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2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management
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2008 Rms Cross Cultural Management

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  1. Reims Management School International Management Program Cross-Cultural Management Glenn K. Miyataki, Ph.D. November 17-21, 2008                           
  2.  
  3. <ul><li>Mai pen rai </li></ul><ul><li>=Let it go, take it easy </li></ul>Thai Value
  4.  
  5. <ul><li>Pakikisama </li></ul><ul><li>= 关系 smooth relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Hiya </li></ul><ul><li>=shame </li></ul>Filipino Values
  6.  
  7. <ul><li>Mateship </li></ul><ul><li>=friendship, loyalty </li></ul><ul><li>Fair go </li></ul>Australian Values
  8.  
  9. <ul><li>Quality of Life </li></ul><ul><li>Authoritarianism 权威主义,独裁主义 </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy </li></ul>French Values
  10. Hawaii <ul><li>Mahalo = thank u </li></ul><ul><li>Alloha = hello </li></ul>
  11. Agenda for the Course <ul><li>Global Context and Global Business Model </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-cultural Communications </li></ul><ul><li>Human Relations Training Model </li></ul><ul><li>Work Behavior in Different Cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Multicultural Teams </li></ul><ul><li>21 st Century Leadership Model </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical Decision Making and Summary </li></ul><ul><li>Independent Reports </li></ul><ul><li>Final Examination </li></ul>
  12. Grading for the Course <ul><li>Total of 20 points </li></ul><ul><li>5 points for take-home final exam </li></ul><ul><li>5 points for independent study paper </li></ul><ul><li>5 points for group participation </li></ul><ul><li>5 points for individual participation </li></ul><ul><li>Exam : 2 /17/2009 , 一个必答,两个可选 </li></ul>
  13. Independent Paper <ul><li>Chose a topic: </li></ul><ul><li>> Impact of cultural values on post-merger </li></ul><ul><li>integration, or cultural impact/ differences </li></ul><ul><li>> Impact of cultural values on offshore outsourcing. </li></ul><ul><li>Surf the web to find articles/resources; </li></ul><ul><li>Turn in paper, three pages or less, typed, </li></ul><ul><li> 1.5 spaces between lines; </li></ul><ul><li>Deadline is 11:30 am , 13/2/2009 </li></ul>
  14. Reims Management School International Management Program “ The Global Context And Cultural Diversity”
  15. Different Global Points of View <ul><li>In Japan, if you have two cows, you give one to your neighbor. </li></ul><ul><li>In China, if you have two cows, you give the government the cows and it gives you back the milk. </li></ul><ul><li>In France, if you have two cows, you _ _________________________________ </li></ul>
  16. It’s Really A Global World <ul><li>You can do business almost anywhere in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Innovative ideas are creating a global economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Airplanes close the geographic gap. </li></ul><ul><li>Need to close the cultural gap in doing business. </li></ul><ul><li>IT closes the information gap in real-time . </li></ul>
  17. Intercultural Issues in Global Business <ul><li>CNN Report: mergers and acquisitions </li></ul><ul><li>Outsourcing Times: offshore outsourcing </li></ul><ul><li>ABR and Fast Tech: post-merger integration </li></ul><ul><li>What issues do you see happening in your country? </li></ul><ul><li>Sony’s Howard Stringer: intercultural management </li></ul>
  18. The Road Ahead………….. Asia – will become the world’s largest market
  19. Shift in Global Economies Big 7 Today <ul><li>USA </li></ul><ul><li>Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Korea </li></ul><ul><li>France </li></ul><ul><li>Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Great Britain </li></ul>Big 7 2020 ? <ul><li>USA </li></ul><ul><li>Germany </li></ul><ul><li>India </li></ul><ul><li>China </li></ul><ul><li>Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Japan </li></ul><ul><li>? </li></ul>
