Wise Seminar  Proceedings
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Wise Seminar Proceedings






Total Views
Slideshare-icon Views on SlideShare
Embed Views



3 Embeds 44

http://wiseindia.org 21
http://vulpix.in 14
http://preetiagarwal.in 9



Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Wise Seminar  Proceedings Wise Seminar Proceedings Document Transcript

    • Regional Conference of the  International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Abstracts
    • Regional Conference of the  International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)ContentTheme: Women in Science, Engineering, Architecture and TechnologyFor Women Engineers – It is a Hilly Road and Not a Highway in Plain 8Dr. Vandana Bhatt, Ph.D, FIE, Adjunct Associate Professor, IIT BombayThe ‘Invisible Half’ – Recognizing Contribution of Women in Agriculture 9Dr. Purvi Mehta Bhatt, Head – Asia, International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)Women Entrepreneurs, Poverty Alleviation and Sustainable Development in Nigeria 10* Akpanobong, Uyai E, ** Usoro, Enoidem B * Assistant Lecturer, Dept. of Vocational Education, University of Uyo, Nigeria** Head of Department, Dept. of Vocational Education, University of Uyo, NigeriaIssues and Challenges for Women in Construction Industry in: Global as well as Indian perspective 11* Dr. Vanita Ahuja, **Mrs. Savita Kumari *Assistant Professor, School of Engineering, Gautam Buddha University,Greater Noida, India **Manager, Arbitration Division, Construction Industry Development Council, New Delhi, IndiaWomen in Civil Engineering 12Dr. Neelima Satyam D, Assistant Professor, Earthquake Engineering Research CentreInternational Institute of Information Technology Hyderabad Gachibowli, Hyderabad.Fisherwomen Participation in Coastal Eco-System of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala & Tamil Nadu forSocio Economic Empowerment 13Vijaya Khader, Professor Mrs. Vijaya Khader, Former Dean, Faculty of Home Science, ANGRAU, Hyderabad Member,Board of Governor, Farm & Rural Science Foundation (FRSF)Women in Water Sector : Need for a Revolution 14R.K.Khanna, Former Chief Engineer (Environment Management) Central Water CommissionWomen in Science Leadership and Sustainable Development 15Dr. (Mrs.) Malti GoelPostersImpact of Homestead Fish Pond Stocking Technologies: Field Experience on Women Farmers for Sustainable SkillAcquisition in Fish Culture in Nigeria 16* Udoh Fidela E. & Okon, **Uduakobong Aniebiat (PhD), ***Igba, C. Elizabeth (PhD)*,** Department of Vocational Education Faculty of Education University of Uyo, Uyo. Akwa Ibom State Nigeria.*** Dept of Home Economics Eboyi State University, Delta State Nigeria.Role of Women Engineers and Scientists in Sustainable Development 17Aude Abena, Telecommunications Systems Engineer National Advanced School of Post and TelecommunicationsTheme : Effective Practices for Recruitment, Mentoring and Retention of WomenStrategies for Attracting, Motivating and Retaning Women Engineers and Scientists 18Dr. Sunil Abrol, President, Institute for Consultancy & Productivity Research Former Director General, Consultancy Development CentreStrategies for Managing Work Life Balance 19Dr G S PattnaikFlexible Working Patterns and Work-Life Balance Amongst Female SoftwareEngineers in the Indian Information Technology Industry 20Dr. Jyothsna Latha Belliappa, Faculty – Liberal Arts Srishti School of Art Design and Technology“Small Group Support” for Attracting and Retaining Women in Science, Engineeringand Technology in the Busan, Ulsan and Gyeongnam Region of Korea 21Jung Sun Kim1 and Hye Young Park21 Division of Health Sciences, Dongseo University, Korea, 2Center for Gender Equality & Family Policy, Ulsan Development Institute, Korea
    • Women at Work – A Balancing ACT 22 Regional Conference of theMs. Prabhati Bhattacharya1, P.E., Ms. Atasi Das2, Dr. Sudeshna Mitra3  International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)1 Project Manager, Consulting Engg. Services (India) Pvt. Ltd., Navi Mumbai2 General Manager cum Deputy HOD, Intercontinental Consultants & Technocrats Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.3 Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Kharagpur, West Bengal.Research into Businesses in the USA, Australia and India that Recruit and Retain Women inEngineering and Technology Profession 23Margaret Ajibode CEng FBCS, Winston Churchill Fellow 2009, Director of the International Network of Women Engineers and ScientistsEffective Practices for Recruitment, Mentoring and Retention of Women in Science and Engineering Professions 25Namrata KapoorThe Role of Near Peer Mentoring in the Retention of Women and Girls in the Science Pipeline 27* Meghan Groome, *Ellis Rubinstein, *Stephanie Wortel *New York Academy of SciencesEmpowering Women in the World of Work: Tackling the Double Burden Problem in Russia 28Marina Baskakova, Irina Soboleva, Institute of Economy, Russian Academy of SciencesPostersThe Rural Woman as the Beast of Burden and Health Implications: 29Case of Oron, Oruk Anam and West Itam in Akwa Ibom StateJohnny, Adiha. S., Edyang-Ekpa, M., Edyang, Boma. , Ekpa, Victoria. B. University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Akwa Ibom State, NigeriaArchitecture as a Profession for Women in India 30Monicaa JaainManaging Work-Life Balance 31* Pooja Kapoor, **Priyanka Sethi, *Additional Chief Engineer, WAPCOS Limited **Deputy Manager, WAPCOS LimitedWomen in Science and Engineering 32Tatev TadevosyenTheme: Water and Waste ManagementVariation of Groundwater Static Levels in Nairobi City Since 1927 33Caroline K. Onyancha1, Eliud M. Mathu2, Sixtus K. Mwea3, Wilson M. Ngecu41 Civil and Structural Engineering Department, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, Kakamega2 Department of Geological Sciences South Eastern University College, Kitui, 3Department of Civil and Construction Engineering, University of Nairobi, Nairobi4 Department of Geology, University of Nairobi, NairobiDevelopment of Polyester Polyols from Recycled Poly (Ethylene Terephathate) for Coating Applications 34* Dr.Anagha Sabnis, *Mukesh Kathalewar, **Dr.V G Bhave, **Parag Raut* Department of Polymer & Surface Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai, India. **Bhavans College, University of Mumbai.Application of Remote Sensing and GIS Technique in Runoff Estimation of a Catchment using SCS-CN Model 35Sneha Murmu1 and Sujata Biswas2 1Assistant Professor, Budge Budge Institute of Technology, Kolkata, West Bengal2 Assistant Professor, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, HowrahAssessment of Suitable Technology for Processing of MSW of Urban India 36Dr Seema AwasthiBehaviour of Concrete with Pond Ash – Thermal Power Plant Waste as Constituent – Durability Perspectives 37Bharathi Ganesh1, H.Sharada Bai2, R.Nagendra3, Netravathi K S41 Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Global Academy of Technology, 2Professor, Faculty of Engineering – Civil, Bangalore University, Bangalore3 Technical Director, Civil Aid Technoclinic Pvt. Ltd, Bangalore, 4Design Engineer, EI Tech Pvt. Ltd. BangaloreVirus Pollution of Indian Surface Water: Health Risk Estimation and Issues Identification 38Divya Singh1, Arun Kumar2* 1Graduate Student, 2Assistant Professor Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology New Delhi, IndiaElectrochemical Oxidation of Textile Dye Wastewater Using Different Electrodes 39Mahaveer Devoor1, Rekha H B2, Usha N Murthy3 1PG Student, 2Assistant Professor, 3Professor, Department of Civil Engineering,UVCE, Bangalore University, Bangalore, Karnataka.
    • Improvement in Turbidity of Drinking Water – Experience at Jusco Water Management Regional Conference of the 40 Uma Ramna, Pranay Sinha & G S Basu, Jamshedpur Utilities & Services Company Ltd. International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Environmental Influence on Macrobenthic Invertebrate Distribution in Mbo River, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria 42* Essien-Ibok, Mandu. A., **Umoh, I. A., ***Okoko, Atim C* &** Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, University of Uyo, Nigeria ***Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Agricultureand Natural Resources, Akwa Ibom State. Nigeria.Sensors for Smart Water Management 43Sudakshina BanerjeeWaste is Not Waste 44C. K. Sharma, Certified Energy Auditor Chief Executive Consulting Engineers, Gurgaon, Haryana, India.Coconut Shell – A Potential Source to Remove Iron from Contaminated Groundwater 45Mausumi Raychaudhuri, S. Raychaudhuri, Sucheta Mohanty and Ashwani Kumar, Directorate of Water Management, Bhubaneswar, Odisha.Implications of Anaerobic Condition on Carbon Sequestration in Wetland Sediments 46Susmita Mukherjee & Phanibhusan Ghosh, Institute of Engineering & management, Kolkata.PostersDevelopment of Novel Biotechnological Approaches for Remediation of Contaminated sites 47Irina Shtangeeva, St. Petersburg University, Universitetskaya nab., 7/9, St. Petersburg 199034 RussiaIntegrated Water Resources Management – A Framework for Action 48R K Khanna, Former Chief Engineer (Environment Management) Central Water Commission New Delhi.Environmental Management of River Valley Projects 49R K Khanna, Former Chief Engineer (Environment Management) Central Water Commission New Delhi.Accumulation of Arsenics in Environmental Samples and Application of a Novel Analytical Method 50Jinsung An1 Mihye Kong1 Hye-On Yoon1* 1Korea Basic Science Institute“On Water” One Pot Synthesis of Tetrazole Substituted 3-Hydroxy Oxindole Derivatives with Quaternary Centres 51Sai Prathima P, CSIR-SRFOzone Based Wastewater Treatment Solutions 52Dhanya Hegde, 7th semester, Bachelor of Engineering ( Visvesvaraya Technological University)Department of Electronics and Communication, S.C.T. institute of engineering.Household waste Management in India: Role of Women in Solving the Issue 53Renuka Saroha and Chandan KhannaTheme: Greening the Infrastructure, Sustainable Transport, Renewable Energy,Training for Green Jobs and Green Buildings and ProjectsSustainable Transport for Indian Cities 54Dr. Geetam TiwariGreen Infrastructure: Opportunities for Environmental, Social and Economic Sustainability 55Dr Poonam Ahluwalia, Senior Manager (Environment), TATA Consulting Engineers LimitedGreening the Infrastructure using Wastes from Thermal Power Plant as Sustainable Construction Material 56Bharathi Ganesh, Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Global Academy of TechnologyDesign and construction of solar passive silkworm rearing house:A demonstration project for sericulture farmers in South India 57Minni Sastry, Fellow and Area Convenor, Centre for Research on Sustainable Building Services, TERI- Southern Regional CentreA Sustainable Model for Developmental Project Management and Green Job Opportunities 58Dr. Ravindra Kaur, Environmental ConsultantSafer-Greener Highways: An Integrated Approach 59Atasi Das and Shilpa Bajpai, ICT Pvt. Ltd. A-8 Green Park. New Delhi
    • Elevated Busways – An Alternate People Mover System Regional Conference of the 60  International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Jyoti C Ubhayakar, Vice President & Head- Design and Development, Geodesic Techniques P Ltd., BangaloreManaging Field Work in Infrastructure Projects 61Amita Bhatnagar, Principal Consultant, STUP Consultants Pvt. Ltd. New DelhiControl of Wind Induced Vibration in Transmission Line Towers by the Tuned Liquid Column Damper 62Dr. Aparna (Dey) Ghosh1, Jyotirmoy Dutta Majumdar2 1Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineeering,Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah, India. 2Former Postgraduate Student, Department of Civil Engineering,Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah, India.Green Buildings and Projects 63Ar. Indu GuptaSustainable Transport 64Koneru Bhavani, Chief Engineering Manager, L&T Construction, ChennaiInorganic - Organic Composite Materials for Thermoelectric Applications 65Dipali Banerjeea, Krishanu Chatterjeea, Palash Dharab, Kajari Karguptab, Saibal Gangulyca Department of Physics, Bengal Engineering & Science University, Shibpur, Howrah India , bDepartment of Chemical Engineering, Jadavpur University,Kolkata, India, cChemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, MalaysiaDamage Assessment of Structures using Experimental and Analytical Techniques 66B.Prakruthi Gowd1, Neethu Urs2, Dr.M.N.Hegde3, 1PG student, Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering,Bengaluru, Karnataka.2 Asst. Professor, Civil Engineering, Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering, Bengaluru, Karnataka.3 Professor, Civil Engineering, Dr.Ambedkar Institute of Technology,Bengaluru, Karnataka.Energy in the Construction and Maintenance of Buildings 67B. Surekha1, M.N. Hegde2 and K.S. Jagadish3, 1Research Scholar, Bangalore2 Professor, Civil Engineering, Dr. Ambedkar Institute of Technology, Bangalore, 3Professor, P G Programme, RV College of Engineering, BangaloreBuilding the Green Building 68Smrithy Sasidharan, Engineer Production & Planning Vatson Foams India Pvt. LtdPostersResearch and Development Progresses of Solar Thermal Energy in South Korea 69Jeong Kyun Seo, Junseok Ko, Yong-Ju Hong, Seong-Je Park, Hyobong Kim, Hankil Yeom, Deuk-Yong KohKorean Institute of Machinery and Materials Daejeon, KoreaAn Analysis of Heat Transfer Characteristics in Solar Thermal Concentration for PTC 70Jeong Kyun Seo, Junseok Ko, Yong-Ju Hong, Seong-Je Park, Hyobong Kim, Hankil Yeom, Deuk-Yong KohKorean Institute of Machinery and Materials Daejeon, KoreaEnvironment-friendly and Energy Saving HVAC in Building using Biomimicry 71Jeong Kyun Seo, Junseok Ko, Yong-Ju Hong, Seong-Je Park, Hyobong Kim, Hankil Yeom, Deuk-Yong KohKorean Institute of Machinery and Materials Daejeon, KoreaTheme: Effect of Orientation of Rectangular Opening on the Infill Stresses in Infilled Rein-forced Concrete FramesLinear Analysis of Infilled Reinforced Concrete Frames with Window Openings under Combined Lateral and Gravity Load 72Ms. Sahana T.S.1, Dr. B. P Annapurna2, 1PG student UVCE, Bangalore University, Bangalore, 2Associate Professor,UVCE, Bangalore University, BangaloreTechnologies and Materials in Road Construction in LCA Perspective 73Kirti Bhandari1, Shweta Gaur2, S Gangopadhyay3 , 1Senior Scientist, Environmental Science Division, Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi.2 Research Intern, Environmental Science Division, Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi., 3Director, Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi.PostersSustainable Transport – An Eco Friendly Transport Environment 74Arockia Catherin. M, VI semester, M.Sc (Int.), Department of Biological Sciences, School of Natural Sciences, Bangalore University.
    • Renewable Energy – A Lower Environmental Impact Regional Conference of the 75 S.B.Chethna, VI Semester, M.Sc (Int.),of Womenof Biological Sciences, School of Natural Sciences, Bangalore University, Bangalore. International Network Department Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Energy Audit: A Tool to Reduce Carbon Footprint of Energy 76Kirti Bhandari1, Shweta Gaur2, S Gangopadhyay3,1 Senior Scientist, Environmental Science Division, Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi.,2 Research Intern, Environmental Science Division, Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi, 3Director, Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi.Greening the Infrastructure- Sustainable Transport 77Deepali Gupta, ECE , 3rd year, IGIT, IP University, DelhiA Comparison of Indoor-Outdoor Particulate Matter Relationship between aGreen Building and Conventional Buildings in Delhi 79Isha Khanna, Krishna Malakar, Suresh Jain, Department of Natural Resources, TERI University, Vasant Kunj, New DelhiHealth Diagnosis of Rc Beams with and without Opening of Different Size, Shape and Location 80Geetha L1, Neethu Urs2, Dr. M. N. Hegde3, 1PG student, Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering, Bengaluru, Karnataka2 Sr. Lecturer, Civil Engineering, Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering, Bengaluru, Karnataka3 Professor, Civil Engineering, Dr. Ambedkar Institute of Technology, Bengaluru, KarnatakaOptimization of Steel Truss using Genetic Algorithms 81Sharada.P.N1 and R.Shanthi Vengadeshwari2, 1Lecturer, Dept.of CivilEngg, SJCIT, Chickballapur, Karnataka.2 Sr. Lecturer, Dept.ofCivilEngg, DSCE, Bangalore, Karnataka.Towards Sustainable Urban Transport 82Kamini Gupta, Dr. Ravinder Kumar & Dr. Nishi Mittal, Traffic Engineering & Safety Division, Central Road Research Institute, New DelhiSustainable Transport – Practices, Policies and Adaptability 83Prabhati Bhattacharya, P.E.1, Avijit Maji, P.E., Ph.D.2, Project Manager, Consulting Engg. Services(India) Pvt. Ltd. Vashi, Navi MumbaiTransportation Design Engineer, Maryland State Highway Administration Hanover, MarylandMicroGrids: The Operation of the Grid 84MamtaChamoli, Assistant Professor, Manav Rachna International University FaridabadRole of Nanotechnology in Renewable Energy 85Maitri. M, VI Sem, M.Sc (Int.), Department of Biological Sciences, School of Natural Sciences, Bangalore UniversityUse of Bio-Fuel in Transportation Sector: A Step Towards the use of Green Renewable Enegy and Better Environment 86Dr (Miss) Shobha Lata Sinha, Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, G E Road, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, IndiaPower Quality Assessment using Artificial Neural Network 87S.Gupta, Associate Professor, National Institute of Technology, G E Road, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, IndiaTheme : Knowledge Management and Women Entrepreneurship, Innovation and LeadershipConversational Leadership: Creating Global Architectures for the Success of Women Leaders 88Lana Fountain Flakes, S.T.E.M Association Leader Reliability Engineering (Independent Contractor/ Consultant)Untapping Talent with a Strategic Resource Approach 89Yvette Ramos, President, Swiss Engineering, Geneva SectionReinforcing African Women Engineers and Scientists Capacities in ICT 90Issié Yvone GUEYE, Cote d’Ivoire, Ex INWES Director for French Speaking Africa Representative of Côte d’Ivoire for WFEOtPresident of NAWES (Network of African Women Engineers and Scientists)Information Technology as a Tool for Empowering Nigerian Women for Leadership 91Udofia, Emem P1 , Etim2 ImaObong A., Shabi, Iwok N. 3, 1Department Of Educational Technology and Library Science, University Of Uyo, Nigeria2 University Of Uyo Library, Nigeria, 3Obafemi Awolowo University Library, Ile-Ife, NigeriaYoung Women Engineer: How to Influence Positively your world? 92Reine Essobmadje, Owner-Manager at Evolving Consulting France & Cameroon“Women in Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Leadership” 93 Parul DesaiAfter Sensitizing, Action! 94Mrs. Aude Abena, Telecommunications systems Engineer, National advanced school of post and telecommunications
    • The Experience of Women Engineers in a Male Dominated Profession and Regional Conference of the Their Life Values – An Australian Perspective International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES) 95Susan Lee Fenton, Fenton Partners Pty Ltd., Melbourne, Victoria, AustraliaPostersSelf Actualization of Career Aspirations for Learning Science/Technology Courses andFemale Students’ Entrepreneurial Skill Acquisition 961 Dr. Ekukinam, Thelma U., (Ph.D), 2Dr. Udosen, Idongesit N.,(Ph.D)1 Department of Educational Technology/Library Science 2Faculty of Education, University of UyoPerception of Impact of Donor Agencies on the Socio Economic Wellbeing of Fisherfolks in Southeast Nigeria 97* Okoko, Atim C., **Udoh, James P, *Fisheries Department, Ministry of Agriculture, Uyo, Nigeria. **Department of Fisheries & Aquaculture, University of Uyo, Nigeria.Theme: Women in Academics: Breaking the Glass CeilingThe Glass Ceiling: A Myth or Reality 98Prof. Nupur Prakash, Principal, Indira Gandhi Institute of Technology, GGS Indraprastha University, DelhiSensitizing Teachers to Gender Issues in Sciences Classes: Can it Help Encourage Girls to Sciences? 100Liette Vasseur1, Claire Deschênes2, Jeanne d’Arc Gaudet3 and Louise Lafortune41 Dept. Biol. Sci., Brock University, 500 Glenridge Avenue, St Catharines, 2Département de génie mécanique, Université Laval.3 Faculté des sciences de l’éducation, Université de Moncton, 4Département des sciences de l’éducation, Université du Québec à Trois-RivièresWomen and Academics: Breaking the Glass Ceiling 101Shruti Gandhi, Indira Gandhi Institute of TechnologyAre Women Engineers Discriminated? 102Seema Singh, Associate Professor in Economics Department of Humanities Delhi Technological University DelhiInhibitions to Careers in Science and Technology andDifferentiated Mentoring Approach for Nigerian Secondary School Girls 103* Nwosu, Stella N. (PhD.) , **Etiubon, Rebecca U. (PhD.), ***Udofia, Theresa M.* Department of Educational Technology, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Uyo. **&****Department of Science Education, University of Uyo, A.K.S. NigeriaChanges in the Architecture of Sperm Cell Membrane, Leading to Syngamy 104Kaiser Jamil, Past President- TWOWS (now OWSD) Dean and Director, School of life Sciences,Centre for Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Secunderabad, A.P, India.Role of CSIR-CRRI Women Scientists and Engineers in R&D Achievements 105Neelima Chakrabarty, Kamini Gupta, Nishi MittalLearning from Experience – European Efforts to Improve the Situation of Women in Science Technology 106and Research – Lessons Learnt from the GENDERA Project (FP7)Judith Abrahami, PhD, ORT Braude College, Karmiel, IsraelGender Analysis of Computer-Based Training and Nigerian Secondary Education System: 107Case of Senior Science Schools in Akwa Lbom State* Uduakobong A. Okon (PhD.), **Godwin A. Akpan (PhD.), ***Aniefiok E. Udofia (PhD.) Faculty of Education, University of Uyo, Nigeria***, &***,PostersAcademic Glass Ceiling of Sex Abuse on Nigerian Secondary School Girls: Breakage Possible? 108* Okon, Uduakobong A, **Ekpa, Uwem O, Okon ***Ukemeobong A.* Dept of Vocational Education, University of Uyo, AKS. Nigeria. **Institute of Education University of Calabar, Cross River State Nigeria.*** Bethesda Family Clinic, A. Close, Festac Town, Lagos. Nigeria.Dirac Coupled Channel Analysis of the Intermediate Energy Inelastic Scatterings from 12C 109Sugie Shim, Department of Physics, Kongju National University, Kongju, South KoreaModified Penna Model of Biological Aging on a Square Lattice 110Gi-OkKim1 and Sugie Shim21 Department of Physics, Woosuk University, Wanju-Gun, Jeonbuk, South Korea,2 Department of Physics, Kongju National University, Kongju, Chungnam, South KoreaCompany ProfileShort History of Outokumpu 111
    • Regional Conference of the  International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Theme:Women in Science, Engineering, Architecture and TechnologyFor Women Engineers – It is aHilly Road and Not a Highway in PlainDr. Vandana Bhatt,Ph.D, FIE, Adjunct Associate Professor, IIT Bombayedoncenter@technolegal.orgW hen I received the invitation to participate in the semi- job. I knew somewhere I have to begin and I must continue to be nar related to Women Engineers, I thought it proper to on my own with a promise that organization will not be dominated use such platform for sharing the experience and evolve by men and I am successfully practising as a Consultant, besidesstrategies for betterment of Women Engineers. Each one of us has being an Adjunct Associate Professor at IIT, Bombay.a small epic to narrate that we have fought all the way to achieveour desire. Of course, I do not belong to struggling decades and We must be determined to make our adventure a success. Wecenturies, when women practicing and working in men’s domain, should began being little different, we shall be continued to bewere considered masculine. However, I do belong to the era, discriminated. I have one message for Women Engineerswhen I came out from an exclusive vernacular school meant forgirls only. This curious arrangement of “Girls Only” educational “I must look for no support and I must believe in that Iinstitution, hardly prepares us for rough and tough career of pro- have done what most of the girls cannot dream of doing.”fessional and practising Engineers. The story of success should be an inspiration for a female, whoLike most of us, I too wanted to prove myself I could be different. wants to join the profession. This society of Women EngineersMy family, to begin with, had no idea about my tenacity and ap- must provide the platform to share about the experience, discussplication. I was admitted to Women’s University (SNDT) in Arts the problems and work out the solutions. We need to be unitedfaculty. It was my love for numbers and formulas while helping and supportive in the cause of Women Engineers. Our societymy relative with preparation of bill for Engineering works that he should not restrict the membership only to Engineers as it is notrecommended me for admission to Polytechnic for Diploma in Civil meant for academic enhancement and, therefore, I want to rubEngineering. I was glad, my flair for numbers and formulas helped the shoulders with lawyers, doctors and administrators so thatme to go through the entire course without losing first rank. This we can evaluate our handicap in proper perspective and work forqualified me for a graduation and later on for Master in Engineer- overall upliftment of our personalities for having achieved some-ing topping the list at the University of Bombay. thing.I was taking a shape and I got selected for a Class-I job in Govt. Progressively, I am glad, we are meeting more and more of wom-of India. The nightmare began. My colleagues exhibited strange en in the leadership bracket in their enthusiasm to compete withcomplex. Senior Engineer male colleagues would be uncoopera- males. Let them find time to motivate and push ahead others. Lettive and hostile to prove that I was only good at answering the us be successful women professionally. While we look certainlyexamination papers. Oblique insults and sarcastic remarks suffo- ahead and forward, we need to look around.cated me and one fine day, I resigned to teach at my Polytechnic.It was so sober and simple. However, when it came to selection In this context, I am under an obligation to pamper and motivateand making a choice for the special recognition, it was very dif- girl students for taking up Engineering career and I only engageficult for these academicians to recognize my inputs and efforts. Women Engineers in my team as a Consultant. I reiterate, weAnd once again, I faced the same situation as I faced in my earlier have made success.
