learned
    • Similarity (“ same as me” or “different from me” )
      • - being positively predisposed toward people who seem similar to you and negatively against people who are unlike you (=> “procterization”)
    • Latest behavior
      • - basing an appraisal on the person’s recent behavior, rather than on how the person behaved through the appraisal period
    • Status effect
      • giving those in a higher level positions consistently better appraisal, rather than on person’s characteristics
  • 11. Why job applicants are not hired (survey of 153 US HRmanagers)
    • 1. Poor personal appearance
    • 2. Overaggressiveness
    • 3. Inability to express information clearly
    • 4. Lack of interest and enthusiasm
    • 5. Lack of career planning; no purpose
    • 6. Nervous; lack of confidence
    • 7. Overemphasis on money
    • 8. Makes excuses
    • 10. Lack of tact and courtesy
    • 11. Immaturity
    • 12. Condemns past employers
    • 13. No genuine interest in company or job
    • 14. Fails to look interviewer in the eye
    • 15. Sloppy application form
    • 16. Little sense of humour
    • 17. Arrives late at the interview
    • 18. Fails to express appreciation for interviewer’s time
    • 19. Fails to ask questions about the company and job
  • 12. Which option would you choose?
    • Situation 1
    • 1/ Take 100 euros with certainty
    • or
    • 2/ The gamble:
    • 50% chance to win 200 euros
    • 50% chance to lose 250 euros
  • 13. Which option would you choose?
    • Situation 2
    • 1/ Lose 100 euros with certainty
    • or
    • 2/ The gamble:
    • 50% chance to win 200 euros
    • 50% chance to lose 250 euros
  • 14. Perception bias
    • Dominant preferences:
      • Situation 1: 100 euros, not to gamble
      • Situation 2: gamble, take a risk,
    • … While the objectives probabilities of gains and losses are indetical
    • People are risk-seeking in a situation in which they focus on loss
    • People are risk-averse in a situation in which they focus on the gain in the stable situation (”bird in hand”)
    • => Our rationality is bounded !