  20. John Naisbitt’s Viewpoints <ul><li>Twin paths of globalization and decentralization </li></ul><ul><li>Create your own “global” domain </li></ul><ul><li>Visual arts culture is taking over the world </li></ul><ul><li>Culture important as borders lessen </li></ul><ul><li>Mass customization of talent is necessity </li></ul><ul><li>Education is now the </li></ul><ul><li>No. 1 economic priority </li></ul><ul><li>of globalization </li></ul>Naisbitt, John, “Naisbitt-JAIMS Executive Roundtable Remarks,” Honolulu, Hawaii, January 19, 2005
  21. Because of Globalization……. <ul><li>Organizations need to be more creative and agile </li></ul><ul><li>Be more entrepreneurial in nature </li></ul><ul><li>Deal with rules of law </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the global business context </li></ul><ul><li>Pay attention to cultural attitudes and behavior </li></ul>
  22. Dynamic Equilibrium <ul><li>Global Business Practices </li></ul><ul><li>e-Commerce/m-Commerce </li></ul><ul><li>Legal/Documentation </li></ul><ul><li>Insurance </li></ul><ul><li>Tariffs </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate Governance </li></ul><ul><li>Profit Repatriation </li></ul><ul><li>Outsourcing/Off-shoring </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Global Business </li></ul><ul><li>Import/Export </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Investment </li></ul><ul><li>Portfolio Investment </li></ul><ul><li>Raw Material Extraction </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Capital Ventures </li></ul><ul><li>Mergers and Alliances </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurship </li></ul><ul><li>Socio-economic, political, </li></ul><ul><li>and cultural factors </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Indicators </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Values/Languages </li></ul><ul><li>Government Rules </li></ul><ul><li>Tax Policies </li></ul><ul><li>Beliefs/Rituals </li></ul><ul><li>Political System </li></ul><ul><li>Educational System </li></ul>A Complex Global Business Model
  23. To Compete Effectively…… <ul><li>Speed! </li></ul><ul><li>Top Quality! </li></ul><ul><li>Execution! </li></ul>
  24. History of Management Thought <ul><li>3000-2400 BC Sumerians Commerce; postal system </li></ul><ul><li>3000-1000 BC Egyptians First national government </li></ul><ul><li>2700-500 BC Babylonians Code of Hammurabi </li></ul><ul><li>800 BC-500 AD Romans Staff advisers </li></ul><ul><li>1500 BC-1300 AD Chinese Written testing </li></ul>
  25. <ul><li>Scientific Management </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral Science Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Management Science </li></ul><ul><li>Systems Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Contingency Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese Management </li></ul><ul><li>Theory Z </li></ul><ul><li>Total Quality Management </li></ul><ul><li>Global Management </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-Cultural Management </li></ul>Schools of Management
  26. Cross-Cultural Management (CCM) Definition: CCM is an approach for analyzing, understanding, and managing the behavior of people from different cultures in the workplace. Adler, Nancy J. International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior, 4 th Ed.: Canada: South-Western, 2002.
  27. Building Blocks and Skills <ul><li>Work Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-cultural Communications </li></ul>- Active Listening - Employee Requests - Drama Triangle
  28. Building Blocks and Skills- continued <ul><li>Multicultural Teams </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Business Ethics </li></ul>
  29. Cultural Diversity Exercise <ul><li>Step 1: Identify your Home Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3: You will be assigned a Foreign Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Step 4: Note observations of the Foreign Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Step 5: Get into groups, share insights, arrive at </li></ul><ul><li>consensus of Foreign Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2: Note observations of your Home Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Step 6: Each group will report and discuss similarities </li></ul><ul><li>and differences between Foreign Cultures </li></ul>
  30. Reims Management School International Management Program “ Cross-cultural Communications and Human Relations Training Model ”
  31. Effective Communications Pie What is said How it is said Nonverbal Communication