    • Regional Conference of the  International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)The ‘Invisible Half’ – RecognizingContribution of Women in AgricultureDr. Purvi Mehta BhattHead – Asia, International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)r.oli@cgiar.orgI n recent times, economic, social and constitutional develop- two decades. In most regions where farming has not intensified, ments have led to landmark achievements on the road to we closely observe a phenomenon of ‘feminization of agriculture gender equality in India. And yet, persistence of patriarchal ‘where women play an increasingly important role in agriculturenorms within south Asian culture and society means that women and work spanning, from cultivating field crops, to livestock rear-still continue to face discrimination in many areas of their lives. ing, gardening, gathering, and fishing. A woman’s command and knowledge of farming, particularly in livestock management,By examining the Indian agricultural sector, one can clearly see should not be underestimated. Out of the 22 million people involvedboth the progress that has been made so far and the obstacles re- in animal husbandry in India, over 16 million are women2. Thesemaining. Several effective laws, policies, and initiatives guarantee women are important drivers of economic and ecological sustain-the protection and empowerment of women farmers across the ability: their strategies diverse and their minds a rich source ofcountry. For example in some states, such as Ladakh and Megha- indigenous knowledge. And, yet, women farmers are among thelaya, women control family policy and enjoy full inheritance rights1. most isolated people in the country – physically, socially, and eco-Moreover, the Government of India’s Directorate of Research on nomically. In stark contrast to their contribution to rural suste-Women in Agriculture and Planning Commission Gender and Ag- nance economies, women in these farming communities are oftenriculture Sub-group ensure better representation of women and hit hardest by poverty and implications of climate change. Manyconsideration of gender issues during decision-making activities, do not share equal rights to property and land, and suffer fromincluding drafting and assessment of the Government’s Five Year restricted access to agriculture services and information, educa-Plans. tion and healthcare facilities. Furthermore, women often have the additional responsibility of household and family.Despite the progress that has been made, general recognitionand appreciation for women’s contribution to agriculture in this More attention needs to be paid to the pivotal role women play incountry still leaves much to be desired. While women play an un- feeding the population of India. Better acknowledgement will, indisputedly important role in farming, accounting for close to 60 to turn, lead to a paradigm shift at policy and social level. Women’s70 percent of all agricultural activities, the face of farming in India role in agriculture and food security must remain in the limelightis stereotypically male. Poverty, discrimination and lack of aware- for necessary changes to take effect. We must strive to ensureness negatively impact the livelihoods of millions of women in that men and women farmers receive equal rights and dividesustenance economies. Thus remains an urgent call for increased responsibilities so that women in rural India can be relieved ofunderstanding, acknowledgement and empowerment of women the disproportionately heavy burden they carry at present. Morefarmers and their role in agriculture. capacity building and training programs should be developed to empower women and equip them with the right skills to stand upWith rapid expansion of India’s economy, and with more and for their rights and engage in development processes, and to sen-more men shifting from farm life to off-farm jobs, women’s role sitize communities on gender issues.in the agriculture sector has changed dramatically over the past1 P.Mehta, The ‘Invisible Half’ – Recognizing Contribution of Women in Agriculture Only by fully recognizing the ‘invisible’ half shall we be able to2 D. Thaker & M.Chander, Gender Factor in Access to Livestock-based Information meet the challenges of a vision in which men and women sharein India [April, 2012] equal rights and responsibilities in the Indian agricultural sector.
    • Regional Conference of the 10 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Women Entrepreneurs, Poverty Alleviationand Sustainable Development in Nigeria* Akpanobong, Uyai E, ** Usoro, Enoidem B* Assistant Lecturer, Dept. of Vocational Education, University of Uyo, Nigeria** Head of Department, Dept. of Vocational Education, University of Uyo, Nigeriaapageste@yahoo.comT he position of women and their status in any society is an women entrepreneurs in poverty alleviation and national develop- index of its civilization. Women are to be considered as equal ment. Data collection was done using a structured questionnaire, partners in the process of development. For reasons of cen- Women Entrepreneurs and National Development (WEND). Pear-turies of exploitation and subjugation, Nigerian women have re- son Product Moment Correlation Co-efficient analysis was used inmained at the receiving end. They have not been actively involved testing the hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level. The results indicatedin the mainstream of development even though they represent a a significant relationship between women entrepreneurs, povertylarge proportion of the population and labour force. This paper alleviation and sustainable national development. Based on theexamines the impact of women entrepreneurs in poverty allevia- findings, it was concluded that Nigerian women entrepreneurstion and sustainable national development. The population of the impact significantly on sustainable development of the country. Itstudy comprised women entrepreneurs in the Niger Delta Region was recommended, among others, that women in Nigeria shouldof Nigeria, totaling 120. The purposive sampling technique was be encouraged to engage actively in entrepreneurial activitiesused. Two null hypotheses were formulated based on the role of through enlightenment and empowerment.
    • Regional Conference of the 11 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Issues and Challenges for Women inConstruction Industry in: Global as well asIndian perspective* Dr. Vanita Ahuja, **Mrs. Savita Kumari* Assistant Professor, School of Engineering, Gautam Buddha University, Greater Noida, Indiavanita_ahuja@yahoo.com** Manager, Arbitration Division, Construction Industry Development Council, New Delhi, INDIAsavita_kb@yahoo.comC onstruction activity is an integral part of a country’s infra- Today, India is one of the fastest growing economies in the world. structure and industrial development. Globally, the con- Indian construction industry, the second largest industry of the struction industry contributes about 1/3 of gross capital country after agriculture is an integral part of the economy and aformation and is an important vehicle for economic development. conduit for a substantial part of its development investment. How-It contributes to seven per cent of total world employment and 28 ever, similar to the global phenomenon, it is facing a huge short-per cent of industrial employment. age of workforce, especially those with skill-sets. The strength of skilled workforce has dwindled substantially, whereas relativeThe construction industry is typically a male dominated industry proportions of unskilled workers have gone up. To make up thisand presents a major challenge for equal opportunities for women. shortage, it becomes imperative to convert semi-skilled or un-Globally, women remain a rare sight on the job sites. In developed skilled women workers into skilled workers at site and increasecountries like USA, about 3 percent of construction laborers are the number of women workers in managerial positions. This re-women, 1.5 percent of carpenters and operating engineers are quires looking into the issues that deter women from working infemale, while 9.5 percent of construction engineers are women. the construction industry and creating an awareness and under-In UK, women constitute 50% of the total workforce, but they still standing tha status of women in the society is an important factorconstitute only 9% of the construction industry work force. In de- affecting the overall development of a country.veloping countries like India, women constitute more of unskilledworkforce at sites. Their presence in managerial positions is very This paper presents the study of status of women in the globalminimal. Thus lack of women in construction has been a concern construction industry and issues to be looked into to increase thefor many years now and studies have been conducted to look into number of women in the construction workforce. This is a part ofthe issues leading to this situation and the measures to be taken the study being conducted for a PhD thesis in this area. Though thein this regard. But, in recent times this issue has become more paper discusses issues with respect to global perspective, focus isprominent due to the potential skill shortage facing the industry. on the Indian construction industry.
    • Regional Conference of the 12 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Women in Civil EngineeringDr. Neelima Satyam DAssistant Professor, Earthquake Engineering Research CentreInternational Institute of Information Technology HyderabadGachibowli, Hyderabad, Email: neelima.satyam@iiit.ac.inC ivil engineering is one of the oldest branches of engineer- rent engineers faced at work was the lack of clarity in the goals, ing which includes planning, design, construction, and op- objectives, and responsibilities in their work roles and these role eration of facilities essential to modern life, ranging from related barriers were related to a diminished sense of satisfac-transit systems to offshore structures to space satellites. Civil tion with their jobs and careers. Research has shown that lackengineers are problem solvers, meeting the challenges of pollu- of clarity regarding job roles and expectations can create tensiontion, traffic congestion, drinking water and energy needs, urban and stress for employees and negatively affect their satisfaction.redevelopment, and community planning. Our future as a nation A variety of personal and organizational factors lie behind cur-will be closely tied to space, energy, the environment, and our rent women civil engineers’ career success. For example, currentability to interact with and compete in the global economy. Women women engineers who expressed high levels of satisfaction within civil engineering will perform a vital role in linking these themes their careers were likely to have received ample opportunities forand improving quality of life. If we forget or underestimate the training and development, felt supported by their supervisors, co-value of women who are working hard for their careers in tough workers, and their organizations and perceived avenues for fur-and effort consuming disciplines such as civil engineering, then ther advancement within the company. These women had clear,the competitiveness of our construction industry in both the na- identifiable set of task goals, responsibilities, and expectations totional and international arenas will advance at a slower rate. work with; they also felt confident in their abilities to navigate theWomen who are currently working in engineering have to face and political landscape in their companies and manage multiple lifecontend with a variety of barriers that dampen their satisfaction role responsibilities. Furthermore, successful women engineerswith their jobs and careers. One of the biggest barriers that cur- reported working in companies that supported their efforts.
    • Regional Conference of the 13 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Fisherwomen Participation in CoastalEco-System of Andhra Pradesh,Karnataka, Kerala & Tamil Nadufor Socio Economic EmpowermentVijaya KhaderProfessor Mrs. Vijaya Khader, Former Dean, Faculty of Home Science, ANGRAU, HyderabadMember, Board of Governor, Farm & Rural Science Foundation (FRSF)W omen play a vital role in the operation of India’s fish- by 44.9% of the respondents who had availed loans mostly from eries, which provide needed protein for the country’s non-institutional sources. people as well as seafood exports. The contributionsof the fisherwomen penetrate every aspect of post-harvest han- Much of India’s national food security rests on the shoulders ofdling, preservation, processing and marketing of seafood products its fisherwomen. Affording comprehensive care for these womenand provide an integral link between producers and consumers. is correct in principle and a practical necessity if India’s fisher-Increased competition, declining resources and difficult working ies sector is to be satisfactorily sustained and the fisher womenconditions make their work challenging. empowered, both socially and economically. This can only be done through education about nutrition, health, sanitation, andWomen, who constitute approximately half of India’s population, child care, and training on current technologies and best practicesplay vital role in the operation of the fisheries and their continuing techniques.growth as a component of the agriculture sector of the economy. Education materials viz., CDs, Flash Cards, Pamphlets, BrochuresThe study was carried out in the coastal areas of Andhra Pradesh, and Folders on health and hygiene, disaster management and in-Karnataka, Kerala and Tamilnadu. From these states, 13 districts come generation activities developed to create awareness. Twoand 28 villages were selected. A total of 5,744 households were equipments namely Low cost Ice Cream Freezer and multipurposecovered. The assessment of the socio economic status indicated fresh fish vending and display table fabricated received patentsthat very few households (15.41%) maintained livestock for in- and licensed the technology to an woman entrepreneur.come generation. About 60 per cent of the fisherwomen carriedout post-harvest activities to earn income. Food expenditure com- Key words: fisherwomen, processing, post harvest handling, lowprised 60.68% of the earned income contributing to the major cost ice cream freezer, multipurpose fresh fish vending and dis-share of the spending. Debt servicing was serious problem faced play table
    • Regional Conference of the 14 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Women in Water Sector :Need for a RevolutionR.K.KhannaFormer Chief Engineer (Environment Management)Central Water Commissionkhanna_env@yahoo.comW oman, the carrier and giver of life to the human spe- with the men and (ii) the front activities of agriculture viz sowing cies and water, the essential ingredient and symbol of and ploughing etc are done by men. life, are two universals, without which life cannot exist.Both need to be healthy for mankind and the planet in general, to In realm of transfer of management to farms, the women folkprosper and survive. No wonder, vedic hymns have praised most should be made to play a definite and distinctive role which will goof the rivers as goddesses. Women play a very significant role in a long way in making participatory irrigation management a suc-water sector. However, there is a need to make their role more cess. Similarly, their role needs to be strengthened in areas sucheffective. as drinking water supply and sanitation.Women play a crucial role in the water sector in India. As 83% Some steps have been initiated for women empowerment in theof the total water consumption in the country is used in irrigation country. However, there is a need to make concerted efforts ini.e. irrigated agriculture, women’s role in water sector assumes this direction so that their role in the water sector, which has beensignificance. However, their role in this regard, particularly the passive, unrecognized and behind the scenes can be made moreagriculture sector, is generally under estimated and undervalued. active , direct and recognized.The farm women have to shoulder a large chunk of agriculturalactivities which are multifarious. At the same time, they are home- The paper touches upon the role of women at global level whilemakers, cattle managers and laborers on farms. The relegated describing it in detail at the national level. It presents the needposition of women in agricultural sector is mainly because of two for reforms in this regard and the requisite steps needed to bereasons viz. (i) ownership of property and control of assets are taken.
    • Regional Conference of the 15 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Women in Science Leadership andSustainable DevelopmentDr. (Mrs.) Malti GoelT his paper describes social transformations taking place ences leadership much remains to be achieved. A study by Indian in the 21st century to support women participation in sci- National Science Academy had pointed out that less 4% women ence and sustainable development. Historically, women are Fellows in science or engineering academies in India. Daunt-have made important contributions and sacrifices for science, but ing environmental challenges faced by the mankind such as globalthere are a few women Nobel laureates in Science. In this context warming and climate change demand informed choices for sus-new policies and initiatives in India for gender enabling environ- tainability solutions. There is need for sharing information aboutment are discussed. Share of women in engineering colleges has their work, careers and how women can contribute towards envi-steadily increased from less than 1% in 1970s to 10% in 1990s ronmental leadership. The role of governance systems and timelyand 30% in 2010. Their visibility is improving in the corporate sec- communications in improving future prospects for women in sci-tor and on political scene. However, in sciences and applied sci- ence is discussed.
    • Regional Conference of the 16 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)PostersImpact of Homestead Fish Pond StockingTechnologies: Field Experience on WomenFarmers for Sustainable Skill Acquisitionin Fish Culture in Nigeria* Udoh Fidela E. & Okon, **Uduakobong Aniebiat (PhD), ***Igba, C. Elizabeth (PhD)*,** Department of Vocational Education Faculty of Education University of Uyo, Uyo.Akwa Ibom State Nigeria.*** Dept of Home Economics Eboyi State University, Delta State Nigeria.apageste@yahoo.comH omestead fish culture is a recent technology in Nigeria of 8weeks. It is anticipated that this would enhance sustainable fish raising fish in enclosures within the living quarters. Effec- production. Data on skill acquisition level were collected before and tive approach of imparting this innovation to women farm- after the expoure using Skill Acquisition Test Instrument (SATI).ers for skill acquisition in fish culture is disturbing. Therefore Data was analyzed using mean and t-test statistics. The resultsthis study was conducted to determine the impact of field prac- showed that exposing women to field experience was significantlytical experience on pond stocking technologies and women skill (t- 31.89. p<0.05) associating with high level of skill acquisition inacquisition in homestead fish culture. Using a complete random- homestead fish culture. A group mean of 3.49 was also obtained.ized design, 200 registered women farmers with Akwa Ibom State It is recommended that skill acquisition in homestead fish cultureIntegrated Farming Scheme in Nigeria were exposed to theories should be imparted through integrating theories with field experi-and field practical experience on pond stocking technologies for ence to enhance skill acquisition among women farmers.
    • Regional Conference of the 17 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Role of Women Engineers and Scientistsin Sustainable DevelopmentAude AbenaTelecommunications Systems EngineerNational Advanced School of Post and Telecommunicationsaude_a_2000@yahoo.frT he goal of the international conference of the women engi- her course, so that she can study and specialize, by sparing all neers and scientists since 1965 is to promote objectives of these social constraints and these stereotypes. equality, development and peace for all the women every-where in the world in the interest of all humanity. It from now on With regard to the women of sciences and technologies of Africa,proved to be necessary to stimulate the investment of the girls Information Technologies and communication can be regardedand the women on the local plan, national, regional, continental, as tools for mobilization of girls, promotion of the women in theirworld. With an aim of building strong families, strong communi- careers and of networking. The approach kind can be thus inte-ties, a strong world. A stable family builds itself by able men, the grated, because they not only will use these innovations, but alsomotivated girls and boys, dynamic women. to control them and break the inequalities in the easy relations of exchanges and divisions. The scientific disciplines and technologi-The women constitute more than 50 %of each nation on the cal present concerns such as the technology transfer, digital equi-ground (Canadian co-operation 2008). In Africa in general and in ty, the number of scientists and women of science, opening-up. ItCameroon my country in particular, they are more of times giv- thus proves necessary to increase the number of girls who woulding the life and besides, educating human being, for reasons as be interested in the studies referring to science and technology,various as varied. It would be prejudicial to deprive her of the to revalorize the role of the woman of science and technology andknowledge. Worse still in the scientific discipline and technologi- to encourage strategies of the dynamic networks. WISE-INDIA,cal where the evolutions make legions and the less obvious stud- the regional conference of the global area network of the womenies. It is easily noted that these women appear very little in the engineers and scientist of October 2012 in New Delhi, like ICWESspheres of decision. Objectively, it is abnormal to name a person 15 in Australia, and the others are opportunities offered to reflec-in charge by simple concern of the gender issue, under penalty tions on the Role of Women Engineers and Scientists in Sustain-of compromising its effectiveness and its efficiency with the task. able Development.The best solution would be thus to frame the woman throughout
    • Regional Conference of the 18 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Theme :Effective Practices for Recruitment, Mentoring and Retentionof WomenStrategies for Attracting, Motivatingand Retaning Women Engineersand ScientistsDr. Sunil AbrolPresident, Institute for Consultancy & Productivity ResearchFormer Director General, Consultancy Development Centresunilabrol@rediffmail.comO ut of over 3 lakh graduate engineers passing out each year among the engineering and scientific professionals. out of Indian technical institutions, more than 30 % of There is need for identifying factors that contribute to such a state them are women. Out of those who get into jobs half leave of affairs and what can be done by employers to reverse the phe-engineering career within 4-5 years of joining. Only a fraction of nomenon.those who continue to work reach senior management positions.A variety of reasons both personal and organizational contribute This paper brings together through case studies how innovativeto a large no. of women engineers and scientists moving out of HR policies and practices can help organizations to attract, mo-professional careers. This is a great national waste of technical tivate and retain women engineers and scientists and enhanceknowledge and experience besides frustration and depression organizational productivity.
