COMPETENCY- BASED EDUCATION CURRICULUM.Competency-based education (CBE)CBE is an institutional process that moveseducation from focusing on what academicsbelieve graduates need to know (teacher-focused) to what students need to know and beable to do in varying and complex situations(student and/or workplace focused).Competency based education: focuses onoutcomes of learning.
CBE addresses what the learners are expectedto do rather than on what they are expected tolearn about. CBE emerged in the united states inthe 1970s and refers to an educationalmovement that advocates defining educationalgoals in terms of precise measurabledescriptions of knowledge, skills, and behaviorsstudents should possess at the end of a courseof study.
Competency Based Education is outcome basedinstruction and is adaptive to the changing needs ofstudents, teachers, and the community.Competencies describe the student’s ability to applybasic and other skills in situations that are commonlyencountered in everyday life. Thus CBE is based on aset of outcomes that are derived from an analysis oftasks typically required of students in life role situations.
Competencies consist of a description of theessential skills, knowledge, attitudes, and behaviorsrequired for effective performance of a real-worldtask or activity. These activities may be related toany domain of life, though have typically been linkedto the field of work and to social survival in a newenvironment.Competencies are essential skills that adults needto be successful members of families, thecommunity, and the workplace.„
CBE is focused on outcomes (competencies) that arelinked to workforce needs, as defined by employers andthe profession. CBE’s outcomes are increasinglycomplex in nature, rather than deriving from theaddition of multiple low-level objectives. CBE oftennecessitates more complex assessment, involvingportfolios, experiential learning assessment in fieldexperience, demonstration in varying contexts.Competencies reinforce one another from basic toadvanced as learning progresses.
Competencies within different contexts may require differentbundles of skills, knowledge and attitudes. The challenge is todetermine which competencies can be bundled together toprovide the optimal grouping for performing tasks. Anotherchallenge is designing learning experiences that supportstudents as they practice using and applying thesecompetencies in different contexts.Continual refinement of defined competencies is necessary sothat enhanced performance in a variety of contexts can beassessed. In essence, CBE is a process, not a product.
CBE is more than an effort to describe or list educationaland behavioral objectives. The early emphasis onbehavioral learning objectives was on reliable observationand judgment. To this end, writers of behavioralobjectives were encouraged to state outcomes inoperational terms, which can be observed usingconsistent observational processes allowing for nointerpretation In an attempt to achieve this reliability, abehavioral verb from a list of behavioral verbs(state, list, name, recognize, describe, calculate, describe, explain, synthesize, analyze) was required to begin theobjective.
Competency Based Education (CBE) Competency Based Education (CBE) Assses Participant Needs. Evaluate Competency Select Attainment Competencies Target instruction
COMPETENCY BASED EDUCATIONPROGRAMS1-Specific, measurable competency statements2. Content based on learner goals (outcomes/competencies)3. Learner continues in program until demonstrating mastery4. Use a variety of instructional techniques and group activities5. Focus on what the learner needs to learn, which is the applicationof basic skills in a life skills context6. Use texts, media, and real life materials geared to targetedcompetencies7. Provide learners with immediate feedback on assessmentperformance8. Pace instruction to learner needs.9. Have learner demonstrate mastery of specified competencyStatements.
Competency-based education primer.Competency-based education is an outcomes-basedapproach to education where the emphasis is on whatcomes out of postsecondary education—what graduatesknow and can do—rather than what goes into thecurriculum. With a competency-based approach, you dobegin preparing a course syllabus by identifying contentand readings. Instead, you begin by identifyingcompetencies and then select the content, readings, andassignments to support student attainment of thosecompetencies.
With a competency-based approach, students advancewhen they have demonstrated mastery of acompetency, which is defined as “a combination ofskills, abilities and knowledge needed to perform a taskin a specific context.” Mastery is the sole determinant ofprogress, which means that delivery options multiplyand expand since any instructional method orinstructional provider that can move a student towardmastery is theoretically acceptable.In competency-based education, assessment isembedded in every step of the learning process inorder to provide students with guidance and supporttoward mastery. This heightened level of assessment isdesigned to build competencies in real time.
ConclusionIt is possible that competency-based education couldserve as a game changer in postsecondaryeducation, delivering high-quality education experiencesthat lead to demonstrated learning and mastery at anaffordable price. Over the past decade we’ve learnedmuch about established organizations but there remainsa great deal to learn about the mix oftechnology, curriculum, and processes that could turncompetency-based education into a true game changerin postsecondary education.