  32. Cross-cultural Communications <ul><li>Communication roadblocks </li></ul><ul><li>Distortion </li></ul><ul><li>Omission </li></ul><ul><li>Timeliness </li></ul><ul><li>Overload </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance </li></ul>
  33. Dangers of Cross-cultural Communications <ul><li>Parochialism </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnocentrism </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotyping </li></ul><ul><li>Xenophilia </li></ul>
  34. Non-verbal Communication <ul><li>Body Motion (gestures) </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Physical Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Space </li></ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Environment </li></ul>
  35. Role Play Exercise <ul><li>A Printing Press Operation </li></ul>
  36. Active Listening <ul><li>Listen for Meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Feel for Feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Look for Non-verbal Cues </li></ul><ul><li>View from Sender’s Perspective </li></ul>
  37. Empathetic Listener <ul><li>Other-directed rather than self-projecting. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-defensive rather than self-protecting. </li></ul><ul><li>Imagines role, perspectives, and experiences of the other, rather than assuming same as one’s own. </li></ul><ul><li>Listens as receiver, not as a critic, and desires to understand the other person rather than getting something from the other person. </li></ul>
  38. Handling Employee Requests REQUEST Information Social Interaction Understanding & Involvement Action RESPONSE Act, delay, deny, refer Act, delay, deny, refer Act, delay, deny, ? Act, delay, deny, refer
  39. Carkhuff’s Human Relations Training Model Role Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Employee Self-Discovery Self-Understand-ing Self-Action Manager Listens, observes, attends Clarifies, pinpoints, self- discloses Helps action, insures, withdraws
  40. Drama Triangle PERSECUTOR RESCUER VICTIM
  41. Today’s Outcomes <ul><li>Most significant thing learned </li></ul><ul><li>Question you wanted to ask </li></ul>
  42. Reims Management School International Management Program “ Work Behavior in Different Cultures”
  43. 160,000 restaurants 191 Michelin stars 8 three-stars 25 two-stars
  44. Doing Global Business Needed today for doing business, cultural sensitivity and relationship skills. <ul><li>In France, relationships come first, then the deal. </li></ul><ul><li>In Germany, the deal comes first, then relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>In India, relationships come first, then the deal. </li></ul><ul><li>In Poland, relationships come first, then the deal. </li></ul><ul><li>In Hungary, relationships come first, then the deal. </li></ul><ul><li>In Korea, relationships come first, then the deal. </li></ul><ul><li>In China, relationships come first, then the deal. </li></ul><ul><li>In Taiwan, relationships come first, then the deal. </li></ul><ul><li>In Thailand, relationships come first, then the deal. </li></ul>
  45. Cultural Values Cycle Culture Behavior Attitude Values
  46. Levels of Culture <ul><li>Level 1: Universal or Global Culture, e.g. Life and Death </li></ul><ul><li>Level 4: Business Culture, e.g., Profitability </li></ul><ul><li>Level 6: Personal Culture, e.g., Loyalty and Dedication </li></ul><ul><li>Level 2: Societal Culture, e.g., Private Property Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Level 3: National Culture, e.g., Individualism </li></ul><ul><li>Level 5: Corporate Culture, e.g., Quality Service </li></ul>
  47. Your Tree of Values <ul><li>Goals (fruits) </li></ul><ul><li>Accomplishments (leaves) </li></ul><ul><li>Networks (branches) </li></ul><ul><li>Attitude and skills (trunk) </li></ul><ul><li>Core values (roots) </li></ul>
  48. Cultural Differences <ul><li>Cultures are different because of: </li></ul>- Activity: Doing or being - Time: Past, present, or future - Space: Public or private - Personal relationships: Individualism or collectivism - People’s relationship to the world - How people see themselves
  49. <ul><li>Examples of differences among cultures: </li></ul>Saying Culture Meaning Ayorama: Inuit-Canada Subjugation “ It can’t be helped” En Shah Allah: Moslem-Arab Harmony “ If God is willing” with nature Can Do: American Dominance “ I will do it”
  50.  