    • Regional Conference of the 19 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Strategies for Managing Work Life BalanceDr G S PattnaikW omen in particular feel overworked and find it more Rethink your errands. Consider whether you can outsource any challenging than ever to juggle the demands of their of your time-consuming household chores or errands. Exchang- job and the rest of their life”. A lot of people are having ing services could be a welcome alternative.”You could exchangea more difficult time finding balance in their lives because there gardening services for babysitting services,” “If you like to cook,have been cutbacks or layoffs where they work. They’re afraid it you could prepare and freeze a couple of meals and give them to amay happen to them, so they’re putting in more hours, “But even if friend in exchange for wrapping your holiday gifts.”you don’t have much control over the hours you have to work, youcan ask yourself: In what other ways am I bringing greater enjoy- Get moving. It’s hard to make time for exercise when you have ament into my life? Focus your time and attention on things you can jam-packed schedule, but experts say that it may ultimately helpcontrol. There are many ways to bring a little more balance to your you get more done by boosting your energy level and ability todaily routine. The author recommends a few practical ways. concentrate. “Research shows exercise can help you to be more alert,”Building downtime into your schedule. When you plan your week,make it a point to schedule time with your family and friends and Remember that a little relaxation goes a long way. Don’t get over-activities that help you recharge. whelmed by assuming that you need to make big changes to bring more balance to your life. Try setting realistic goals, like tryingDrop activities that sap your time or energy.”Many people waste to leave the office earlier one night per week.”Slowly build moretheir time on activities or people that add no value -- for example, activities into your schedule that are important to you,” therapistsspending too much time at work with a colleague who is constantly points out that even during a hectic day, you can take 10 or 15venting and gossiping, “I would recommend taking stock of activi- minutes to do something that will recharge your batteries. Taketies that aren’t really enhancing your career or personal life and a bath, read a trashy novel, go for a walk, or listen to music. “Youminimizing the time you spend on them. You may even be able to have to make a little time for the things that ignite your joy.”leave work earlier if you make a conscious effort to limit the timeyou spend on the web and social media sites, making personal Maintaining a balance at home and the workplace could be a wellcalls, or checking your bank balance. balancing act and is necessarily an art to be learnt.
    • Regional Conference of the 20 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Flexible Working Patterns and Work-LifeBalance Amongst Female SoftwareEngineers in the Indian InformationTechnology IndustryDr. Jyothsna Latha BelliappaFaculty – Liberal Arts Srishti School of Art Design and Technologyjyothsna@srishti.ac.inT he Indian Information Technology (IT) industry provides to conform to the demands of their professional lives. In return several flexible working options to women employees to for the substitute care provided by families, they undertake subtle help them to manage the priorities of paid employment and forms of care work and kinship work, conforming to the traditionalfamily life. However, these options are undermined by the val- expectations associated with their positions as mothers, daugh-ues of flexibility, mobility and 24 hour availability that are intrinsic ters and daughters-in-law. Much of the current work life balanceto the IT industry’s culture. This paper investigates how female literature tends to overlook the relationship between these formsengineers employed in the IT industry conform to these values of work and paid employment. This paper argues that by recogniz-whilst adopting flexible working patterns. In particular, women ing the circulation of kinship work and care within families, under-mobilize reciprocal relationships of care in their extended families standing of work-life balance can be deepened
    • Regional Conference of the 21 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)“Small Group Support” for Attracting andRetaining Women in Science, Engineeringand Technology in the Busan, Ulsan andGyeongnam Region of KoreaJung Sun Kim1 and Hye Young Park21 Division of Health Sciences, Dongseo University, Busan 617-716, Korea2 Center for Gender Equality & Family Policy, Ulsan Development Institute, Ulsan 683-804, Koreajsk@gdsu.dongseo.ac.krA government commissioned regional institute, BIS-WIST, the profiles of women scientists and engineers by bringing to light was established in 2006 at Dongseo University with aims the problems they face. The major outcomes of the BIS-WIST to provide support for women scientists and engineers in “small group support” include the formation of two new legal as-the Busan, Ulsan and Gyeongnam area, otherwise classified as sociations of women in SET in the region. In 2011, ten new “smallthe southeastern region of Korea. The center opened in accor- groups” were funded and their accomplishments will be describeddance with Section 2, Article 14 of the “Act on Fostering and Sup- in this presentation. Women scientists today are recognized as anporting Women in Science and Technology” which was enacted in important asset for boosting the national competitiveness throughDecember, 2002. In Korea, the underrepresentation of women in the advancement of science. For six years, BIS-WIST has providedthe science and technology sectors is more serious in areas fur- women scientists and engineers in the region with education andther away from the national capital. Even though the overall edu- training programs as well as career services, professional devel-cation attainment falls within the range of the national average, opment programs, networking opportunities and statistical datacontingent type of employment is significantly higher in women in for policy making. In March 2012, WIST regional centers have in-the southeastern region. Thus, one of the important attempts BIS- tegrated with other related programs under the newly organizedWIST had made upon successful completion of Stage 1 projects KAI-WISET (Korea Advanced Institute of Women in Science, En-(2006-2008) was to implement the “small group support” funding. gineering and Technology). The new structure is anticipated toThis program was to ensure visibility and empowerment of women further strengthen the national support system as well as regionalin science, engineering and technology (SET) unique to the Busan, specific programs for Korean women scientists and engineers, es-Ulsan and Gyeongnam district. Whether informal or well-estab- pecially in the local regions.lished, women’s networks have played a valuable role in raising
    • Regional Conference of the 22 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Women at Work – A Balancing ACTMs. Prabhati Bhattacharya1, P.E., Ms. Atasi Das2, Dr. Sudeshna Mitra31 Project Manager, Consulting Engg. Services (India) Pvt. Ltd.Vashi, Navi Mumbai e-mail: prabhati.bhattacharya@cesinter.com2 General Manager cum Deputy HOD, Intercontinental Consultants & Technocrats Pvt. LtdNew Delhi e-mail: atasidas@ictonline.com3 Assistant Professor, Department of Civil EngineeringIIT Kharagpur, West Bengal e-mail: sudeshna@civil.iitkgp.ernet.inT he traditional division of labour by gender typically requires have the flexibility to work beyond work- hours and single-mind- women to assume a major share of house-keeping and child- edly pursue a career. Options such as flexible timings, working rearing allowing men to work outside the home to financially from home, counseling and mentoring which could greatlysupport the family. However from times immemorial, women have facilitate the career of women professionals, e.g. during preg-been balancing work both inside and outside the home. In the Pa- nancy, are few and far between. This paper will recommend someleolithic age, when humans were hunter-gatherers, men worked policy instruments that can be crucial in encouraging women toon gathering food and tool-making, while women gathered food work and also to have a family. Work breaks see women planningand firewood, assisted men with hunting and tool-making, along their schedules after work-hours to fully utilize their family time,with raising children and house-keeping. Recent research argues in an attempt to achieve work-life balance. The term ‘work-that this division of labour did not exist in the early Paleolithic ing women’ coined for professional women, is an understatement,age where gender equality was more prevalent than it is in con- because women who are not employed full-time are busy fulfillingtemporary society. Evolution and societal changes saw majority their various roles within the home. The paper will highlight chal-of women running mostly household chores rather than con- lenges faced by women engineers and scientists in achievingtributing towards the household income. Aided by education and a work-life balance e.g. ‘triple burden’ due to prevailing socio-social awareness, contemporary society in India has increasing cultural system. The authors, with significant family com-number of women being employed in various sectors. This mitments, will contribute their experiences on working abroadmay be due to need for financial stability and better quality and in India. The methodology will build on root factors (socio-of life. Even with a patriarchal family structure, the percent- economic, political), analyze current trends and predict emergingage of women engineers has risen significantly over the last two scenarios. We will study good practices followed by developed na-decades. In-depth study reveals though that industry remains tions that are advantageous to working women who have familythe lowest preferred occupation among women with few at and other social commitments. The research will investigate toupper management/ high-level executive positions. Even in what extent it is possible for women to build a successful careeracademia, women can rarely be seen in major leadership in prevailing socio-cultural system. We will identify advantagesroles. Renowned scientific and research organizations have and challenges faced by women in developing countries asvery low percentage of women (14% at the most) on board. compared to their counterparts in western countries. Based onUnderstandably, women engineers and scientists have to per- these we will recommend policies that may be critical in ensuringform a balancing act due to reduction in time to fulfil family success of working women.and social commitments. In developing countries, women rarely
    • Regional Conference of the 23 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Research into Businesses in the USA,Australia and India that Recruit and RetainWomen in Engineering and TechnologyProfessionMargaret Ajibode CEng FBCSWinston Churchill Fellow 2009Director of the International Network of Women Engineers and Scientistsmargaret@obatec.comC urrently, globally, there is a big skills shortage in particu- of those that do graduate with an engineering degree do not then lar in Engineering and Technology. “The Engineering and pursue a career in the industry. This is largely down to the draw Technology Board’s flagship publication, Engineering UK, of higher salaries within other industries; engineering courses in-reported in May 2009 that 61% of the nation’s skills shortages volve teaching mathematics to a very high level, a skill which isare in technical, engineering and engineering related roles.” very attractive to the banking and financial sectors. Companies operating within these areas can offer higher salaries and theThe skills gap is the result of a combined issue of an ageing work- widely reported large bonuses are already making their way backforce and a lack of young graduates and apprentices entering the for those working in banking. This can often tempt graduate engi-engineering sector. The average age of an engineer working in neers to switch to a career in the financial sector, further addingindustry is 53. to the current skills gap the engineering sector is struggling with.The current economic downturn has amplified this problem, as the But the engineering skills shortage is not just a UK problem butrecession has led to downsizing and early retirements, causing a global problem, as other countries are facing similar levels ofmajor concerns that over half of the global engineering workforce engineering skills shortage.will retire in the next five years, taking their expertise and skillswith them. In addition to the issue of experienced engineers re- We know that the recruitment, retention and promotion of womentiring, the industry is also suffering from the current workforce is part of the solution to the problem currently faced in the UK andnot having the necessary skills to respond to the ever-changing globally and can bridge some of the deficit.demands and challenges of the industry. The main purpose was then:A definite reduction in the number of young people pursuing en- • To understand what businesses in particular SMEs in the USA,gineering as a career is cause for concern; the number of engi- Australia and India were doing to recruit and retain women inneering graduates has steadily fallen over the last ten years, with Engineering and Technology profession even when they havea 45% decline in the number of engineering students between career breaks or circumstances changes.2001–2007. This is a pattern which is echoed across the globe. • To identify best practices/initiatives/policies that have beenThree decades ago, when many of the current engineers were implemented to enable the retention of these highly skilledtraining, there simply were not many options when looking at a womencareer, as people either trained as an engineer or in a trade. Thisis simply not the case anymore; the choice of careers for young Businesses in the USA and Australia were chosen because of thepeople today is vast – in sectors that simply did not exist 30 years advancement of women at all levels of society and also the dif-ago. The birth of computers has seen a wealth of opportunities ferent initiatives that have been done to promote and encourageopen up in the IT and digital arenas, whilst careers in the arts and more females’ in particular young girls to studying engineeringentrepreneurial fields are also booming. and technology and was curious if this was also demonstrated in the workplace. India was chosen because businesses globallyThis problem is compounded by the fact that around 60 per cent were recruiting engineers from India for these roles. I wanted to
    • Regional Conference of the 24 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)see what good practices could be learnt and adapted in the UK. work force which was reflective of the global market that they were dealing in today’s market.It is also important to note these countries are miles apart notonly geographically but also in social and cultural values, although Data from surveys indicate that the factors affecting recruitmentyou can argue that USA and Australia have similar social and cul- and retention of women in engineering are very similar in all thetural values. countries.Engineering has traditionally been a male dominated profession. The image of the engineering profession is that it is still male dom-While progress is being made in encouraging women in engineer- inated, is physically demanding and requires sound mathematicaling and technical fields, the progress rate has been very slow. and scientific background and these were the major hurdles inMost of the women who have been successful in this profession attracting more women into engineering but is this really a truehave had very supportive managers or mentors and good support statement. Study has shown that females excel academically, evennetwork outside of work such as family and other women; they in areas of science and mathematics, engineering is no longerhave had to be very focused and determined and have made sac- just about heavy labour, the roles are quite broad and diverse.rifices along the way, in order to achieve success in the profes- While workshops, special courses, seminars, congenial academicsion. and workplace environments designed to improve the numbers of women in engineering are essential, ATTITUDE changes in soci-Progress is been made but at a very slow pace, businesses inter- ety towards women in all countries has to change to encourageviewed did not have gender specific policies or initiatives but the women to select engineering as a profession.companies try to provide family friendly workplaces and a culturethat tries to cater for everyone and make it an inclusive environ- I would like to share my findings and discuss if there has been anyment to work in, some of the companies tried to consciously re- improvement since 2009 to date in the recruitment, retention andcruit women as they were aware of the need to have a diverse promotion of women in the field.
    • Regional Conference of the 25 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Effective Practices for Recruitment,Mentoring and Retention of Women inScience and Engineering ProfessionsNamrata Kapoornamrata.kapur@industeqsite.comT he under-representation of women in science, engineering, 3. Young workers in the work-force are increasing. in both higher education and employment has been well- 4. Ethnic minorities’ proportion in the total work-force is con- documented, with negative consequences for both the talent stantly increasing.pool available for the future workforce and equal opportunity. Even 5. International careers and expatriates are becoming common.the UNO wants global enterprises to help women rise in organiza-tions as that is seen as critical for sustainable develop Mentoring 6. Necessity of international experience is felt for career pro-is a proven strategy to improve retention of women .Many women gression to many top-level managerial positions.sacrifice their careers for someone or something close to their 7. Cultural differences in a workforce increase potential costs inheart. It could be a move with the spouse to his new work location, the form of higher turnover, interpersonal conflicts, and com-or raise a family or to take care of an ailing parent. A large no of munication breakdowns.woman 26-38 yrs even stay away from home for fertility treat-ments. Data says that out of 1.5 million women in India who have Benefits of Diversity Managementquit their corporate jobs 90% of them want to return to work but Progress is made on the gender ratio of the organization. The hir-only 20% are able to do so. Reason being that most Indian enter- ing managers at Sudexo have been told not to accept candidatesprises are apprehensive of hiring women back on the assumption brought by a recruiter unless a few of them are women. Othersthat they not serious about their carriers. like Kotak mahendra give preference to women employees in theIntroduction hitherto unknown male dominated frontline sales and collection jobs. Out of 4 interviews set up at least 2 should be women. HeadOrganizations in a bid to improve their gender diversity ratio are hunters are incentivised with and additional 2% fee if they get apulling out all the stops to recruit female employees beginning with woman candidate.higher fees for head hunters. Deutche bank offers a 2% additionalfee to a recruiter for bringing women candidates to the bank. Also Things are changing as many corporate giants like IBM, COGNZ-“Executive Access” an executive search firm says it earns an ad- ANT, Accenture, Dell, Microsoft, ABB, Vodafone are working onditional 10% fee payable if a female candidate is hired. “second career” programmes for women. This initiative is linked to the gender diversity drive and aims at reviving their careers.Why Diversity Management? Companies are currently working with their HR policies with a fo- cus on diversity and gender inclusion. When a woman takes an ab-The growing trend of globalization of business is giving rise to a solutely legitimate break from career why cannot she come backneed for the development of effective international management grace fully? Recently YAHOO CEO Mrissa Mayer broke the newsteams. The various countries which have faced recessions in the ground for fortune 500 companies by starting her job more than 6past are looking for a strategic model to handle worst scenarios months pregnant, a trend already embraced by young women run-by penetrating into other geographical markets and cultures. ning Silicon Valley startups. She brings the no. of woman running fortune 500 firms to 20. Many others including Indra Nooyi hadIn nut shell with the passing days, diversity management is going children before becoming CEO.to be an important issue for the HR manager due to the followingreasons: Guidelines for Gender Diversity Management in Or- ganisations1. A large number of women are joining the work-force.2. Work-force mobility is increasing. The following are some important guidelines to manage diversity
    • Regional Conference of the 26 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)effectively: organizations. 7. To study the employees consisiting of different age groups,• Commitment from top management towards diversity as a culture, beliefs, work attitudes, and leadership styles and pre-requisite. their mindset towards top manangement.• To arrange mentoring programme by senior managers to iden- 8. To study the organizational approaches to managing diversity tify promising women and minority employees and nurturing which include unbiased selection methods, diversity training, their career progress. and mentoring.• To conduct diversity training programmes to bring diversity 9. To suggest ways to develop the capabilities of employees in a awareness and educate employees on cultural and gender dif- diverse workforce. ferences and how to respond to these in the workplace.• To consider female employee needs, such as child care and job Predictive Model sharing, to prevent their turnover. Considering these issues selectively, a predictive model may be• Employer should set up a support group to provide a conducive developed involving; climate for employees who would otherwise feel isolated or alienated. Implementation of Diversity-Related Policies: Companies that in-• To conduct diversity audits to review the effectiveness of an vest time and money into diversity training and develop company organization’s diversity management programmes. policies designed to reflect this are ensured a diverse and dy-• Communication -Speeches by senior executives and inclusion namic workplace to a larger extent . of diversity in corporate vision statements Diversity Management: Related to the challenge of policy imple-• Publication of diversity brochure and inclusion of diversity as a mentation, diversity management must be properly delegated and new topic in employee orientation. enforced in order to be effective. If only one person or department• Develop a strategic Diveristy model of HRM for strengthening is in charge of enforcement and implementation of any type of and sustaining corporate growth. policy, it goes without saying that the policy will most likely not be• To impart cross-cultural trainings which will give managers effectively followed or enforced. working on international assignments the required cultural Communication: Without proper communication, barriers that understanding to accomplish their tasks. exist between groups of people due to actual or perceived dif-Objectives of the Study ferences and pre-conceived notions cannot be effectively broken down. The purpose of diversity training in the workplace, among1. To develop a strategic conceptual model pertaining to diver- other things, is to improve communication between diverse social sity management in the emerging global market to handle dif- groups. ferent cultures under the same roof. Summary2. To facilitate knowledge transfer, effective learning and skill development in other geographical boundaries and cultures. An attempt has been made to highlight the need of creating a more3. To understand , build relationships, negotiate and market in diverse workplace should be the goal of every company and its different cultures. employees as well. While overcoming the existing attitudes and4. To motivate and organize people from diverse backgrounds. beliefs of others is difficult, at the same time the resulting benefits (more dynamic workplace and an environment where everyone5. To analyze the various demographic characteristics contribut- feels accepted and valued for his/her contributions) far outweigh ing to diversity such as; age, gender, ethnicity and education. the costs. Diversity provides organizations the ability to compete6. To enlist best practices in the area of diversity management in in global markets.