  51. Etiquette and Protocol <ul><li>Japanese seating arrangement </li></ul><ul><li>Japan in the China market </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese gift-giving </li></ul>
  52. Japan Seating Order - dinner Door Host Hostess 1 2 3 4 5 6
  53. Japanese Gift-giving <ul><li>Appreciation </li></ul><ul><li>Start of relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Congratulations </li></ul><ul><li>Receive favor </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion of company/country </li></ul><ul><li>Compensation for mistake </li></ul><ul><li>Another form of payment </li></ul>
  54. Deep-seated Japanese Values <ul><li>Four major “fears” of the Japanese </li></ul>> Jishin > Oyaji <ul><li>Yarikata (Right Form) </li></ul><ul><li>Amae no kozo (Mother-child dependency) </li></ul>> Kaji > Kaminari
  55. China Motivators <ul><li>Money </li></ul><ul><li>Power </li></ul><ul><li>Mianzi </li></ul>
  56. China Motivators-continued <ul><li>Interpersonal Harmony </li></ul><ul><li>Renging </li></ul><ul><li>Deference to Authority </li></ul>
  57. Japan in the China Market <ul><li>Dobun doshu (same culture, same race) </li></ul><ul><li>Tung zhuang imeng (Sleeping in the same bed with </li></ul><ul><li>different dreams) </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese vs. Americans as partners </li></ul><ul><li>A seething volcano </li></ul>
  58. The Organizational Iceberg
  59. A Framework for Analyzing And Understanding Work Behavior <ul><li>GROUP PROCESSES </li></ul><ul><li>Group Dynamics </li></ul><ul><li>Goal-setting </li></ul><ul><li>Decision Making </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal </li></ul><ul><li>Communications </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict and Negotiations </li></ul><ul><li>INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR </li></ul><ul><li>Needs </li></ul><ul><li>Personality and Attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Traits and Abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Individual Problem-Solving </li></ul><ul><li>Styles </li></ul><ul><li>Perception and Attribution </li></ul><ul><li>Learning and Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Work Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Work Stress </li></ul><ul><li>Career Planning and </li></ul><ul><li>Development </li></ul><ul><li>ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR GOALS </li></ul><ul><li>Improved Organizational </li></ul><ul><li>Performance, e.g., Productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Improved Individual </li></ul><ul><li>Performance, e.g., Professional </li></ul><ul><li>and Personal Development </li></ul><ul><li>Participant Satisfaction, e.g., </li></ul><ul><li>Job Satisfaction and Morale </li></ul><ul><li>ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESSES </li></ul><ul><li>Employee Attachment and </li></ul><ul><li>Withdrawal </li></ul><ul><li>Job Design </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Design and </li></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Performance Appraisal </li></ul>
  60. Hofstede’s Work Behavior Factors <ul><li>Factors that explain differences </li></ul>- Individualism and Collectivism - Power Distance - Career Success and Quality of Life - Uncertainty Avoidance <ul><li>Behavior varies across cultures </li></ul>
  61. <ul><li>France based on Individualism – primary commitment to oneself. Self-identity. </li></ul><ul><li>India based on Collectivism – primary commitment to family. National identity. </li></ul>Individualism vs. Collectivism
  62. <ul><li>India has high power distance - titles, status, and formality important. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany has low power distance - titles, status, and formality not as important as treating each person as an individual. </li></ul>Power Distance (Relationship between Boss and Employee)
  63. <ul><li>Germany has high need for structure and security - value authority, procedures, and chain of command. </li></ul><ul><li>India has low need for structure and security – low key, trusting, and value multiculturalism. </li></ul>Uncertainty Avoidance (Need for Structure and Security)
  64. <ul><li>Both U.S. and Korea focus upon Career Success as life goal - emphasizes work, material things, and attention to profits. </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast with Taiwan that focuses upon Quality of Life as life goal - emphasizes relationships among people, concern for others, and the overall quality of living. </li></ul>Differences in Career Life Goal