    • Regional Conference of the 27 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)The Role of Near Peer Mentoringin the Retention of Women and Girlsin the Science Pipeline* Meghan Groome, *Ellis Rubinstein, *Stephanie Wortel* New York Academy of Sciences, mgroome@nyas.orgI ncreasing participation of women across all levels of the sci- 6,000 children in over 90 after school programs with 380 volunteer entific pipeline not only benefits women in academia and in- mentors for almost 80,000 impact hours of math and science en- dustry, but also enhances experiences for other women within richment programming.an institution, and promotes the advancement of science and soci-ety overall. In the past three decades, there has been significant Using ethnographic research methods including interviews, fieldprogress in the representation of women in science (Prochaska et notes, and surveys of the students, mentors, and staff at the after-al., 2006; Milem, in press). Between 1966 and 1995, the propor- school programs we have found that this model offers promisingtion of US science and engineering bachelors’ degrees awarded outcomes for the participants. We found an increase in interest into women almost doubled, rising from 25% to 47% while the pro- science, self efficacy towards science, and a better understandingportion of women receiving PhDs in various disciplines steadily of the nature of science by the student participants. For the men-increased as well. tors, they reported an increase in their confidence to teach and mentor, their perception of the importance of mentoring, and aDespite these advances, disparities still exist in many areas (Han- desire to share this program with their colleagues.delsman et al., 2005; Sax, 2001). Women currently comprisenearly half of science undergraduates, yet are less than half as These results suggest that the model provides a potentially ef-likely to be employed in science and engineering jobs and earn fective way to train women scientists to mentor while providingapproximately 20% less compared with men in similar positions younger women an opportunity to grow their interest, capabilities(Prochaska et al., 2006). and have role models in formative years of their scientific identify formation.Mentoring is internationally recognized as a key strategy for keep-ing women in the science and engineering pipeline and is a key Referenceselement of many programs across the globe (Adenika-Morrow, Adenika-Morrow, T. J. (1996). A lifeline to science careers for1996) but what is being done at earlier stages in a young women’s African-American females. Educational Leadership, 53, 80-83.scientific career to get her into the science pipeline in the firstplace? Handelsman, J., Cantor, N., Carnes, M., Denton, D., Fine, E., Grosz, B, & Sheridan, J. (2005).More women in science.Sci-At the earliest stages, in elementary and middle school, engage- ence, 309, 1190-1191.ment, capacity, and role models have been identified as essential Jolly, E., Campbell, P., and Perlman, L. (2004). Engagement,elements in keeping young women from losing interest in science capacity, and continuity: A trilogy for student success. Min-and dropping out of the science pipeline (Jolly, Campbell & Perl- nesota: Science Museum of Minnesota.man, 2004). Milem, J. F. (in press). The educational benefits of diversity:The New York Academy of Sciences launched the Afterschool Evidence from multiple sectors. In M.Chang, D. Witt, J. Jones,STEM Mentoring Program in Fall of 2010 to impact two groups of & K. Hakuta (Eds.), Compelling interest: Examining the evi-people: scientists already engaged in graduate and postdoctoral dence on racial dynamics in higher education. Stanford, CA:training and students ages 9-14 who come from populations tradi- Stanford Education.tionally underserved in the sciences. The Academy recruits gradu- Prochaska, J. M., Mauriello, L. M., Sherman, K. J., Harlow, L.,ate students and postdocs, who are called mentors, from 23 area Silver, B., &Trubatch, J. (2006). Assessing readiness for ad-universities and trains them to teach in afterschool programs in vancing women scientists using the transtheoretical method.the New York City area. To date, the Academy has served almost Sex Roles, 54, 869-880.
    • Regional Conference of the 28 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Empowering Women in the World of Work:Tackling the Double Burden Problem in RussiaMarina Baskakova, Irina SobolevaInstitute of Economy, Russian Academy of Sciencesirasobol@gmail.comT he challenge of creating favourable environment for sustain- are path-dependant. On the basis Moscow family survey (Octo- able development and effective usage of the national human ber 2008) covering different types of families, actual and desired capital has a pronounced gender aspect. As stated by WEF, labour market situation of women is explored. It is revealed that“the most important determinant of a country’s competitiveness irrespective of family type, age and educational attainment theyis its human talent – the skills, education and productivity of its are neither prepared to accept egalitarian distribution of familyworkforce. Women account for one-half of the potential talent base roles, nor to limit themselves to the role of housewife. The prob-throughout the world and therefore, over time, a nation’s com- lem of vicious circle, when women-oriented benefits underminepetitiveness depends significantly on whether and how it educates their labour market competitiveness and their bargaining powerand utilizes its female talent”. The paper deals with the problem when dealing with employers, is brought to light. Its policy impli-of empowering women in the world of work. It is demonstrated cations and the relevance of the latest turn of official social policythat the gender related perceptions and policies of today’s Russia framework in the context of these implications are discussed.
    • Regional Conference of the 29 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)PostersThe Rural Woman as the Beast of Burden andHealth Implications: Case of Oron, Oruk Anamand West Itam in Akwa Ibom StateJohnny, Adiha. S., Edyang-Ekpa, M., Edyang, Boma. , Ekpa, Victoria. B.University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeriaapageste@yahoo.comI n most developing nations women had been caught in the tes and stroke. The result of this study shows that 88% of ba- web of gender inequality, they are saddled with the respon- bies born by these women are small in size or stunted and have sibilities of caring for the household, raising the children as low birth weight. Small birth size is as a result of intrauterinewell as contributing to the socio-economic growth of her family growth retardation relationship have been described betweenand community. The rural Akwa Ibom woman with her poor or size at birth and other diseases that are known risk factors forno educational background is treated as a beast of burden, fed coronary heart disease including hypertension, type 2 diabetespoorly and expected to do the bulk of the work. Saddle with this mellitus and hyperlipidaemia. Lower birth weight had been as-responsibilities, she has to work tediously as a peasant farmer, sociated with increased insulin resistance, higher fasting insulintrader and fisherwoman, most often she has to trek a long dis- concentration and increased incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus.tance ladden with her farm produce/wares on her head without Reduced birth weight had been linked with an increased incidencethe awareness of the health implications of these burdens. This of chronic lungs disease, psychological outcomes and characteris-health survey on 3 health institutions located in 3 rural areas of tics changes in finger print, imbalance of protein and carbohydratethe 3 Senatorial Districts of Akwa Ibom has revealed that 85% intake during pregnancy has been associated with reduced birthof these women are malnourished, more than 75% of them have weight and increased blood pressure of the baby. Micronutrientshad frequent pregnancies and do not access antenatal care at the play important role in programming of postnatal pathophysiologyhealthy institution. The lethal mix of short adult height, frequent for example maternal intake of green vegetables and fruits duringpregnancies, tedious physical activities both domestic and career pregnancy has a positive effect of the birth size and glucose toler-have shown to increase the incidence of micronutrients deficiency, ance in the offspring. Evidences as revealed in this study showsintrauterine growth retardation and low birth weight of infants. that the rural woman been used as beast of burden which has aThese adverse influences can result in increased disease risk in negative effect on her health and that of her offspring from cradleadulthood, such as hypertension, coronary heart diseases, diabe- to adulthood.
    • Regional Conference of the 30 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Architecture as a Profession forWomen in IndiaMonicaa JaainObjective: Understanding the obstacles to gender parity in archi- cal activities and males’ monopoly should be addressed which maytecture, as well as a range of statistics concerning women‘s edu- otherwise handicap women as they move ahead.cation and employment in India. Conclusions: Attracting and retaining women in the workforce isMethod: A statistical analysis of the ratio of male to female archi- significant as in spite of our large young population, it is now ac-tects in terms of the current scenario of 110 architecture schools knowledged that we are short of critical talent in various sectors.across India, education facilities , self-employment and age group In approaching the comparison of the complexities of women‘scomparisons in consultancy firms. Case studies of Indian women’s enrolment in engineering programs in India, the histories of mod-contribution in the world of architecture are highlighted. ern engineering education and the cultural configuration of gen- der regimes developed through the interaction of traditionalismResult: A cornerstone of this discourse is the identification of en- and modernity must be grasped to provide valid interpretationsgineering and technology as a masculine profession. India being for the development of policy initiatives. The case studies provea mega-nation state, encompassing an array of indigenous cul- the exorbitant change in their recognition showing an extensivetures and ethnic populations experiences high rates of economic involvement in international practice, research, low-cost housing,growth and demand for skilled professionals. Reasons pertaining sustainable design, activism and historic preservation and conser-to Women‘s avoidance of aggressive participation in some techni- vation.
    • Regional Conference of the 31 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Managing Work-Life Balance* Pooja Kapoor, **Priyanka Sethi* Additional Chief Engineer, WAPCOS Limited** Deputy Manager, WAPCOS Limitedbd.wapcos@gmail.comW ork-life balance is a broad concept including proper pri- working harder at the expense of their personal lives to meet oritizing between “work” (career and ambition) on one targets. hand and “life” (health, pleasure, leisure, family andspiritual development) on the other. Methodology:Objectives of study: 1. SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis; conduct a personal audit of your work life, make a1. To draw a clarity between personal and professional goals list of work time and personal time needs, quantify and qualify2. To develop a personal vision and mission statement which will how much work time and personal time are required. Assess help one see where one is going in life where the balances and gaps are with the current work time, personal time and lifestyle commitments.3. To avoid a situation where one is barely making it to the end of the week and feeling completely exhausted by the time one 2. Reflect and analyze what values and purposes drive the need gets home for one’s work life balance. List some three to five items and focus on them. These are very critical and often not at the top4. To prune any activities that are not productive or non priori- of our minds when work-life is out of balance. ties 3. Setting attainable goals keeps one focused. Keep to a few5. To provide with a sense of job satisfaction achievable goals and discuss these goals with people whoseStatus: support is required or will be impacted by the choices made. These goals need to be followed regularly.1. About 20% of Indians cite achieving this balance as their main 4. Work-life balance requires conscious and continuous effort worry and determination. This balance will call for changes to one’s2. Globally respondents rated job security (10%) as their third lifestyle. Accept the need to change and be adaptable if work- biggest concern, followed by health (9%), children’s educa- life balance has to be a long term goal. tion/welfare (9%) and debt (8%). But concerns differ across regions. While Americans are more worried about finance, Findings and Significance respondents from the Asia Pacific region are more bothered 1. Employees will be able to optimally utilize all available re- about emotional and physical well being. Europeans are anx- sources, including time, to get maximum work done in the ious about the environment and for people in West Africa/ available time. Asia, it is politics. 2. Significant increase in productivity, efficiency and motivation3. A rising rupee and a slowing US economy has forced a number levels of employees of companies, especially in the Information Technology (IT) and IT-enabled service sectors, to optimize existing capacities 3. Improvement in employee confidence and concentration and increase efficiency. All this has meant that employees are 4. Improved relations at work and at home.
    • Regional Conference of the 32 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Women in Science and EngineeringTatev Tadevosyentatev_t@mail.ruT he number of women who earn science and engineering de- Cutbacks in Financial Aid grees has unexpectedly reached a plateau, after a steady increase from 1960 to 1980. However, it is still far lower Women are considered to be less fit than men to borrow moneythan the number of men. Only about one-third as many women as for educational expenses. Perhaps it is because the average sal-men choose science when they enter college, and a much smaller ary for women with college degrees is much lower than that forpercentage get a Ph.D. and find a job in a technical field. men.There are several factors that seem to discourage women from Inappropriate Teaching Methodsentering and staying in science and engineering professions dur-ing the past two decades. Students who enter college enthusiastic about the sciences of- ten take a few courses and then switch to a non-science major.The Stereotypic Scientist According to many reports, women perceive the college science classroom as unfriendly and overly competitive, and they oftenScience is portrayed negatively, and the scientist is portrayed as have the impression that their own cognitive style, particularly ifa nerd. When women scientists are featured in mass-circulation it is imaginative or intuitive, is not one appropriate to scientificmagazines, they are often portrayed as atypical scientists and research.atypical women. Science appears to be incompatible with the femi-ninity of women. Combative Interactions among ScientistsTextbook Portrayals of Scientists and Engineers. Many women who have completed a B.S. and entered a gradu- ate program in science drop out before gaining the Ph.D. SheilaRarely are the scientists and engineers mentioned or pictured in Widnall has suggested one reason many women are disturbed bytextbooks female. Publishers have failed to integrate the few pho- a male communication style “that seeks to reduce one of the pro-tographs of women, blacks, Hispanics, and other minorities with tagonists to rubble in the course of a scientific discussion.”the text. The Glass CeilingThe Special Problems of Engineering Strong statistical evidence has shown that the modern univer-Women are discouraged from pursuing a career in engineering sity has discriminated against women in tenure and promotioneven more strongly than from pursuing a career in science. They decisions. Only 17% of the full-time women faculty in Americanare afraid that they will be considered unfeminine if they enter this colleges were full professors, compared with 44% of the men.field. Moreover, many people are still not comfortable with women Women continue to experience higher unemployment, lower pay,as engineers. and fewer promotion opportunities than their male counterparts.Inadequate Preparation The remedies suggested were:In public schools, physics is condensed into a tough one-year 1. Publicize recent research on cognitive differences based oncourse at the end of high school, and that course is optional. By gender.that time, girls are in the middle of the adolescent socialization 2. Fund intervention programs for the long haul.process; conforming to sex-role stereotypes may seem more im-portant than undertaking an intellectual challenge. 3. Revise the tenure system.
    • Regional Conference of the 33 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Theme:Water and Waste ManagementVariation of Groundwater Static Levelsin Nairobi City Since 1927Caroline K. Onyancha1, Eliud M. Mathu2, Sixtus K. Mwea3, Wilson M. Ngecu41 Civil and Structural Engineering Department, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, Kakamega2 Department of Geological Sciences South Eastern University College, Kitui3 Department of Civil and Construction Engineering, University of Nairobi, Nairobi4 Department of Geology, University of Nairobi, Nairobiconyanja@yahoo.comG roundwater abstraction in Nairobi City has been increas- to compa ction of aquitards and aquifers as a result of ground- ing in direct proportion with increase in population. The water depletion. Considering that the fear of depletion is not fully estimated growth rate of the city population is about 5.5% backed by aquifer constants such as the coefficient of storage andper annum; approximately 100 000 new people being added to the transmissivity of the individual aquifers that exist, special prioritycity every year. Analysis of groundwater static level variations should be given to determination of the capacities of the individualin space and time on Surfer and GIS softwares as well as the aquifers and the quality of their water. This will be the basis oncalculated values indicate that the levels have been falling con- which conclusive decisions could be made regarding the poten-sistently. 67% of the drop in static levels has occurred in the last tial of subsidence and the possibility for artificial recharge in thistwo decades that have contributed a total of more than 1000 new region. Keywords: Abstraction, static level, groundwater, settle-wells. Settlement magnitudes of 0.078 m to 6.3 m could occur due ment, Tube wells.
    • Regional Conference of the 34 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Development of Polyester Polyols fromRecycled Poly (Ethylene Terephathate)for Coating Applications* Dr.Anagha Sabnis, *Mukesh Kathalewar, **Dr.V G Bhave, **Parag RautDepartment of Polymer & Surface Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai, India.* Bhavans College, University of Mumbai, *Corresponding Author: Email- as.sabnis@ictmumbai.edu.in**R ecycling of post-consumer poly (ethylene terephthalate) of hydroxyl, saponification and acid values and Fourier Transform (PET) is a worldwide concern due to its environmental im- Infrared spectroscopy. Polyester polyols were successfully syn- pact and the large increasing volume of these materials thesized by polyesterification of glycolyzed product, adipic acid,produced by society. Current work aims at effective recycling of isophthalic acid and supportive polyols like Neopentyl glycol / tri-waste PET from soft drink bottles by glycolysis method and there- methylol propane. Polyurethane coatings were prepared from theby utilization of the recycled product for coating application. polyester polyol and different commercial polyisocyanate curing agents. The coated films were evaluated for their optical, mechan-In the investigation, various glycols were used for glycolysis of ical and chemical properties. The coatings thus formulated havePET in a varying molar ratios of 1:2, 1:4 and 1:6 (PET: Glycol) and found to be comparable with conventional polyurethane systems.the reaction was carried out at 200-2200 C in presence of 0.5%zinc acetate as a trans-esterification catalyst. The glycolyzed Keywords: waste PET, glycol, glycolysis, polyester polyol, polyure-product was purified and characterized by conventional methods thane
    • Regional Conference of the 35 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Application of Remote Sensing andGIS Technique in Runoff Estimationof a Catchment using SCS-CN ModelSneha Murmu1 and Sujata Biswas2Assistant Professor, Budge Budge Institute of Technology, Kolkata, West Bengal, Email: Snehabesu09@gmail.com1Assistant Professor, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah, Email: Biswas.sjb@gmail.com2E stimation of runoff from storm rainfall is frequently needed drologic soil groups and land use/ land cover categories. for water resource planning, design of hydraulic structures and environmental impact analysis. Remote sensing (RS) and The daily and seasonal runoff depth from the catchment wasGeographic information system (GIS) can be effectively used to computed for two raingauge stations Asansol and Burdwan(1996-manage spatial and non spatial database that represent the hydro- 2007) from the weighted curve number. The total seasonal runofflogic characteristics of the watershed as realistically as possible. varies from 242.25 to 460.85mm in Asansol and for Burdwan itThe information extracted from remote sensing and other sources is from 189.85 to 557.71mm..The average seasonal runoff variedcan be stored as a georeferenced data base in Geographical In- throughout the computed years from 20 to 32% of average sea-formation System (GIS) and integrated to analyze and achieve the sonal rainfall for Asansol and 15 to 40% for Burdwan. This mayobjective. In the present study, an attempt has been made to esti- be due to less forest area in the study area. The maximum runoffmate runoff a catchment using SCS- CN method which is a widely computed was found to be in the year 2006 which is 312.56 mmused and popular method. The present study area is Damodar in Burdwan against rainfall of 612.6 mm i.e., 51.02% of rainfall.sub catchment which lies in state of West Bengal between east The calculated maximum monthly yield from the catchment at thelongitude from 86048’ to 87030’ and north latitude from 23030’ to outlet where Durgapur barrage is located is 470.74 mm3 or 181.6123048’. The study area has been delineated from georeferenced m3/s.toposheets based on the drainage network. Here the land use/ land cover classes of catchment have been segregated using The results of the study show that runoff estimation from a catch-satellite image of IRS-P6 LISS-III to take into account the spa- ment can be carried out for reliable accuracy with the help oftial variation of landuse pattern. The soil map has been prepared remote sensing and GIS technique. The strengths of this modelfrom collateral data and the hydrologic soil group map has been are the rapidity of obtaining the results and the fact that the an-prepared in GIS environment based on soil texture and infiltration tecedent soil moisture is taken into account; in the same time thecharacteristics. The weighted Curve numbers were determined model offers the possibility to simulate the runoff either at a daily,based on antecedent moisture condition with an integration of hy- monthly, seasonal or annual scale, for each storm event.
    • Regional Conference of the 36 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Assessment of Suitable Technologyfor Processing of MSW of Urban IndiaDr Seema Awasthiseema.awasthi@icuc.inT he problem of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in an environmentally sound manner including mechanical, biologi- has acquired an alarming dimension in the India during the cal and thermo-chemical waste-to-energy technologies. However, last few decades. The quantity of solid waste generated has the choice of an appropriate technology is very much dependent onincreased significantly and its characteristics have changed as a the waste suitability, reliability of the technology & its economic &result of the change in the peoples’ lifestyles due to swift industri- commercial viability. In this paper, a systematic approach & meth-alization and urbanization. Presently, an estimated annual genera- odology for assessment of suitable technology for effective treat-tion of municipal solid waste in India is in the range of 35 to 45 ment of municipal waste of urban cities of India, is suggested.million tons. This volume is likely to double by 2015, and double Various available technologies are reviewed through the lensesagain by 2025, by which time India would be generating over 150 of technical suitability, regulatory requirements, environmentalmillion tons of waste a year. impact, carbon foot printing and commercial viability.In order to attain a sustainable waste management system, the Different waste treatment options have different type of impacts;municipal waste needs to be rather treated as a valuable re- however, environmental soundness of the technology along withsource. Stemming from this principle, like any other resource it its carbon foot print should be accounted in the long time perspec-needs to be optimally used and reused and recovered to its full- tive. Further, market demand for utilisation of the end product pro-est extent and then disposed off in a responsible manner. The duced during the waste processing also plays a very crucial roleMSW (management and handling) rules (2000), issued by Govt. to achieve financial sustainability. Land requirement for the wasteof India, recommend waste treatment, using one or more of the processing and disposal of final residue is also one of the primeavailable waste treatment technologies, before its final disposal concerns to opt for the waste treatment process.in the landfill. Various studies in recent times have indicated thatthe municipal solid waste generated in the urban India is quite Keeping these objectives in mind, the latest approach for wasteheterogeneous in nature and hence, each city needs to select an management in India, is focussed towards adapting an integratedappropriate waste processing and treatment technology based on system to treat the biodegradable and combustible contents ofits waste characteristics, needs and resources. the waste using appropriate technologies after recovery of recy-There are various technologies available for processing of waste clables.
    • Regional Conference of the 37 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Behaviour of Concrete with Pond Ash –Thermal Power Plant Waste as Constituent –Durability PerspectivesBharathi Ganesh1, H.Sharada Bai2, R.Nagendra3, Netravathi K S41 Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Global Academy of Technology, bharathi.gan@gmail.com2 Professor, Faculty of Engineering – Civil, Bangalore University, Bangalore sharada29@yahoo.com3 Technical Director, Civil Aid Technoclinic Pvt. Ltd, Bangalore, nr.ctpl@gmail.com4 Design Engineer, EI Tech Pvt. Ltd. Bangalore, netravathi_ks@yahoo.co.in“I never see what has been done; I only see what remains to be done – Marie Curie”KEY WORDS: Industrial by Product, Pond Ash, Constituent in Con- tance along with strength due to the premature deterioration ofcrete, compressive Strength, Durability, Economical & Ecological RCC structures which has assumed serious proportions. Hencebenefits, structures have to be designed taking care of both strength and durability factors. Lot of research work is being carriedIndia is now the 4th largest economy in the world, speeding fast to out to use alternative materials for construction, satisfyingbecome the 3rd largest which demands for additional 1,08,000 strength and performance / durability criteria of structures.MW power generation to meet the growing economy needs. The durability of a concrete structure is closely related to its per-Coal being the cheapest source of energy, will remain the “King” meability, the one that should limit the ingress of substances suchfor the production of power for the near future, with nearly 20 mil- as moisture, chloride, sulphate, alkalis, acids as that can initiatelion tonnes of fly ash being produced every year, which is expected or propagate possible deleterious actions.to rise to 100 million tonnes. Consequent upon increasedgeneration of electricity through thermal route involving combus- This paper deals with the initial study on the suitability of Pondtion of pulverized coal/ignite, concurrent generation of fly ash and Ash at different replacement levels as Fine Aggregate in con-pond ash in bulk quantities is a matter of serious concern not only crete for structural work. Sample of Pond Ash from Metturbecause of issues associated with its disposal and utilization, Thermal Power Station was considered for the study. Detailedbut also because of its threat to public health and ecology. characterization of Pond Ash as Fine Aggregate was carried outSubstitution of raw materials / constituents in concrete with al- as per relevant codes of practice and concrete Design Mix forternatives is an important eco efficiency drive and is the need of the grade of Concrete considered was arrived as per IS 10262the hour. One such effort is in the use of huge amount of industrial – 2009. Specimens were cast and cured. Studies on its durabilit yby - product from coal fired power plants as coal Ash in the con- properties such as resistance to acid, sulphate and chloride ionstruction industry. It is the social responsibility of researchers to penetration of concrete were carried out along with compres-encourage “beneficial use of industrial by- products in order to sive strength, with pond ash as constituent in concrete andpreserve resources, conserve energy and reduce or eliminate the behaviour is compared with control concrete specimens.need for disposal of industrial waste in landfills (Ramme Tharaniyil- WE)”. The present research showed that Pond Ash has good potential for use in concrete constructions as a suitable sustainable mate-Durability of concrete is the measure of the working life of rial. Hence it is the need of the hour to use pond ash as anconcrete, without need of repair under intended condition. alternative material in construction industry, to bring in environ-In recent years the durability of structures is given more impor- mental, ecological & economic benefits.
    • Regional Conference of the 38 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Virus Pollution of Indian Surface Water:Health Risk Estimation and IssuesIdentificationDivya Singh1, Arun Kumar2*1 Graduate Student, 2Assistant Professor Department of Civil Engineering,Indian Institute of Technology New Delhi, India*Corresponding Author: arunku@civil.iitd.ac.inObjectives: Viruses and responsible for epidemic non-bacte- son dose-response model (alpha =0.2531 and beta=0.4265) wasrial outbreaks of gastroenteritis, hepatitis, meningitis, fever, used for rotavirus. All estimates of annual risk of infectionrash, conjunctivitis around the world and thus their monitoring were compared with the USEPA maximum allowable annualin water sources are required. The objective of this study was risk of infection value (i.e., 1:10000) to determine if exposureto understand virus-related health risks for Indian population results in health risks.during drinking of surface water (without any further treatment)and to identify issues during estimation of risk of infection. Results: Both rotavirus and adenovirus presented high risks of infection for concentrations higher than 10-6 infectious par-Status: This aspect is important for developing countries, such ticles/liter (i.e., values of annual risk of infection >1:10000),as India, where regulatory focus (from CPCB and BIS) is on indicating risk of virus infection and need for reducing virus con-monitoring of fecal indicators (total coliforms; fecal coliforms) centrations to very low level in surface water (i.e., up to 0.1 in-compared to other countries such as USA, where focus is on fectious particles/million liters water per day). Further, realisticpathogen-specific monitoring in addition to monitoring of bacte- information on virus concentration in Indian water is missing andrial-origin fecal indicators as well as coliphage for indicating thus estimation of risk of viral infection cannot be completed dueviral presence in water. to lack of data.Methods: Risk of viral infection from ingesting water was esti- Significance of the Study: Risk estimation using hypo-mated for a hypothetical scenario of exposures of two enteric vi- thetical virus concentration indicated high risks, an importantruses (i.e., rotavirus p13 and adenovirus 40) from surface water information even in case of lack of virus concentration data. (without any further treatment; a worst-case scenario). For esti- As currently coliphage as virus indicator is not required to bemating ingested dose of infectious viral particles, virus concentra- monitored in Indian water, these findings indicate the potentialtion in water (as infectious particles/liter) was varied at following of risks of virus infection from contaminated. Thus, it would belevels: 10-7, 10-6, 10-5 , 10-4 , 10-3, 10-2 , 10-1 , and 1 due to lack of prudent for monitoring coliphage in water in addition to bac-both coliphage concentration or virus concentration data; daily teria-based fecal indicators to aid process of estimating risk ofwater intake was assumed to be 2 liters/day. For estimating virus infection from surface water.annual risk of infection, exponential dose-response model(parameter =0.4172) was used for adenoviruses and beta-Pois- Keywords: Human health; Infection; Viruses
    • Regional Conference of the 39 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Electrochemical Oxidation of TextileDye Wastewater Using Different ElectrodesMahaveer Devoor1, Rekha H B2, Usha N Murthy3PG Student, 2Assistant Professor, 3Professor, Department of Civil Engineering,1UVCE, Bangalore University, Bangalore, Karnataka. Email: rekhahb@gmail.comA n attempt has been made to investigate the performance under optimized conditions. Additionally, the energy consump- of different electrodes such as mild steel, stainless steel, tion and COD removal rate were also studied. However, it was copper and aluminum to treat the industrial textile waste- observed that increase in electrolysis time and current densitywater in a batch reactor. On the basis of their comparative per- increased the removal efficiency of color and COD. Results in-formance in terms of maximum removal of COD and Color, sludge dicated, stainless steel proves to be efficient at an optimumand scum quantity, anodic oxidation, stainless steel was selected. current density of 96 A/m2 at 120 min with a removal efficien-Firstly, the time and interelectrode distance were optimized. Fur- cy of 75% color and 68% COD with 1cm spacing of electrodes.ther, the effect of various current densities on the decoloriza- Key words: Electrochemical Oxidation, Mild steel, Stainless steel,tion and COD removal efficiency was studied w.r.t stainless steel Aluminum, COD, Color.
    • Regional Conference of the 40 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Improvement in Turbidity of DrinkingWater – Experience at JuscoWater ManagementUma Ramna, Pranay Sinha & G S BasuJamshedpur Utilities & Services Company Ltd.umaramna@tatasteel.comJ USCO is a unique company and the first of its kind in the conforming samples with turbidity levels >1 NTU, as per WHO country to offer comprehensive civic and allied services with standards, had increased significantly in 2005-06. Initiatives the ability and infrastructure to service a vast and varied were then taken; which resulted in significant improvements incustomer base of Jamshedpur Township. JUSCO is all set to pio- the turbidity of drinking water. These include sampling and testingneer the effort in providing improved quality services in the field of methods, type of coagulants, dosing quantity of coagulants, floccu-water and waste water management, aspiring to deliver “Quality lation rate and de-sludging frequency, flow rate of water and clog-Services for Life” ging level of filter bed. In order to achieve closer control of these sub-processes, actions were taken to set the criteria, range andAn adequate qualitative and quantitative water supply is essential frequency of measure for each sub-process activity and existingfor small as well as big cities and towns. Water treatment involves standard procedures were reviewed and redefined for monitoringphysical, chemical and biological changes that transform raw wa- the same at each stage. Reliability of sampling and coagulationter into potable water. The treatment process used in any specific processes was ensured through physical verification. For the sub-instance must depend on quality and nature of raw water as this is sequent processes, experiments were conducted to identify thesubjected to serious pollution. Effective water treatment is neces- causes and taking corrective actions.sary as ingestion of polluted water may lead to serious intestinaldiseases such as cholera, dysentery, typhoid etc. A necessary re- On an experimental basis, the turbidity level of water after clarifierquirement of water treatment process is to maintain the quality of and filter bed were compared over a period of ten days. The actualpotable water with respect to its turbidity, pH, colour, aluminum, turbidity level of clarified water was within control limits of <8iron and bacteriological quality which are specified standards of NTU. This indicated good control at previous stages of coagula-drinking water by Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) and World tion. However, the quality of filter water fluctuated and 3 out of 10Health Organization (WHO). samples (30%) were found defective and had turbidity levels >1 NTU. This study identified filtration process as the main source ofTurbidity is one of the important measures for assessment of variation in turbidity. Further improvements, therefore, requireddrinking water quality. Turbidity in water is caused by clay, salt, detailed investigation of filtration process.organic matter, phytoplanktons and other microscopic organisms.It is expressed in Nephelometric Turbidity units (NTU). It is sig- At JUSCO, gravity sand filters are used as strainers for filteringnificant because excessive turbidity can allow pathogens to ‘hide” suspended particulate matters. Filters are designed with provi-and hence be resistant to disinfections. Turbidity makes water sions for removal of flocs from pre-treated clarified water.unfit for domestic purpose. It is removed by coagulation, floccula-tion and filtration process in drinking water treatment plants. As It was observed that the turbidity of water was influenced by theper IS:10500 standard for drinking water, the turbidity of drinking flow rate and the time interval between two backwash. Flow ratewater should be < 5 NTU and as per WHO standard, for drinking was quantified as the ratio of water level at the weir to height ofwater turbidity should be < 1 NTU. weir and was reported in percentage. Frequency of backwash was maintained at 24 hrs interval. The later is identified as an impor-Turbidity control in drinking water is practiced in JUSCO for many tant parameter as continuation of sedimentation in this intervalyears. The different stages of process constitute of Coagulation, leads to clogging of filter bed thus gradually reducing the efficien-Flocculation, Filtration and Disinfection before pumping of treated cy of filtration process. Experiments were conducted to assess thewater to storage and then to consumer taps. The defective or non- effect of flow rate and time interval between two backwash on
    • Regional Conference of the 41 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)the turbidity levels of water at the outlet. The results indicated made in the new set of experiments, water flow rate was con-that as the time interval between backwash increased, continuous trolled at < 350 m3/hr and backwash procedure was initiatedclogging of the filter bed by sediments affected the efficiency of whenever head loss increased over 1.2 meters. Standard Operat-filtering process and resulted in higher non-conforming values of ing Procedure was accordingly revised to ensure systematic im-turbidity > 1NTU. provement. As a result of above actions, the nonconformance % of turbidity values in drinking water dropped sharply to 0-3% asThe above results highlighted the importance of flow control and against 24-26% achieved earlier.estimation of chocking of filter bed as important parameters forturbidity control. Since no reliable measuring device was available JUSCO Water Works Town Laboratory is now certified with ISOin the existing system, it was decided to provide flow meters to 17025:2005 accreditation to perform consistently and systemati-control the rate of filtration as well as to provide a device for mea- cally with high degree of reliability. By attaining its quality assur-suring pressure drop across the filter bed. A new set of experi- ance objectives through adoption of the latest methods of analy-ments were conducted to assess the effect of these parameters sis, JUSCO Waterworks excels over the other water purificationon turbidity levels of drinking water.. On the basis of observations plants in India.
    • Regional Conference of the 42 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Environmental Influence on MacrobenthicInvertebrate Distribution in Mbo River,Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria* Essien-Ibok, Mandu. A., **Umoh, I. A., ***Okoko, Atim C Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, University of Uyo, Nigeria* &** Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources,***Akwa Ibom State. Nigeria. Email: apageste@yahoo.comA one year research (December, 2009 to November, 2010) and seasons indicated that dissolved oxygen and nitrate- nitrogen was carried out to assess the effect of environmental vari- had a positive relationship with Capitella capitata, Metagrapsus sp ables on the distribution and composition of macrobenthic and Malacoceros sp, whereas total hydrocarbon, current velocityinvertebrate in Mbo River. The study sites were chosen along a and total dissolved solids was strongly correlated with Clibinariuslongitudinal gradient to reflect anthropogenic activities. The mac- africanus, Cyllsene senegalensis and Anadara senilis. A positiverobenthic invertebrate community structure and water quality relationship exists with Lumbrinereis sp, and Macrobrachium vol-parameters were determined, all using standard methods. The lenhovenii and water temperature exhibited a positive relationshiphypothesis tested was that shift from one station to another af- with Littorina anqulifera and Nephtys dibrancha. Total hydrocar-fect the water quality characteristics and the structure of the in- bon, sulphate and transparency explained 54.4% of the variationvertebrate assemblage, and is modulated by the temporal rainfall in the species matrix. The observation and information from thischanges. The databases obtained were subjected to Canonical research will serve as baseline data and will be very usefull inCorrespondence Analysis (CCA). This result between the benthic formulating policies and regulatory framework for sustainablemacroinvertebrates, the physical and chemical variables in sites management of Mbo River.
    • Regional Conference of the 43 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Sensors for Smart Water ManagementSudakshina Banerjeesudsbanerjee@gmail.comI ndia faces many challenges in the water sector. The foremost hurry the preceding person never turns off the tap. is declining per capita availability of water. It has slipped 4. Even after buckets are filled people rarely turn off the tap. from 5300 cubic metre per annum in 1950s to 1700 cubic This overflowing of the buckets leads to huge quantity ofmetre per annum. This figure denotes a ‘water stress’ situation. water losses.The figure is expected to drop further to ‘water scarcity’condition of 1000 cubic metre per annum by 2050. In India, Keeping in mind the above factors, buckets/taps with infraredwith development, the demand of water is increasing both in sensors, can go a long way in reducing water wastage. Sen-urban and rural areas. This may create increased tension and sor activated taps have been in restrooms in airports, hotels,dispute between these areas for sharing and command of wa- and other public places for years. But implementing the sameter resources. The emerging scarcity of water has also raised in municipal water supply lines is not easy without Govern-a host of issues related to sustainability of present kind of ment Intervention. Upgrading to sensor taps from a manualeconomic development, water supply, equity and social justice, tap has enormous benefits and advantages over conventionalwater financing , pricing , governance and management. taps. Nowadays there are many companies who provide such retrofit options.There is no scientific definition of the volume of a tap drip,but considering 1/4 milliliter (ml) as the volume of a faucet Another option is by using buckets fitted with infrared sen-drip, the estimate of water wasted through faucet/tap drip is: sors. Though this concept is in the idea stage, but if it isOne gallon: 15,140 drips, One liter: 4,000 drips. developed, then it can check problem of water wastage in developing and underdeveloped countries where is people useThe objective of the study is smart water management by the buckets for collecting and storing water.use of motion sensors and infrared sensors. Municipal supplywater at large is wasted due to one or more of the follow- The Technology: Buckets will be fitted with a sensor which willing reasons: be adjustable as per user requirement. Once, the water will be filled up to that level, it will send an instruction to the1. Negligence of people. People often tend to forget to turn sensor in the tap to close the water flow through the tap off taps when not in use. This is a common sight in most by closing a non-return valve. In this way there will be no of the municipal areas in India. wastage of water.2. Faulty/broken taps.3. When people wait in a queue to collect water, they often Not only this there will be huge savings in energy required do not have the patience to wait for their turn. So, out of to pump this water.
    • Regional Conference of the 44 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Waste is Not WasteC. K. SharmaCertified Energy Auditor Chief Executive Consulting Engineers,Gurgaon, Haryana, India. E mail: conengr@gmail.comW aste is not ‘the waste’. Waste for one is the useful input (crop residues and animal waste) and urban waste (kitchen and for the other. There is no absolute definition of Waste. municipal solid waste). They are relative. If one looks around, everything thatwe term as waste is of origin from Mother Earth. It is made from Paper discusses the Indian Scene of waste – particularly the agri-‘Panch Tatva’ only. All the ‘so called waste’ is a byproduct of natu- culture and animal waste- in rural area. Animal population of overral resources. half a billion has the potential to turn the table upside down for the prosperity of rural India which is agriculture based. This is possibleWhen we talk of energy, it is generally looked upon as electrical by converting the animal waste to useful energy through biogasenergy. Waste to Energy concept means that waste is converted plants. The useful usage is (i) generation of biogas for food cookingto useful benefit rather than throwing it into landfills or otherwise. and (ii) organic fertilizer for crops. Directly the production of or-Wastes can be classified as agriculture waste, industrial waste, ganic fertilizer through biogas plants saves 10000 MW of power atkitchen waste, animal waste, municipal solid waste etc. Even the the grid level. The Nation also has about 3 million cylinders per yearpower station generates waste as ash, steam and heat. All waste of methane through biogas plants. These cylinders can be used forcan be put to useful usage. food cooking and transport industry thus saving the import of oil and gas. Paper also presents live stories of successes on this front.In India waste comes from three sectors – industry, agriculture Key words: Waste, Bio Gas, Organic Fertilizer, Power, Animal Dung
    • Regional Conference of the 45 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Coconut Shell – A Potential Source to RemoveIron from Contaminated GroundwaterMausumi Raychaudhuri, S. Raychaudhuri, Sucheta Mohanty and Ashwani KumarDirectorate of Water Management, Bhubaneswar, Odisha.Email: mausumiraychaudhuri@gmail.comG round water is the major source of drinking water in both ur- in the country. Iron contamination in ground water has been reported ban and rural India. Besides, it is an important source of water from West Bengal, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, for agricultural and industrial sector also. Groundwater quality Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Tamilnaduis becoming poor due to geogenic as well as anthropogenic reasons and Kerala. In Odisha the ground water of Angul, Nayagarh, Jagats-which are of great concern. Iron contamination in groundwater is a inghpur, Jajpur, Kendrapada, Puri, Khurda districts are contaminatedvery common problem arising mostly due to geogenic reasons. Since with Fe. Treating groundwater to remove iron from municipal, agri-ground water moves through rocks and surface soil, it dissolves s as cultural and domestic wells is a multimillion dollar a year businessit moves and contains more dissolved substances than surface water. throughout the world. Activated carbon is popular in potable waterMoreover, due to urbanization, industrialisation, rapid urban develop- treatment. Activated carbon is effective in removing taste and odourment and larger amount of wastewater generation and disposal has causing compounds, chlorinated compounds, and many metals.increased the contamination in groundwater in urban and peri urban An attempt has been made to use coconut shell to produce charcoalareas. Whereas in rural areas other than geogenic reasons contami- and use it to remove Fe at domestic level. Coconut shell Charcoalnation in groundwater has become inevitable due to injudicious use (CSC) can be produced using coconut shells and other waste materi-of fertilisers and pesticides to produce more from the same piece of als. No investment is required. 1 g of CSC is produced from 3.2 g ofland to meet the food requirement of the burgeoning population. Iron coconut shell. Batch test was conducted at different concentrationsoccurs naturally in the aquifers but levels in groundwater and its con- of Fe in water with varying doses of CSC to determine the adsorp-centration level ranges from 0 to 50 mg/l while WHO recommended tion isotherm, adsorptive capacity and its usage based on Freundlichlevel is <0.3 mg/l. Iron bearing ground water is often noticed or- adsorption isotherm. CSC was found effective in removing Fe fromange in colour causing discoloration of laundry, and has an unpleasant contaminated surface and groundwater.taste, which is apparent in drinking and food preparation. Also createsblockage of screens, pumps, pipes, reticulation systems etc. If the iron India is the third largest coconut producing country having an area ofhydroxide deposits are produced by iron bacteria then they are also about 1.78 million hectares under the crop. Annual production is aboutsticky and the problems of stain and blockage many times worse. 7562 million nuts with an average of 5295 nuts per hectare. Around 1 m tons of charcoal can be produced from 3.1 m tons of coconutAs per the CGWB report high concentration of iron (in excess of 1 mg/ shell produced per year to remove iron from contaminated surfacel) in ground water has been observed in more than 1.1 lakh habitations and ground water.
    • Regional Conference of the 46 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Implications of Anaerobic Condition on CarbonSequestration in Wetland SedimentsSusmita Mukherjee & Phanibhusan GhoshInstitute of Engineering & management, Kolkata.Email: mukherjeesusmitaiem@gmail.comT he atmospheric accumulation of Green House Gases mainly, It has been analysed and established in this paper that the anaerobic the carbon dioxide produced by fossil fuel burning is naturally condition which is conventionally interpreted as degrading or deterio- eliminated through carbon sequestration in other interacting en- rating condition of the ecosystem with loss of wetland values and asvironmental segments like biota, soil or sediments and water. Among such, is recognised as most undesirable condition, do occur to play athese segments, the soil carbon pool is about 4.2 times the entire at- great ecological role in carbon sequestration. The appearance of thismospheric pool and 5.7 times the biotic pool. About 20-25% of soil condition is a natural phenomenon and there are multiple steps ofcarbon pool is contributed by wetland sediments occupying only 5% mineralisation process with sequential lowering of rate. This sequen-of total landmass. Wetland being the most productive one on earth tial decrease in rate permits enough time and opportunity for organiccould accommodate enormous amount of organic matter by trapping matter to be deposited and restricts respiratory loss of carbon. Be-atmospheric CO2 through photosynthesis and by bringing in terrig- sides, the end products of some anaerobic processes are toxic thatenous organic matter from water shed areas. Some fraction of this kills trophic level organisms and shortens the food chain, consequent-is mineralised by microbial community in aerobic and anaerobic con- ly reduces carbon mineralisation.ditions releasing CO2 and CH4 respectively to the atmosphere. This It is evident that occurrence of anaerobic state is to remove the ex-anaerobic condition with less degree of mineralisation might have a cess organic matter together with associated nutritional elementsdefinite role in carbon sequestration in sediments. from the ambient system through sequestration on sediments and to bring the balance in nutrient cycling in nature. The larger the tenureThe objective of the present study is to understand the process of ap- of anaerobic state, the more will be the removal of burial of organicpearance of anaerobic condition and to hypothesize the potential role matter. Therefore, preserving wetland with this condition is a practi-of this condition in carbon sequestration through bottom deposition of cal way of retaining the existing carbon resources and thus avoidingorganic matters at wetland sediments. The possible consequence of the emission of CO2. Now the time has come when the, environmentaloccurrence of different stages in wetland system with time in favour or ecological planners can plan their options either for extracting ben-of carbon sequestration, are explained theoretically with the help of efits from the wetlands or through carbon sequestration in anaerobicliterature survey during the study. condition for providing opportunities towards environmental stability.