  65. Hofstede’s Work Behavior Factors Country Ind./Coll Power Distance Uncertain. Avoidance Career S/ Qual. Life China C large strong CS France I large strong QL Poland C large strong CS India C large weak CS Germany I small strong CS Hungary C large strong CS Taiwan C large strong QL Thailand C large strong QL
  66. Post-Merger Integration <ul><li>Inability to manage target business…….25% </li></ul><ul><li>Clash of management styles/ego……….42% </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to implement change in new organization……………………………… 49% </li></ul><ul><li>Synergies were overestimated………….53% </li></ul><ul><li>Incompatible cultures…………………….58% </li></ul>Reasons for Mergers & Alliances Failures
  67. Post-Merger Integration Process <ul><li>Develop plan for organizational change. </li></ul><ul><li>Design one vision and one set of core values. </li></ul><ul><li>Lead and educate the leaders and managers. </li></ul><ul><li>Create atmosphere of openness and transparency. </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate, communicate, and communicate. </li></ul>
  68. Case example of Japanese company in the Philippines
  69. Case Study of Integrating Cultures <ul><li>Japanese company comes to Philippines and </li></ul><ul><li>establishes its business here. </li></ul><ul><li>Top management mostly Japanese and lower </li></ul><ul><li>ranks mostly Filipinos. </li></ul><ul><li>Gradually, Filipinos are hired for management </li></ul><ul><li>positions. </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of problems during the first several years, </li></ul><ul><li>mostly culture clashes, leading to mediocre financial </li></ul><ul><li>results. </li></ul><ul><li>Problem solved through cross-cultural understanding. </li></ul>
  70. What Filipino Employees Would Like to See <ul><li>An opportunity to take over positions held </li></ul><ul><li>by Japanese. </li></ul><ul><li>Equal treatment with Japanese. </li></ul><ul><li>Shorter meetings. </li></ul><ul><li>More openness. </li></ul><ul><li>More leeway in spending time with family. </li></ul>
  71. What Japanese Employees Would Like to See <ul><li>Keep time; avoid time-wasting activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Proactive thinking: volunteer proposals for </li></ul><ul><li>solutions. </li></ul><ul><li>More concern for group interest than </li></ul><ul><li>individual interest. </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate perspective instead of rank and </li></ul><ul><li>file mentality; work as an organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Managers and supervisors exercising their </li></ul><ul><li>leadership. </li></ul>
  72. The Solution <ul><li>Always create an atmosphere of transparency. </li></ul><ul><li>Share vital information. </li></ul><ul><li>Accept each other’s culture positively and learn from it. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid descriptions such as “In Japan, we do this…”, “In the Philippines, we do this…” </li></ul><ul><li>Treat each other as partners toward company progress and success. </li></ul><ul><li>Be open to changes. </li></ul>Happy result: Morale improved, productivity increased, and company has won several awards for their achievements the past five years.
  73. <ul><li>Influence of company vs. national culture </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnocentrism and stereotyping </li></ul>Work Behavior Issues
  74. Reims Management School International Management Program “ Multicultural Teams ”
  75. Desert Survival Exercise <ul><li>Team behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison of outcomes </li></ul>
  76. Multicultural Teams (  Actual Productivity = (  ) Potential Productivity - (  ) Losses due to Faulty Process or  )
  77. Advantages and Disadvantages of Diversity Advantages Disadvantages  Increased Creativity  Increased Understanding of Others  Better decisions  More effective teams  Lack of Cohesion  Inability for Consensus  Less Efficient  Less Effective  Less Productive
  78. Stages of Team Development Forming Storming Norming Performing Adjourning Stages Mature Immature Failure Failure Failure Reference: Hellriegel & Slocum, Organizational Behavior, 10 th edition, 2004, Thomson Learning.