    • Regional Conference of the 47 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)PostersDevelopment of Novel BiotechnologicalApproaches for Remediation ofContaminated sitesIrina ShtangeevaSt. Petersburg University, Universitetskaya nab., 7/9, St. Petersburg 199034 RussiaEmail: shtangeeva@gmail.comT he problems of environmental pollution and land degradation the health of young generation. Unfortunately, economical situation resulting from uncontrolled urbanization, intensive agriculture in Russia is expected to get worse. Therefore, there is no chance to land-use and over-exploitation of mining are of considerable hope that government will contribute greatly to improvement of theimportance all around the world. Soil pollution by toxic metals is a current ecological situation. In the circumstances, development andwidespread problem in both industrialized and developing countries. implementation of effective and low cost remediation methodologiesIn Russia, contamination of forests, agricultural and urban lands has might be the only real possibility to reduce soil contamination, to de-been constantly increased last years. Moreover, there are still no rea- cline the risk of the contamination of crops and food and to improvesonable methodologies that could provide reducing the risk from the quality of life. The research was aimed to gain knowledge about pio-contamination for the environment and humans. As a consequence of neer tolerant plant species capable of enhancing the establishment ofmetal contamination, several territories in Russia (in particular, rather vegetation cover and facilitating the restoration of a plant biodiversity.large polluted area in the North-West region of Russia, near Mon- The soil chemical processes and soil components that control metalchegorsk, Kola Peninsula) have no vegetation cover. It hardly can be bioavailability in the soils were also identified. The feasibility of thesaid now that there are environmentally clean agricultural and forest phytoextraction procedures were evaluated to provide potential end-soils; just level of the soil contamination can differ from one to another users with recommendations on the use of the remediation methodol-place. This can certainly adversely affect human health and, first of all, ogy in a wide range of metal contaminated soils.
    • Regional Conference of the 48 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Integrated Water Resources Management –A Framework for ActionR K KhannaFormer Chief Engineer (Environment Management)Central Water Commission New Delhi. Email: khanna_env@yahoo.comW ater is a basic necessity of life. According to our religion enough water for everybody on earth and the problem is due to mis- and culture, it is one of the Panchmahabhutas viz Earth, Sky, management, unequal distribution etc? And thus, the terms like water Fire, Air and Water. The quest for water must have started management, equity etc were coined. Then, there were conflicting de-along with the evolution of human life. According to our scriptures, the mands viz irrigation, hydro power, food control, domestic & industrialgreat saint Narada enters the Durbar of king Yudhisthira and asks water supply etc, to which ecolology was added later. It is understood“Are your reservoirs full of water ? Are your farmers happy?”. The that all this brainstorming and churning led to the idea ( or concept )life starts with water, with the child being given a bath, and it similarly of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM).ends with water. So water accompanies us through the journey of life. The paper describes the emergence of the concept of Integrated Wa-Earlier, there was enough water for everybody, say, upto the middle ter Resources Management (IWRM) during International Conferenceof last century. Then the water shortage started, and now it has as- on and Water and Environment (ICWE), Dublin, Jan 1990 and Unitedsumed alarming proportions, with people talking of water wars and Nations Conference on Environment & Development, Rio, June 1992.what not. It unfolds the Indian experience in IWRM, Challenges in Water Sector and the Reform Agenda, Future perspectives, Strategies for attenuat-This concern for water quantity ( and, later, for water quality also) led ing the challenges, Thrust areas, Constraints in the implementationthe people to do a lot of brainstorming : Why the water shortage ? Is of IWRM and the framework for action to meet the water demandit due to rise in population ? Or change in lifestyle ? Or both ? Is there for future.
    • Regional Conference of the 49 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Environmental Management of RiverValley ProjectsR K KhannaFormer Chief Engineer (Environment Management)Central Water Commission New Delhi. Email: khanna_env@yahoo.comV arious river valley projects taken up in India, particularly during An elaborate procedure is followed for according environmental clear- the post-independence era, have contributed significantly to the ance to river valley projects to ensure that the implementation of the socio-economic development. Besides leading to increased ag- projects leads to improvement of the ecosystem rather than its degra-ricultural production, these projects have provided various other ben- dation. The procedure has even been amended, making it mandatoryefits such as Hydro-power generation, drinking water, flood control to consider the public opinion regarding the project.and industrial water. However, all developmental activities have cer-tain environmental impacts and river valley projects are no exception. Before 1994, it was an administrative requirement to get environ-The possible adverse impacts of these projects include submergence mental clearance for the projects from the Union Ministry of Environ-of forests, degradation of land, impact on water quality, flora & fauna ment and Forests. In order to assess the impact of the developmentaland socio-economic impacts like displacement of people, the last one projects/activities on the environment, the Ministry of Environmentbeing particularly sensitive. and forests (MOEF), Govt. of India issued a gazette notification on the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) on January 27, 1994 (asIntegration of environmental concerns into the development process amended on May 4, 1994) and made environmental clearance statu-has been a regular feature of India’s traditions and policies. India is tory for all the projects located in ecologically sensitive/fragile areasone of the few countries where specific provisions exist in the con- as notified by the Govt. of India from time to time besides 29 catego-stitution for environmental conservation. The relevant constitutional ries of the projects as specified in the Schedule 1 of the notification.provisions were even amended after the UN Conference on Human These also include river valley projects. The notification was furtherEnvironment (Stockholm, 1972). A number of Acts and Legislations amended in 1997, making a public hearing also necessary to get envi-have been enacted for the purpose, including those for protection of ronmental clearance. The notification has since been superseded bywater resources. The National Water Policy of India, formulated in EIA Notification of 2006.1987 and updated in 2002, emphasises the need for an integratedand multi disciplinary approach to the planning and implementa- The paper presents the creation of environmental awareness at na-tion of water resources development projects, including catchment tional and international level, environmental legislations and policies.treatment and management, environmental and ecological aspects. It also describes environmental impact assessment, procedure forEnvironmental and forest clearance has been made mandatory and environmental clearance in India, environmental management of rivervarious management measures are insisted for reducing the adverse valley projects and environmental monitoring.impacts of projects.
    • Regional Conference of the 50 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Accumulation of Arsenics inEnvironmental Samples and Applicationof a Novel Analytical MethodJinsung An1 Mihye Kong1 Hye-On Yoon1*Korea Basic Science Institute, Email: dunee@kbsi.re.kr1A rsenic in the environment can derive from both anthropogenic soils bring considerable accumulation on plants or affected in ground- and natural sources. Which may occur as inorganic species water by uptake and subsequent entry into surrounding environments such as arsenate (iAsv) and arsenite (iAsIII) or organic species and eventually to human food chains.such as monomethylarsonic acid (MMAv), dimethylarsinic acid (DMAv), A method to separate arsenic species by using high performance liquidarsenobetaine (AsB) and trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO)? chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma-mass spec-The fate, behavior, bio-availability, and toxicity of arsenic species vary trometry (LC-ICP-MS) has been developed. The main objective of thisdramatically with the chemical form (species) in which metal exists study was to evaluate each toxic arsenic species derived from soilsis now well known. For example, inorganic arsenite [As(III)] and ar- and landfills in order to see the arsenic accumulation thereafter. Alsosenate [As(V)] are toxic, methylarsonic acid [MMA(V)] and dimethyl- we have focused on the LC-ICP-MS operating procedure for maintain-arseinic acid [DMA(V)] are less toxic. Arsenic concentration levels in ing best analytical conditions for the speciation of the arsenic.
    • Regional Conference of the 51 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)“On Water” One Pot Synthesis of TetrazoleSubstituted 3-Hydroxy Oxindole Derivativeswith Quaternary CentresSai Prathima PCSIR-SRF, Email: saiprathimaiict@gmail.comA n efficient one-pot protocol has been developed for the syn- amino)-3-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)indolin-2-ones from readily available isatins. thesis of 3-hydroxy-3-(1H-tetrazol-5- yl)indolin-2-ones and 3- The method has excellent generality and applicable for various substituted (phenylamino)-3-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)indolin-2-ones as a novel isatins under “on water” conditions. The new compounds reportedclass of oxindole derivatives by metal-free azide-nitrile [2+3] herein could find potential application in medicinal chemistry.cycloaddition. The process is simple, eco- friendly and applicablefor diverse functionalities of isatin with excellent yields at roomtemperature.Oxindole motif with a hydroxy-bearing C3 substitution, encountered ina large variety of pharmacologically active alkaloids with a wide spectrumof biological activities. We envisioned the combination of both tetrazoleand oxindole framework linked at C3 position to generate new quater-nary all-carbon centres, representing an attractive endeavor in drugdiscovery. The [2+3] cycloaddition of azide salts to organic nitriles (RN3+ RC≡N) takes place at 100-150 oC in long reaction times with highboiling solvents such as dimethylformamide (DMF) to produce tetrazolederivatives. We considered for the first time insitu generated 3-Cyano Fig. 2 ORTEP diagram of 3-hydroxy-3-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl) indolin-2-one 4a & 3-3-hydroxy oxindoles as dipolarophiles for the tetrazole formation. (phenylamino)-3- (1H-tetrazol-5-yl)indolin-2-one 5a with thermal ellipsoids set at 30% probabilityIn recent years “On water” catalysis is considered to be a challengingresearch area for synthetic chemists due to stringent environmental re- Significance: Equimolar-nitrile azide ratio Minimal HN3 generation Metal-strictions. This has provided a strong impetus to develop free process, Water as solvent, One-pot Synthesis, Mild reaction condi- tions.on-water protocol for the synthesis of new Oxindole-tetrazole motif. To thebest of our knowledge, this is the first report for one-pot three-com- References:ponent synthesis of 3-hydroxy-3-(1H-tetrazol-5- yl)indolin-2-ones andfour-component synthesis of 3-(phenylamino)-3-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)indolin- (1) C. V. Galliford and K. A. Scheidt, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2007, 46, 8748;2- ones as a novel class of oxindole derivatives on water directly from (2) C. Marti and E. M. Carreira, Eur. J. Org. Chem., 2003, 2209.isatins with excellent yields. (3) S. Peddibhotla, Curr. Bioact. Compd., 2009, 5, 20. (4) A. Chanda and V. Fokin, Chem. Rev., 2009, 109, 725.In conclusion, we have developed a simple green method for the synthe-sis of novel 3-hydroxy-3- (1H-tetrazol-5-yl)indolin-2-ones and 3-(phenyl- (5) L. Bosch and J. Vilarrasa, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2007, 46, 3926.
    • Regional Conference of the 52 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Ozone Based WastewaterTreatment SolutionsDhanya Hegde7th semester, Bachelor of Engineering ( Visvesvaraya Technological University)Department of electronics and communication, S.C.T. institute of engineering.Email: dani3638@gmail.comO zone has been used in wastewater treatment for decades as a chamber. The micro-bubbles dramatically increase the available sur- form of tertiary sterilization. As a tertiary treatment process it face area for reaction and result in an extremely stable super-saturate is generally thought to be too expensive to produce, and very solution. Gas remains in solution for extended periods of time, whichwasteful. facilitates maximum treatment results and minimal off gassing.Ozone is a strong oxidant and will react with unsaturated hydrocar- Seair utilizes a patented process where ozone is used in primary, sec-bons very effectively. Ozone, combined with Seair`s patented diffu- ondary and tertiary treatment processes representing a best prac-sion technology can do much more. tice wastewater solution. This technology has been proven in the harshest environment, Northern Canada, and has expanded to smallOzone combined with microbubble diffusion allows for extremely high communities, remote industrial mining and exploration sites whichmass transfer of the gas to wastewater. This means creating a super- face considerable challenges to implement environmentally and eco-saturate solution of ozone with little to no off gassing in a very stable nomically viable wastewater treatment solutions. Seair`s patentedstate. Supersaturate ozone solutions allow reactions with unsaturated wastewater treatment system will meet or exceed any governmenthydrocarbons to happen faster, but also push reactions that typically regulation for discharge.would not happen in less concentrated solutions. BOD, COD, TSS andbacteria are now easily eliminated very efficiently and economically, Key differentiating features of the proprietary Seair system, and theas a result there is no primary or secondary sludge formation adaptability of the Seair diffusion system to wastewater treatment ap- plications will be discussed in this presentation.The key to Seair’s systems is the ability to efficiently diffuse ozone andoxygen gas into the wastewater stream. Seair’s diffusion system pro- Keywords: Ozone, Ozonation, Advanced Oxidation, Wastewater Treat-duces 5 micron sized bubbles through the Seair’s patented diffusion ment, Sludge-Free
    • Regional Conference of the 53 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Household waste Management in India:Role of Women in Solving the IssueRenuka Saroha and Chandan Khannarenuka.saroha@gmail.comE nergy can’t be created nor be destroyed; it can be converted instrumental in determining success of various waste management from one form to another. This simple principle of science policies in India, as they are the one who deals with the waste genera- stands true for today’s modern society. As the concept of use tion at source. By educating women about various waste managementand throw gained popularity, the waste coming in landfills is increas- practices, not only we can improve on waste disposal but there caning exponentially. In India New Delhi alone generates 6,000 metric be reduction in waste generation as well. Based on survey conductedtonnes of solid waste every day which is likely to increase to 18,000 by the team it can be said that knowledge about household wastemetric tonnes per year by 2021. Similarly per capita waste generation management/ segregation is very low amongst Indian women. Wom-has increased from 0.44kg/day to 0.5kg/day from 2000 to 2011. Data en in urban area are more aware about the problem then their ruralclearly highlights that there has been increase in waste generation at counterpart. Urban women acknowledge the problem and have someindividual as well as at industrial level. idea about segregating waste based on its decomposition, but the practices are rarely followed by them. Factors like educational quali-More than 50% of waste generated in Indian household is organic fication, employment status, and place of residence are important inin nature i.e if segregated and managed properly; it can be decom- determining knowledge about waste management practices.posed into manure or other useful products. Open disposal of house-hold waste has been common practice in India since long even today However having knowledge about waste management practices doeshousehold waste is either directly thrown on secluded areas near not necessarily leads to implementation of these practices. The pre-residential area or is thrown in open garbage collection bin placed liminary results give a shocking picture of waste management prac-by municipality. With increase in quantity of waste being generated tices followed in India. Household waste management till date has notand increase in non-biodegradable waste, the problem of waste man- been adopted by majority of families. The maximum segregation doneagement would be a major challenge in coming years. Not only does at household level is separation of used bottles and other plastic/this open disposal promotes various communicable diseases it also metal utensils/ bottles etc which are later sold to local junk dealer.leads to various negative effects on environment e.g. ground watercontamination, foul smell etc. This chain does not ensure proper and sustainable recycling; majority of the waste items are cleaned and reused locally with a new label.Women in India are responsible for day to day management of house,play an important role in household waste management. The paper The objective of the paper is to gauge the perception of women aboutdiscusses issues related to perception of Indian women (both urban waste management and highlight issues which act as hindrance inand rural) towards management of household waste. Women can be adopting easy to implement practices at household level.
    • Regional Conference of the 54 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Theme:Greening the Infrastructure, Sustainable Transport, RenewableEnergy, Training for Green Jobs and Green Buildings and ProjectsSustainable Transport for Indian CitiesDr. Geetam TiwariTRIPP Chair, IIT Delhigeetamt@civil.iitd.ac.inT he existing modal share in Indian cities is in favor of Non- Any investment in infrastructure to improve mobility of motorized motorized transport (NMT) and public transport. However vehicles thus benefits only small group of affluent class of people given the hostile conditions for public transport and increas- who own motorcycles or cars. Without facilities to regulate theing risk to pedestrians and cyclists, the use of personal motor- interaction between motorized vehicles and NMT this new infra-ized vehicle is increasing. This trend is accompanied with the rise structure limits the freedom of movement of the common citizenin traffic crashes and deteriorating air quality in cities. Emission substantially. Also, any investments made in infrastructure to im-levels vary with travel behavior which is dependent on city size, prove mobility of cars results in improvement in vehicular speedsstructure and mode choice available. in the short term. This is often short lived eventually resulting in increase in congestion levels because of the increasing numberIn Indian cities, a large proportion of population lives in slums, of cars. The increasing number of cars and motorcycles resultsfor example in Mumbai percentage of population living in slums in increasing negative environmental impacts like degrading airis 54.1%, Kolkata 32.5% and in Delhi it is 18.7% (Census of In- quality, noise and habitat loss and fragmentation and increasingdia, 2001). There is a significant proportion of people who cannot number of accidents. For a long term solution and sustainableafford personal motorized vehicles (cars and two-wheelers) for transportation it is required to plan, design and invest in infra-transportation and subsidized bus systems are also too expensive structure which ensures safety and convenience to pedestrians,for them for daily commute. Their transportation needs are thus cyclists and public transport users.dependent on walking or cycling.
    • Regional Conference of the 55 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Green Infrastructure: Opportunities forEnvironmental, Social and EconomicSustainabilityDr Poonam AhluwaliaSenior Manager (Environment), TATA Consulting Engineers Limited,Email: poonama@tce.co.in; poonamkahluwalia@yahoo.co.inH uman modifications of the land have created fragmented designed, and invested in, far in advance of development. Green development patterns that threaten native plant and wild- infrastructure planning should also be coordinated with planning life communities and associated ecological functions and for gray infrastructure — roads, bike trails, water, electric, tele-processes. Green infrastructure is increasingly being recognized communication and other essential community support systems.as a necessary ecological framework needed for environmental, Integrated planning and design is required to effectively connectsocial and economic sustainability. It differs from conventional the two in a more effective, economic and sustainable network.approaches to open space planning because it looks at conserva- This paper briefly summarises the key principles to be adopted fortion values and actions in concert with land development, growth effective planning and construction of Green Infrastructure. Thismanagement and built infrastructure planning. Just like built in- paper also explores the important role that the Green Infrastruc-frastructure, Green Infrastructure needs to be carefully planned, ture in a city plays in Environmental, Social and Economic Sustain- ability, specifically in adapting for climate change.Corresponding author1
    • Regional Conference of the 56 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Greening the Infrastructure using Wastesfrom Thermal Power Plant as SustainableConstruction MaterialBharathi GaneshAssociate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering,Global Academy of Technology, bharathi.gan@gmail.comI nspite of the global economic slowdown , India is still the 3rd many objectives at once. Greening the infrastructure with coal ash fastest growing major economy in the world, which has kick as sustainable alternative material for construction is one solu- started all major sectors including the Construction & Infra- tion.structure industry, demanding for additional 1,08,000 MW powergeneration to meet the growing economy needs. Coal, one of the Different forms of coal ash such as Fly Ash, Bottom Ash and Pondcheapest sources will be the main source of energy for the pro- Ash have proved as a sustainable material for various construc-duction, generating huge amount of coal ash as waste from Ther- tions.mal Power Stations (TPS). Proper utilization of coal ash generated • Fly Ash is used as for manufacturing of “Blended Cement”, re-is a mandatory requirement as per Ministry of environment and ducing the release of CO2 to the atmosphere.forests for to reduce threat of its disposal to public health and • Fly Ash is used to replace cementitious content in concreteecology. partially (or fully) reducing cement consumption in construc-Development of proper infrastructures and managing resources, tion indirectly reducing the release of CO2.making construction sustainable, catering to the vast demand in • Fly Ash / Pond Ash is used for roads and embankment worksmaterials requirement for construction due to fast growing infra- and can also replace a part of cement and sand in concretestructure demand, is a challenge and is need of the hour. pavements thus making them more economical. • Fly Ash / Pond Ash have good potential for use in geotechni-We are impelled to view urban development from urban form cho- cal applications such as soil stabilization, embankment workssen in the early part of the 20th century, of sprawl to compact cit- etc., conforming to the relevant specifications in regards of itsies, housing infrastructure and transport requirements as crucial properties.determinants of future CO2 emissions. India is pursuing the goalof a reduction of at least 20 per cent in carbon emission intensity • The fly ash that causes harm when it settles on leaves. Howby 2020 (over 2005 levels), in order to improve the quality of life ever researches on agricultural uses of fly ash have provedfor citizens through greening the infrastructure, so as to remain in beneficial when applied scientifically to agricultural fields. Itthe race towards achieving 2nd largest economy in the world. is a soil modifier, soil fertility and moisture Retainer and it improves the plant’s water and nutrient uptake and detoxifiesGreening the infrastructure, a buzz word in construction industry, contaminated soils.using the practice of creating structures, through the implementa-tion of improved technologies (materials / methodology) that are Thus huge volume of coal ash generated, if used efficiently, effec-environmentally responsible and resource-efficient in every pos- tively in various constructions encourage the large scale utiliza-sible way is very much essential reduce CO2 emissions there by tion of industrial waste, facilitating human habitation, replacingreduce global warming. fast depleting natural resource, so as to contribute to sustainable construction and also helps in conserving the precious top soil re-At a time when so much of our natural resources are depleting we quired for growing food contributing to environmental and ecologi-need to be resilient and think of alternative solutions that meet cal benefits contributing to green construction practices.
    • Regional Conference of the 57 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Design and construction of solar passivesilkworm rearing house – A demonstrationproject for sericulture farmers in South IndiaMinni SastryFellow and Area ConvenorCentre for Research on Sustainable Building Services, TERI- Southern Regional Centreminnim@teri.res.inS ilkworm rearing is an activity carried out by economically ity; however, conditions deviate from what is required for healthy weaker section of the society in rural India as one of the yield, which result in crop failure and losses for the farmer. The means of livelihood. In Karnataka, sericulture provides em- paper showcases the design of a solar passive rearing house de-ployment to about 10.67 lakh people. The process of growing silk veloped by TERI(The Energy And Resources Institute) and also,worms is called rearing and this is carried out in a rearing house. passive technologies adopted in the house for maintaining theHealthy silkworm growth is highly dependent upon the environ- desired temperature and humidity without usage of electricity.mental conditions inside the rearing house. Inside temperature The paper also discusses the predicted environmental conditionsrequired in the rearing house is between 23deg C to 28 deg C inside the solar passive rearing house using dynamic computerand relative humidity required is 70 – 85%. Some farmers adopt simulations and actual environmental conditions measured on sitelocal techniques for maintaining desired temperature and humid- during rearing post construction and completion of the house.
    • Regional Conference of the 58 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)A Sustainable Model for DevelopmentalProject Management and GreenJob OpportunitiesDr. Ravindra KaurEnvironmental Consultantravindrakaur@yahoo.co.inA cknowledging the change in Earth’s Climate and its adverse lic- Civic - Participation) model invokes the direct involvement of effect are common concerns of humankind. Ever increasing “Civil Society” in developmental activities as well as strategic par- developmental activities, burgeoning human population and ticipation to combat “Climate Change” for the common concern ofanthropogenic activities have caused the green house effect which global community. PCP model would be an innovative tool for theis consequently warming the Earth’s surface. The phenomena of policy makers and statutory bodies which are monitoring and reg-global warming is adversely effecting the natural eco-system and ulating the developmental / infrastructural projects at the nationalhuman life. Global climate change calls for the widest possible co- and international platform. The PCP model automatically displaysoperation of global community of developed as well as developing and monitors the eco-friendly aspect of developmental activitiescountries. In accordance with the charter of United Nations and for the benefit of the present and future generations. It exploresthe principle of international law, it is sovereign right to exploit massive potential of eco-friendly livelihood/green jobs which ulti-their own resources pursuant to their own economic and devel- mately leads to environment oriented life style.opmental policies. But the global - concern on ”Common Environ-ment” demands a uniform developmental model to control the Hence the PCP model provides a serene harmony between devel-further deterioration of global environment. opment and common environment by sustaining development and its surroundings which consequently fulfills the vital human rightThe present research paper proposes an environment oriented to live in a “Clean and Healthy Environment”.developmental model for managing the developmental projects Key Words: Development, Eco-friendly, Global-concern, Green-and promoting the eco-friendly livelihood. The proposed PCP (Pub- Jobs, Sustainable
    • Regional Conference of the 59 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Safer-Greener Highways: An IntegratedApproachAtasi Das and Shilpa BajpaiICT Pvt. Ltd. A-8 Green Park. New DelhiEmail: atasidas@ictonline.com, shilpa.bajpai@ictonline.comT he growing population of India touching 1.23 billion and sensitive receptors such as educational and health facilities the rapid urbanization needs the country to develop op- etc. In addition, to tackle the inevitable impacts on the tions for design and construction of safer and greener high- natural and cultural environments, context sensitive solutionsways to tackle the climatic changes and to preserve the depleting (CSS) will be taken into account. This would improve the qualitynatural resources. The key objective of the paper is to demon- and efficiency of environmental decision making. In the collaborstrate safety and environmental stewardship whilst selecting a tive, interdisciplinary approach of CSS, the total contextviable and sustainable solution throughout the life cycle of any within which the transportation improvement project will existhighway. The concept emphasizes on “safety” and “environment is addressed. A transportation facility would be developed that fitsfriendly construction” as the driving force in infrastruc- the physical setting and preserves scenic, aesthetic, historicture operations. The concept “Safer-Greener Highway” has two and environmental resources, while maintaining safety andcomponents – the Safer component and the Greener component. mobility. A CSS approach is already in application in theWhilst the Safer component aims at enhancing the safety developed countries. Challenges in implementation in develop-of the highway, the Greener component drives the principles of ing countries like ours will be identified and compared to theirsustainability by demonstrating best practices of environmental counterparts in western countries.stewardship throughout the operations / maintenance stageof the highway cycle. Last but not the least, the Green-House Gases (GHG) or CO2 emissions arising out of the various components owing to theVarious features that affect the safety of the highways have prevalent practices of design and construction of highwaysto be taken in to account like geometric design, crash barrier, cannot be ignored. With the use of the Green technology of alter-target speeds, road markings, median openings, pedestrian mo- native materials and practices, not only there is conservationbility, proper cyclist tracks, animal crossings etc. The options in the quantity of materials or natural resources used insuggested for the greener component of the concept highway construction with subsequent savings in the project cost, but,include consideration of perpetual pavement, use of stabilized also reduction in the GFG emissions to a great extent. Thus,material in pavement construction, use of eco-friendly and the CSS, through improvement and improvisation, will target forrecyclable construction materials and construction techniques, holistic approach in meeting the requirements of the end-users inprovision of user-friendly facilities, re-use of waste materials the road building industry.in construction like foam bitumen, cold mix asphalt etc., storm Keywords: Context sensitive solutions; safer-greener highway;water management, noise reduction measures particularly for perpetual pavement, stabilized material, GHG emissions
    • Regional Conference of the 60 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Elevated Busways – An Alternate PeopleMover SystemJyoti C UbhayakarVice President & Head- Design and DevelopmentGeodesic Techniques P Ltd., Bangalorejyoticu@rediffmail.comI n the past decade public transit bus systems in India have bus from the suburbs to the central business district and back, been losing the market share of commuter trip to private yet carrying considerably more passengers per hour with less trip motor vehicles, which in turn has contributed to the traffic time than a road bound Bus Rapid Transport System. Furthermorecongestion, air pollution and energy consumption in large urban the Stations for these busways will also be elevated, hence reduc-areas. ing the land requirement. The elevated high capacity rapid trans- port system will increase the capacity of city streets by increas-Geodesic Techniques P Ltd has proposed the elevated bus way ing the number of lanes within the limited space. It also improvessystem, in the various cities of India. Elaborate R&D work on this the efficiency of public transport by providing first right of waymass rapid transit system has been done by the design & develop- and passage to public transport while allowing private vehicles toment team. continue to operate at grade without having to deal with slower moving buses with frequently stops, starts and changing of lanes.Elevated Busways are a combination of ideas of a unique passen- This Transportation enhancement will reduce congestion, energyger friendly and environment friendly transport system. In an El- consumption and air pollution thus making bus transport very at-evated Bus Rapid Transport System, standard or specialized buses tractive. Dedicated lanes will not only decrease the travel timesrun on a network of dedicated elevated roads. In this configura- for the public transport users but also for the road users.tion of urban transit components, elevated busways overcome thecapacity limitation of a fixed route public bus service operating in An effort has been made to bring out the essential features of thededicated lanes in road traffic. The uniqueness of this system is R&D work done by Geodesic Techniques on the “Elevated Bus waycharacterized by its ability to follow the same route as a surface system” in this paper.
    • Regional Conference of the 61 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Managing Field Work inInfrastructure ProjectsAmita BhatnagarPrincipal Consultant, STUP Consultants Pvt. Ltd. New DelhiT he field of civil engineering has opened up to women en- water / waste water pipes. The work also involved trekking long gineers in the past decade or so; however, even today the distances across agricultural fields, with barely a person in sight, acceptance of women engineers is mostly for design jobs. and along drains carrying putrefying dry weather flow; climbingPresence of women engineers at construction sites is practically down dilapidated and dark pump houses, with access to 8-10mnon-existent even today. deep pits through steep staircases, to note down details of pumps, motors and valves; and interacting with workers at odd hours. ForHowever, even in design jobs, site investigations and visits are the ongoing water infrastructure project, interaction with gener-necessary. STUP has executed several projects which, inspite of ally antagonistic RWAs in unauthorized colonies was also involved,being planning or design projects, involved extensive field work. to persuade the residents to let the utility install water meters onTwo of these projects were sewerage master planning projects their connections.and one, an ongoing project, relates to water distribution de-sign. All three projects entailed assessment of existing condition The experience, on the whole was enjoyable and very educating.of water distribution / sewerage systems. As the water utilities The usual myth of women engineers not being enthusiastic aboutacross India do not generally have accurate maps of their exist- field work proved to be just that – a myth. The women engineersing infrastructure, the first necessary step towards assessment exhibited more enthusiasm, sincerity and dedication in collectingwas preparation of accurate maps. For this task, it was often accurate data by exerting themselves to the extent possible, thannecessary to visit obscure places, often in inclement weather, for their male counterparts.locating or vetting routes, diameter and material of long forgotten
    • Regional Conference of the 62 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Control of Wind Induced Vibration inTransmission Line Towers by theTuned Liquid Column DamperDr. Aparna (Dey) Ghosh1, Jyotirmoy Dutta Majumdar21 Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineeering,Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah, India.2 Former Postgraduate Student, Department of Civil EngineeringBengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah, India.aparnadeyghosh@gmail.comT ransmission line towers (TLTs) provide the mechanical sup- distinct damping mechanism which can be quantified in a specific port system of the transmission cables required to supply manner and consistent performance over a wide range of excita- power to distant places from power generating stations. tion levels. In the TLCD, the oscillation of liquid such as water, in aThey represent a significant portion of the total cost of the trans- U-shaped container with orifice(s), acts as the energy dissipativemission line system and play a very important role in reliable mechanism. In this paper, a TLCD has been studied for the mitiga-power transmission. Structurally, the TLT is a flexible steel lattice tion of the wind response of a steel lattice tower such as thosetower which is extremely prone to failure from wind loading. Con- used in transmission line systems. A TLT structure of significanttrol of the wind excitation of TLTs can prevent the frequent fail- height that would be susceptible to dynamic wind loading has beenure of these structures and also lead to a more economic design. taken under consideration. A 3-D finite element model of the towerOut of the various methods of control such as active, semi-active has been developed and dynamic analysis has been carried outand passive, the first two require an external supply of energy using SAP2000 14 software. A time domain study has then beenwhich makes these processes costly. On the other hand, no ex- performed on the control of the fundamental mode of the tower byternal energy is required in passive control. Thus passive control the TLCD. For the purpose, the input time history data has beenis more economic and is ideal for a structure to limit damaging generated from available standard power spectral density func-deformations. Amongst the passive control devices, the tuned liq- tion of wind loading. The fourth order Runge-Kutta method hasuid dampers are increasingly becoming popular due to very low been employed for numerical integration of the equations of mo-capital and maintenance costs, minimal installation requirements, tion. Results indicate that significant response reduction may beeasy implementation and non-requirement of an activation mech- achieved by the TLCD. Rms reductions in response appear to beanism. Again, out of the tuned liquid dampers, the tuned liquid greater than that in peak values of response. Response reductionscolumn damper (TLCD) has further advantages such as greater increase with increase in mass ratio and with increase in lengthvolumetric efficiency with respect to a given amount of liquid, a ratio of the TLCD.
    • Regional Conference of the 63 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Green Buildings and ProjectsAr. Indu Guptaindu7499@rediffmail.comG reen buildings and projects are a necessity today to landscape and topographic disturbances to be done in natural ensure quality living and for breathing easier and safer, surroundings. We should see to economic performance and with cleaner & healthier tomorrow. To have a safer compatibility of structures with nature.environment and prevent the global warming and ozone layerdepletion, first the individualistic approach with points which Findingsare within the reach of common persons and the secondary The life led by our ancestors was of the quality which hadapproach is for all commercial establishments have to be no stress, No pollution and the values of life were -----“ Earlyadopted. to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy andA self sustainable and self sufficient project should be de- wise”signed seeing the present energy crisis and to mitigate the The vicious stress life circle is engulfing each person young orgreen house gases effects . old and has created the total imbalance of nature and hu-Status man mind, body and soul. The problem gets compounded by forced and unforced errors in our approach.The use of solar energy forLighting We are living in a world where we are being exposed all 24Cooking hours to harmful radiations , rays and vibrations , which areHeating causing the destruction of nature around us and humanDrying health is deteriorating.Cooling ( refrigeration) has been researched on and it has to Significance of Investigationsbe made available to common man on affordable prices and The concept of green is a holistic approach to create an at-easy maintainable products . mosphere which is least stressful and I dare to say that weThe use of Hydro Power, Wind Energy and Water Energy for have included all the peace full parameters of human lifeElectrical requirements Mechanical works to be incorporated which enhances the requirement of carbon neutral life stylein manufacturing units. for a positive and long lasting life growth for both humans and nature.Organic Farming with less use of chemicals and more biofertilizers and organic insecticides and pesticides. The Resort designed by me in 2000 on the above concept is running The use of Bio Gas for cooking use from kitchen waste andanimal waste to be commercialized. with economic performance and compatibility. with environmental quality and resource efficiency.Rain Water Harvesting in every building whether residential , with ethical standards and social equityeducational , vocational, or commercial should save water for with innovation and transferabilitydry seasons. with earnings and profitability with contextural and aestheticMethodology impact, independent from outer energy sources, self sustain- able with positive effect on the occupants and environmentGo green, think green and commit to green, green actions bringgreen rewards . We architects and creators of living spaces A second bigger similar project of the same company isfor human beings should give the concept of use of local coming up by 2014 with expansion in occupancy and morebuilding materials and macro climatic conditions , with less of added values for carbon neutral life style.
    • Regional Conference of the 64 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Sustainable TransportKoneru BhavaniChief Engineering Manager, L&T Construction, Chennaibhavanik@lntecc.comE nvironment is an issue of high concern, something that Travel Bending, efficient Transport Management etc. are few to needs to be given a serious thought. With the ever growing be named. Secondly, ‘Hard Measures’ that deals with more expen- population and industrialization, the environment is taking sive and permanent solutions which are considered when the softon a heavy burden. Only planting tree will not help build up the measures have failed or cannot be applied. These involve buildingdevastated eco-system. But a lot more needs to be done with Sus- of structures and making permanent changes like Elevated Cor-tainable Transport being one among them. ridors, Metro corridors, Monorails, New Road Networks etc.Sustainable transport in a broad sense means the system which Planning and awareness is a major part of any system. Technologyhelps lowering the impact on environment without hindering the can play a major role in Sustainable Transport. With modern sys-convenience to people. It involves various methods also including tems like GPS, Radio and applications in mobile phone an effectivenon-motorized systems like cycling, walking etc. and also effective traffic management plan can be achieved with very minimal train-planning. This study is an attempt to identify various means of sus- ing and at a mass scale. The involvement of technology could betainable transport and technological involvement and advantages made use at a large scale which would help people to travel fasterwith a case study of Mumbai monorail project. and also efficiently.Traditional transport planning mainly aimed at providing mobil- A lot of organizations having got involved into the sustainableity but failed to adequately consider the wider impacts. This was trend with the opportunities being infinite, the possibilities seemmainly due to lack of planning, economics and advancements in endless with new ideas building up every day. From somethingtechnology which in all sense caused a negative impact on the peo- simple such as a website to promote Car Pooling to something asple and in turn on the environment. Various problems like Global large scale as building a new intercity railway network, all wouldWarming, indisposition to citizens and even traffic congestions are be aimed at the same objective. The ideas may not always havethe result of time-honored methods which have been followed. a positive impact but certainly would pave way for new effectiveSustainable transport is the need of the hour since environment ideas and innovations.conservation is the major agenda in every country’s global plan.It would also be necessary to curb the heaping inflation and oil Sustainable Transport is the future for any country which needs toprices would stabilize the economy if not improve it. be treated with utmost priority. When inexhaustible resources of nature such as solar energy, tidal energy can be tapped efficiently,The sustainable transport can be split into two types of solutions the global distress of pollution and crisis of other resources cannamely the ‘Soft Measures’ which urges to use the existing sys- be combatted which would facilitate a much desired greener andtem with no impact to the running setup. Mass Transportation, eco-friendly society.
    • Regional Conference of the 65 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Inorganic - Organic Composite Materialsfor Thermoelectric ApplicationsDipali Banerjeea, Krishanu Chatterjeea, Palash Dharab, Kajari Karguptab, Saibal Gangulyca Department of Physics, Bengal Engineering & Science University, Shibpur, Howrah Indiab Department of Chemical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, Indiac Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Malaysiadipalibanerjeebesu@gmail.comT hermoelectric (TE) materials that work on the principle of (TEM) images (Fig. 1a). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) im- Seebeck –Peltier effect, generate electric current by the ages of the nanocomposites suggested that a matrix of inorganic application of temperature differential across them. The ef- Bi2Te3 and organic polyaniline was formed as shown in Fig. 1b.fectiveness of a TE material is determined by its figure of merit de-fined as Z=S 2σ / κ [S=thermoelectric power, σ=electrical con- In another process, employing the method of insitu polymerization,ductivity, κ=thermal conductivity]. Nanostructured TE materials both nanorods as well as nanotubes of PANI- Bi2Te3 nanocompos-open up a new direction and have a significant impact in the area ites were observed. In this case, the nanoparticles of Bi2Te3 wereof power generation system utilizing even waste heat. As the en- synthesized by hydrothermal method in autoclave and used duringhancement in figure of merit demands reduction in κ, development the polymerization of PANI. The nanorods / nanotubes obtained inof nanocomposite is a promising approach for the synthesis of bulk this case were larger in dimension (as shown in Fig. 2) than thethermoelectric materials. The synthesis of nanocomposites has electrodeposition process.been considered an effective strategy to achieve improved mate-rial performance by combining the advantages of the componentsof the composite. Conducting polymers being potential candidatewith low κ than inorganic counterparts, synthesis of nanopolymercomposites has gained significant attention for applications inthe field of thermoelectrics. In a two component nanocomposite,the selection of a conducting polymer and inorganic thermoelec-tric material may yield high thermoelectric power and electricalconductivity of the material. In this study, we have attempted tosynthesize nanocomposites of polyaniline (PANI) with bismuth (Bi) Figure 2: TEM images of PANI- Bi2Te3 nanocomposites prepared byor bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) using various methods. polymerization In addition to electrodeposition and in situ polymerization, PANI-BiFirstly, the method of electrodeposition was used to obtain PANI- nanocomposites were also synthesized using Langmuir-BlodgettBi2Te3. A semi-batch mode of operation was employed to control (LB) technique. Bi nanoparticles were synthesized by solvothermalthe rate of deposition of an individual component. Formation of approach in this case. The XRD and SEM images of PANI-Bi nano-nanorods were observed using transmission electron microscopy composites are shown in Fig. 3.Figure 1: (a) TEM and (b) SEM images of PANI- Bi2Te3 nanocomposites prepared Figure 3: XRD and SEM images of PANI- Bi-nanocomposites prepared by LBby electrodeposition technique
    • Regional Conference of the 66 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Damage Assessment of Structures usingExperimental and Analytical TechniquesB.Prakruthi Gowd1, Neethu Urs2, Dr.M.N.Hegde31 PG student, Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering,Bengaluru, Karnataka.2 Asst. Professor, Civil Engineering, Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering, Bengaluru, Karnataka.3 Professor, Civil Engineering, Dr.Ambedkar Institute of Technology,Bengaluru, Karnataka.prakruthi1605@gmail.comD amage to structures may occur as a result of normal op- modeled in ANSYS and also a code is written in MATLAB to find erations, accidents, deterioration or several natural events the modal parameters and a comparison study is made between such as earthquakes etc. Normally because of damage results obtained from different methods.there are changes introduced in a structure that will adverselyaffect its current and future performance. Most often the extent Many of the times the changes in the modal parameters may notand location of damage may be determined through visual inspec- be sufficient to find the damages. In the recent years, there hastion. However, in many cases this may not be feasible in at initial been an increase impetus to conduct damage identification usingor later stages. wavelet transform.Structural damages may cause local changes in one or more pa- In this paper, wavelet transform has been used to detect and lo-rameters like stiffness, mass and damping that affects the dynam- cate the damage in beams and frames. The response of the struc-ic behavior of the structure. Modal parameters such as natural tures is obtained from ANSYS, and then a MATLAB toolbox calledfrequencies and mode shapes are sensitive indicators of struc- Wavelet toolbox is used to detect the damage.tural damage. Most vibration based methods require knowledge of the undam-In this paper, a single braced portal frame is considered for dam- aged state of the structure, which is unavailable in most cases.age detection. The response of both the healthy and the damaged However, using wavelet transform has the advantage of not re-frame is obtained experimentally (using Horizontal shake table) quiring knowledge of the undamaged state. In addition, waveletand the variation in the modal parameters are studied. To validate transform has the characteristics, which makes the visualizationthe above experimental results, models with same dimensions are of the signal discontinuities clear.