  79. Reims Management School International Management Program “ 21 st Century Leadership Model”
  80. Philosophy about Leadership Theory X Leader Theory Y Leader <ul><li>Many employees dislike work and will try to avoid it if possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Many employees want and need me to provide direction. </li></ul><ul><li>I am responsible for getting my employees to do as much work as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>I can count on my employees to be self-directed and work toward the company’s objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>My employees are eager to take on responsibilities at work. </li></ul><ul><li>Most employees like to work and achieve something. </li></ul>
  81. Bases of Power <ul><li>Legitimate Power </li></ul><ul><li>Reward Power </li></ul><ul><li>Coercive Power </li></ul><ul><li>Referent Power </li></ul><ul><li>Expert Power </li></ul>
  82. Traditional Leadership Models <ul><li>Trait Model of Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence: higher than subordinates. </li></ul><ul><li>Maturity and breadth: emotionally mature and </li></ul><ul><li>broad range of interests. </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement drive: results oriented. </li></ul><ul><li>Honesty: has integrity and trustworthy. </li></ul>
  83. Traditional Models-continued <ul><li>Behavioral Model of Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Consideration: one of the main dimensions that describe relationships between the leader and subordinates characterized by mutual trust, two-way communication, respect for employees’ ideas, and empathy for their feelings. </li></ul><ul><li>Initiating Structure: the other main dimension where leaders concern themselves with accomplishing tasks by setting performance goals, giving directions, and expecting them to be done. </li></ul><ul><li>Both are not mutual exclusive and a person could be high on both dimensions….the effective leader. </li></ul>
  84. Micro-managing Aligning with broad vision and goal-setting and strategy Being a manager Being a leader Being a boss Being a coach and facilitator Controlling people Empowering people A New Model for 21st Century Leadership Directing with rules Guiding with corporate culture and regulations and shared values Centralizing authority Distributing leadership
  85. Establishing “position Building “relationship power” power” and hierarchy and network of teams Demanding compliance Gaining commitment Focusing on numbers Focusing on quality service and tasks and the customer Stressing independence Fostering interdependence A New Model - continued Encouraging “old boy” Respecting, honoring, and networks encouraging cultural diversity Confronting and Collaborating and unifying combative
  86. Changing by necessity Changing through continuous and crisis learning and innovating Being internally Being globally competitive competitive Having a narrow focus; Having a broader focus; “ Me and my organi- “My community, my society, zation” my world” A New Model - continued
  87. One Task: Strategy and Posturing <ul><li>State of Industry </li></ul><ul><li>Infancy </li></ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Maturity </li></ul><ul><li>Changing </li></ul>Strategy Pioneering a Business Expanding a Business, i.e. M&A Segmenting a Market Revolutionizing a Business
  88. Three Fundamental Strategic Questions Who are we? Who do we want to be? How do we get there? Overall strategy, goals, business plans, operational plans, and budget resources Reaffirmed or revised vision, mission, core values Current vision, mission, core values
  89. Leader’s Strategic Focus Environmental Threats & Opportunities KEY ISSUES Present Who are we? Desired Who do we want to be? Strategic Focus Client Needs & Preferences Competitive Advantages Mission, Values, Goals Internal Strengths & Weaknesses Leadership Priorities VISION Operational Plans Strategic Plan <ul><li>Mission </li></ul><ul><li>Core Values </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic Goals </li></ul>
  90. Be the market leader in solar energy industry by designing and producing excellent products and services. Goal A: Leader in Health Care Energy Become a recognized global company by placing on the Fortune Global 500 ranking. Goal B: Leader in Water Resources Goal C: Leader in Energy for Recreation Goal D: Leader in Energy for Education Organizational Culture and Core Values Example of Company’s Strategic Focus 2007 2012 and beyond Strategic Goals Mission Vision
  91. Concluding Remarks <ul><li>People don’t want to be managed, they want to be led. </li></ul><ul><li>World leader, yes; sports leader, yes; world manager, no; sports manager, no. </li></ul><ul><li>You can lead a horse to water, but you can’t make it drink. </li></ul><ul><li>You, as leaders of your organization, can make a difference. Just do it! </li></ul>
  92. Reims Management School International Management Program “ Ethical Decision Making”
  93. Situations Involving Ethical Decision Making <ul><li>Sales Representative in the Middle East </li></ul><ul><li>Hazardous Materials in West Africa </li></ul><ul><li>The Southeast Asian Advertising Campaign </li></ul>
  94. Philosophies for Ethical Decision Making <ul><li>Utilitarian Theories </li></ul>- Focus on consequences - Greatest good for greatest number - Focus on individual rights <ul><li>Theories of Moral Rights </li></ul>- Free consent, privacy, free speech, freedom of conscience, due process
  95. Philosophies for Ethical Decision Making- continued <ul><li>Theories of Justice </li></ul>- Focus on fairness, equity, impartiality - Distributive justice - Compensation justice - Procedural justice
  96. In Closing…. <ul><li>Learn to deal with people from different cultures. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember that people behave by perception, not fact. </li></ul><ul><li>Tipping point today is understanding different </li></ul><ul><li>cultures and values to manage people. </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-cultural management is very important today. </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior and perceptions influenced by culture. </li></ul>
  97. Colby Chandler, retired Chairman and CEO of Eastman Kodak, gave an answer to leadership…..……….

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