    • Regional Conference of the 67 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Energy in the Construction andMaintenance of BuildingsB. Surekha1, M.N. Hegde2 and K.S. Jagadish31 Research Scholar, Bangalore2 Professor, Civil Engineering, Dr. Ambedkar Institute of Technology, Bangalore3 Professor, P G Programme, RV College of Engineering, Bangaloresurekhadesh@gmail.comI ndia is the world’s sixth largest energy consumer. It’s continu- commercial sector and residential sector accounting for 8% and ing population increase and rapid economy growth has placed 25% respectively. great strain on the countries energy resources. From the planfor rapid economic growth, it is evident that the country’s require- The recurring embodied energy in buildings represents the non-ment for energy would increase rapidly. Building accounts for half renewable energy consumed to maintain, repair, restore, refur-of the global output of carbon dioxide. Production of cement used bish or replace materials, components or systems during the lifein concrete accounts for 5 - 8% of the carbon dioxide. of the building.Buildings are some of the biggest energy consumers in the world, Building envelope design studies the actual energy performanceand have tremendous impact on the environment. Today, the com- of building, the air temperature, surface temperature and relativemercial and the residential buildings account for about one third humidity of both indoors and outdoors. Based on this, the enve-of the world’s final energy consumption. The goal is to optimize lope design is done using different construction materials suitablethe operation of mechanical and electrical equipments and the to that climate, by reducing thermal heat transfer, and the lightsystems in a manner that is beneficial for all parties involved: the weight materials. The geometry of the building is also consideredbuilding owner; the operator; the occupant and the environment. to reduce the heat gain through envelope.Embodied energy of a building is very less when compared with The recycling potential of a building can be briefly described as alife cycle analysis for a building assuming the life cycle of 50 years. way of expressing how much of the embodied energy and naturalEmbodied energy for a low energy house may be high but the total resources used in a product could, by recycling, be made useableenergy used in its life cycle will be less compared to conventional after demolition. The environmental benefits of recycling are con-constructions. servation of energy and of natural resources, reduction of emis- sions and reduced use of land for extraction of resources and forOperational energy is the energy used in building during its life landfill.time for heating, cooling, lighting and other electrical appliance,lift, cooking etc. Energy demand varies with building usage: public The present paper discusses the energy consumption in buildingsbuilding, school, office, commercial complex, and hospital etc. The and the methods which can be adopted/ developed to reduce theoperational energy varies with the number of hours of usage. The energy consumption in buildings.office and commercial spaces will need power in business hoursand the residences need power round the clock. The building sec- Keywords: Embodied energy, operational energy, lifecycle assess-tor represents about 33% of electricity consumption in India, with ment, recycling energy.
    • Regional Conference of the 68 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Building the Green BuildingSmrithy SasidharanEngineer Production & Planning Vatson Foams India Pvt. Ltdsmrithy.vatson@gmail.comD evelopment and Environment are two sides of the same coin, We know that the buildings from the beginning of times don’t really Prosperity. They keep coming in the way of each other making stand a chance. Wood, is from trees, isn’t resistant to the changing us wonder which deserves our support. This constant tussle climatic conditions. RCC structures are without doubt strong and du-between the two can be resolved at the site of a Green Building, an rable but they consume a lot of resources, time and labor in all stagesepitome of sustainable development. In this paper I wish to discuss of the building life cycle. The cement and lime which are its primarythe pre-requisites of building materials required to create such a constituents are not natural and pollute the soil and water that theystructure and arrive at an adequate solution. come in contact with.To begin with, let us consider the qualities that we should look for Coming to Pre-engineered buildings, they do save a lot of time andin the building block of our Green Buildings. And let me call this The money and are easy to handle. These have a primary framing struc-Check-list. ture that supports the external cladding with the help of secondary1. Easy availability structural elements. A form of external cladding that is in extensive2. Thermal Insulation use today is Sandwich panel. Sandwich panels are manufactured by3. Minimized energy consumption sandwiching a low density core, of excellent shear strength, in be- tween high density metal (Steel, Aluminium, etc.), of high compressive4. Strong Structures and tensile strength, with the help of special-adhesives. These build5. Eco-friendly strong structures with excellent insulation and thereby reduce the en-6. Easy to handle ergy consumption by the HVAC units. The negative aspect is that the7. Fire safety and Long life against harsh climates core is usually 100% chemical polymers. These non bio-degradable8. No air, water or soil pollution at any stage materials are known to release harmful gases during production and9. Noise absorption( No Noise pollution ) even in the case of fire.10. Recyclable11. Safe Landfills This might seem like a dead end in our pursuit to find a Green Con-12. Aesthetics struction Material with a perfect score but I have good news and that i.e. Rockwool Green Building Panel. This is again our sandwich panelExamining the evolution of Construction Materials against the above with a different core that is all that constitutes ‘The check-list’. Thislist, neither early man’s stones, twigs and leaves, nor wood nor RCC paper is a study of this revolutionary product, its properties and itsnor the Modern Pre-Engineered Buildings, is eligible for a perfect score. rising popularity in the construction industry.
    • Regional Conference of the 69 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)PostersResearch and Development Progresses of SolarThermal Energy in South KoreaJeong Kyun Seo, Junseok Ko, Yong-Ju Hong, Seong-Je Park,Hyobong Kim, Hankil Yeom, Deuk-Yong KohKorean Institute of Machinery and Materials Daejeon, Koreajkyunseo@kimm.re.krT echnical development and dissemination were focused on energy and solar power in present. In this paper research and low temperature solar thermal energy in times past, while development progresses of solar thermal energy in South Korea researches are focused on high temperature solar thermal are introduced.
    • Regional Conference of the 70 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)An Analysis of Heat Transfer Characteristics inSolar Thermal Concentration for PTCJeong Kyun Seo, Junseok Ko, Yong-Ju Hong, Seong-Je Park,Hyobong Kim, Hankil Yeom, Deuk-Yong KohKorean Institute of Machinery and Materials Daejeon, Koreajkyunseo@kimm.re.krP TC (Parabolic trough collector)is the representative solar characteristics on solar absorbing tube and the effect of the flow collector in medium using temperature in solar thermal en- rate circulating in the solar collector. ergy. This paper is carried out to analyze the heat transfer
    • Regional Conference of the 71 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Environment-friendly and Energy Saving HVACin Building using BiomimicryJeong Kyun Seo, Junseok Ko, Yong-Ju Hong, Seong-Je Park,Hyobong Kim, Hankil Yeom, Deuk-Yong KohKorean Institute of Machinery and Materials Daejeon, Koreajkyunseo@kimm.re.krIn this paper recent progress of termites and structures which have been used as a biomimetic design for environment-friendly and en-ergy saving HVAC in building are reviewed.
    • Regional Conference of the 72 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Theme:Effect of Orientation of Rectangular Opening on the Infill Stresses inInfilled Reinforced Concrete FramesLinear Analysis of Infilled ReinforcedConcrete Frames with Window Openingsunder Combined Lateral and Gravity LoadMs. Sahana T.S.1, Dr. B. P Annapurna2PG student UVCE, Bangalore University, Bangalore, sahana6486@gmail.com1Associate Professor, UVCE, Bangalore University, Bangalore2M ultistoreyed buildings are primarily designed in order to The effect of infill with opening in the infilled reinforced concrete frame optimize accommodation in vertical direction and thereby, is studied in terms of lateral stiffness and stresses in the infill. The ef- minimize the space in horizontal direction. In such structures fect of infill is studied for two extreme cases of interface boundarythe inplane lateral loads due to wind or earthquake or gravity load conditions; first, the condition of perfect bond between frame and infillis of great concern and need special consideration in the design of and second, allowing for separation at the interface of the frame andbuildings. Efforts have been made by many research workers for the the infill (as in practical cases where there will be no rigid connectionlast three decades to exploit the inherent stiffness and strength of between the frame and the infill). The study is made for three relativemasonry walls used as infills in multistorey frames. Now it has been stiffnessess between infill and frame of 3.52, 7.04, and 11.85.well recognized that brick work infills are very effective in bracingthe frames composed of columns and beams to resist inplane lateral The result of analysis shows that the presence of masonry infill alongloads and give extra strength to a frame building. with frame has more lateral resistance potential compared to bare frame. When the infilled frame is subjected to combined load has moreIn practical applications, invariably most of the infilled frames have lateral resistance than when it is subjected to only lateral load. Underopenings either for windows or doors and the influence of these on lateral load with the increase in size of opening the reduction in lateralthe behaviour of infilled frame found that the opening in the infill re- stiffness varies by 8% and 12% for case of full contact and separa-duces the stiffness and strength of infilled frames considerably. tion, when the size of opening is < 15% , the lateral stiffness reduces noticeably by 30% and 40% and when size of opening is betweenIn the present study the behaviour of reinforced concrete frame 15% to 37%, when size of opening >37%, the reduction in lateralwith brick masonry infill is considered for a critical case of single stiffness increases about 50% in case of full contact and separationbay, four storied, containing central window openings. Effect of respectively. Similar variations are observed under combined load.openings are studied for rectangular openings of varying sizes.Also an attempt is made to study the effect of orientation of rect- Comparing between VO and HO in case of full contact and separationangular opening, oriented vertically (VO) and horizontally (HO). it is observed that VO of opening reduces the lateral stiffness com-The effect of infill with opening on the infilled reinforced concrete pared to HO of opening.frame is studied for two cases of loading, first, when it is subject-ed to only lateral load(wind load) and second, when it is subjected For all sizes of opening, under lateral load the infill in ground floorto both lateral load(wind load) and vertical load (gravity loads). is stressed more while under combined load the infill in all floors isThe analysis is done using an iterative finite element method using uniformly stressed, indicating a better participation of infill panels inFEM software NISA. resisting loads.
    • Regional Conference of the 73 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Technologies and Materials in RoadConstruction in LCA PerspectiveKirti Bhandari1, Shweta Gaur2, S Gangopadhyay31 Senior Scientist, Environmental Science Division, Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi.2 Research Intern, Environmental Science Division, Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi.3 Director, Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi.R educing emissions in road construction is now a newsworthy pacts. There are a number of methods to assess life cycle impacts issue which in turn has promoted innovations and change in of a product or process. Also, a range of methodologies are dis- number of approaches in design and construction of road cussed which can facilitate the calculation of life cycle impactsindustry. This paper presents a review of LCA in road construction, from each of the road construction technology and material usedmaterials in road construction and various new technologies in such as effect on human health, resources consumed; ecotoxic-road construction prepared from the review of published journal ity caused by each and thus can aid in selecting those with leastpapers, reports, and other articles. It highlights the opportunity for adverse effects.available options of materials usage in construction with prospec-tive cost savings and least environmental impacts. A comparative The paper reviews and identifies the opportunities and challengesassessment of bitumen and concrete material is done as per their to mitigate environmental impacts from construction processes incharacteristics in pavement life cycle. Various new technologies view of the current technology policies, regulations, and guide-have been discussed which are better than conventional technolo- lines. The advanced technologies and alternative materials cangies in environment and performance perspective to assess their be suitably utilized after studying their physical and engineeringcomparative potency on the basis of numerous parameters. properties in road construction. This might result in reduction of various environmental and economical problems to a greater ex-Here, LCA as a potential tool has been focussed on; which can tent ultimately leading to a cleaner sustainable development.be applied to the use of new technologies and materials for road Keywords: Life Cycle Assessment, Technology, Non-Conventionalconstruction to give certain results on possible environmental im- materials, Pavement
    • Regional Conference of the 74 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)PostersSustainable Transport – An Eco FriendlyTransport EnvironmentArockia Catherin. MVI semester, M.Sc (Int.), Department of Biological Sciences,School of Natural Sciences, Bangalore University.Email: catherinarockia@gmail.comS ustainable transport also called green transport refers to hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, battery any means of transport with low impact on the environment, electric vehicles, compressed-air vehicles, hydrogen and fuel-cell and includes non-motorized transport, i.e. walking, cycling, vehicles. As part of their contribution to sustainable transport,green vehicles, Car sharing, and building or protecting urban trans- these vehicles reduce air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions,port systems that are fuel-efficient, space-saving and promote and contribute to energy independence by reducing oil imports.healthy lifestyles. Sustainable transport systems make a positivecontribution to the environmental, social and economic sustain- The increases in urban population, industrialization and motorizedability of the communities they serve. Transport systems exist to transport nave been causing air and noise pollution in all cities ofprovide social and economic connections, and people quickly take India in varying degrees. The levels of these pollution in Indianup the opportunities offered by increased mobility. megacities have risen to alarming rates. It is therefore, urgently required to develop a safe and eco friendly transport environ-Walking is quite common in India, cycling is also being practiced ment.by many people of our country and also in many renowned insti-tutes. Green vehicles are more common in foreign countries. It is This paper addresses the different means of sustainable transporta road motor vehicle that produces less harmful impacts to the en- and their role in reducing environmental pollution.vironment than conventional internal combustion engine vehiclesrunning on gasoline or diesel. Green vehicles can be powered by Keywords: non motorized transport, green vehicles, environmen-alternative fuels and advanced vehicle technologies and include tal pollution
    • Regional Conference of the 75 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Renewable Energy – A LowerEnvironmental ImpactS.B.ChethnaVI Semester, M.Sc (Int.), Department of Biological Sciences,School of Natural Sciences, Bangalore University, Bangalore.Email: chethna91@gmail.comR enewable energy comes from natural resources such as We can find these alternative resources in abundance as they are sun, wind, water, agricultural residues, firewood, animal part of our earth. The energy generated from sun- solar energy is dung and geothermal heat. They are part of our natural en- continuous, hydel energy from water including both rain and tidalvironment and form our eco-system. The main objective to use waves, biomass energy from firewood, animal dung, biodegrad-these alternative sources of energy is to tackle the climate change able wastes from cities and crop residues. Geothermal energyfor protection of our valuable natural environment. They can com- from hot dry rocks, magma and hot water springs. Through thepensate the usage of the out beating population and give a sus- method of co-generation a cleaner and less polluting form of en-tainable environment for the biotic organisms. ergy is being generated.At present the usage of these alternative energy forms is bud- Renewable energy is reliable and plentiful and will potentially beding but the pace should increase as there is high concentration very cheap once technology and infrastructure improve. Using re-of harmful gases in the atmosphere and has led to many problems newable energy sources is not only highly beneficial from ener-like ozone layer depletion and global warming along with vehicular getic point of view but also from ecological point of view becausepollution. by utilizing the renewable energy we can save our environment for our future generations. Unless we choose renewable energyWorking formally and informally with developers and planning future as the “energy go guide” the world will not only have prob-authorities is the best methodology to accomplish this objective. lems with future energy demand but we’ll be also creating tremen-We should create awareness to improve the impacts of renew- dous environmental mess that will make life of future generationsable energy with their consistency and clarity of requirements on very difficult.environmental impact assessments by providing the best possible This paper addresses the main check points of accessibility, reli-data. The technological scope includes both commercial scale re- ability, stability, safety, pollution and climate change which can benewables and microgeneration (on-site and building-integrated monitored.renewables). Low-carbon energy categories refer to combinedheat and power (CHP) generation (and tri-generation to include Keywords: Natural resources, reliable, climate change, co-gen-cooling) and district (community) heating schemes. eration, sustainable environment.
    • Regional Conference of the 76 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Energy Audit: A Tool to ReduceCarbon Footprint of EnergyKirti Bhandari1, Shweta Gaur2, S Gangopadhyay31 Senior Scientist, Environmental Science Division, Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi.2 Research Intern, Environmental Science Division, Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi.3 Director, Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi.W ith the ever- growing technology, energy consumption is energy management. most in developed countries followed by developing na- tions. This has put a huge pressure on natural resources A methodology has been evolved which can be followed to achieveand environment along with the diminishing reserves of fossils. a successful energy audit, with possible corrective and preven-The carbon dioxide evolved during energy conversion and con- tive action plans to be implemented till the next audit, with thesumption contributes a larger part of greenhouse gases, increas- main focus on cost effective and sustainable technologies such asing concerns over climate change. Out of total CO2 emissions, CO2 energy from renewable sources such as solar photovoltaic, windreleased from electricity is the most followed by transportation power, energy from waste which may help in cutting its costs andsector. total carbon emissions.This paper reviews the energy consumption scenarios throughout However, there are certain barriers in implementing better energythe world, current energy policies and latest energy issues in In- technologies for instance low priority to energy issues, access todia. It accentuates the application of energy audit as one of the capital and incomplete markets for energy efficiency. It can bemost promising tools in conserving energy, increasing efficiency overcome by promoting energy efficiency as a cost-effective meth-and cutting down the CO2 emissions to a greater extent. Once od for reducing energy use and achieving other policy goals suchbaseline energy use and maximum consumption areas of an area as improved energy security and environmental sustainability.are estimated, energy conservation opportunities can be identi-fied and prioritized. These opportunities are often easily achiev- Key words: energy consumption, electricity, energy audit, CO2able and involve implementation of best industry practices for emissions, renewable energy
    • Regional Conference of the 77 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Greening the Infrastructure-Sustainable TransportDeepali GuptaECE , 3rd year, IGIT, IP University, Delhideepalig92@gmail.comThank God men cannot fly, and lay waste the sky as well as the earth. • Clean fuels and vehicles~Henry David Thoreau • Hybrid Vehicles • BiodieselSustainable Transport (or green transport) is a term used for vari- • Biogas/CNGous modes of transport that meet our mobility needs without com- • Electric Vehiclespromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs.Sustainable Transport reduces impact on public health and the en- • LPGvironment by minimising fuel consumption, reducing air pollutants • Hydrogen vehicleand greenhouse gas emissions.Sustainable Transport includes:• Electric or Hybrid Vehicles• Cycling• Car pooling• WalkingSustainable transport improves our quality of life by:• reducing congestion• reducing traffic noise• improving air quality and hence reducing respiratory diseas- Community bicycle program es• improving physical and mental health through increased walk- It is a program which provides access to bicycles for inner-city ing and cycling transport. The goal is to reduce the use of automobiles for short trips inside the city and diminish traffic congestion, noise and air-Transport systems have significant impact on the environment, ac- pollution.counting for between 20% and 25% of world energy consumptionand CO2 emissions. Road transport is also a major contributor to Biodiesellocal air pollution and smog. Currently 95% of transport energycomes from petroleum. Biodiesel refers to a vegetable oil- or animal fat-based diesel fuel consisting of long-chain alkyl esters. It is an alternative, vegeta-Given the Indian economy’s unhealthy dependence on fossil-fuels, ble-based fuel for diesel engines.over 70% of which has to be imported, any technology that helpsphase out oil-dependent forms of transport should be seriously Electric vehiclesconsidered. As the world seeks solutions to high polluting and in-creasingly expensive fossil fuel transportation, cleaner fuels and The energy efficiency of EVs is 46% higher than internal combus-vehicles could offer a viable solution. tion engines (ICEs). They also have the potential to reduce CO2
    • Regional Conference of the 78 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)emissions by 13-68% compared to ICEs. • Reduced cost of maintenance • Reduced stress on bitumen which is not an unlimited resourceHydrogen Vehicle either.A hydrogen vehicle is a vehicle that uses hydrogen as its onboard To transform our economy and save our planet from the ravagesfuel for motive power. The power plants of such vehicles convert of climate change, we need to ultimately make clean, renewablethe chemical energy of hydrogen to mechanical either by burning energy the profitable kind of energy and switch to sustainablehydrogen in an internal combustion engine, or by reacting hydro- transport.gen with oxygen in a fuel cell.Fuel-cell-powered cars are the best alternatives to gasoline-pow-ered cars for several reasons:• The cars are completely emission-free.• The fuel cells are compact and lightweight.• Cars are about 3 times as efficient as gasoline-powered cars.• The cars will have incredible mile ranges.Contribution of Delhi MetroThe Delhi Metro has become the world’s first Metro rail and rail-based system to earn carbon credits — Rs.47 crore annually forseven years. The United Nations has hailed the Delhi Metro RailCorporation (DMRC) for helping reduce pollution levels in Capitalby 6.3 lakh tonnes a year.Energy is also consumed in development of transport infrastruc-ture including roads, bridges and railways. Therefore, plasticroads are being developed to contribute towards the sustainabletransport.Plastic Roads have been tried and tested and have proved to be aneco friendly, efficient way of road construction. Briefly, thin plasticis shredded in shredding machines and then mixed into bitumen tocreate a strong bond. This plastic is melted, not burned and there-fore there is gaseous residue. The other advantages include:• Longevity• No cracking• Resistance to water
    • Regional Conference of the 79 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)A Comparison of Indoor-Outdoor ParticulateMatter Relationship between a GreenBuilding and Conventional Buildings in DelhiIsha Khanna, Krishna Malakar, Suresh JainDepartment of Natural Resources, TERI University, Vasant Kunj, New DelhiT he purpose of this study was to assess how beneficial is it building, the I/O ratio was observed to be less than unity for all to live in a green building as compared to the conventional size ranges which suggest lesser penetration of RSPM from out- buildings in Delhi city in terms of indoor air quality. There is door to indoor environment due to green-building design. Thenot much literature available comparing the indoor-outdoor PM highest values of I/O were observed for the sensitive areas in-relationship of green buildings with conventional buildings. In this dicating higher penetration of RSPM from outdoors and also maystudy, the comparison was made based on two parameters – in- be presence of indoor sources. The particle distribution functionsdoor RSPM concentration and the indoor-outdoor (I/O) ratio of showed that the more than 50% of indoor RSPM concentrationsthe PM concentrations which helps in evaluating the penetration were accounted by PM2.5 which is more dangerous as these parti-of particles from the outdoor environment. The Andersen high vol- cles may reach up to the alveoli region in the lungs and also causeume cascade impactor with 5-stages (in the range of 0.00 - 0.49; cardio-vascular diseases.0.49 - 0.95; 0.95 - 1.50; 1.50 - 3.00; 3.00 - 7.20 and > 7.20 μm)was used for outdoor RSPM measurements; whereas, GRIMM This emphasizes the importance of modern green buildings es-aerosol spectrometer was used for indoor environment. Sampling pecially in sensitive areas to avoid the increasing risk to humanwas carried out at three different conventional buildings i.e. resi- health.dential area, sensitive areas (hospital and school) and one greenbuilding i.e. TERI University in institutional area. This study documents the variation of I/O ratio in both green build- ings and conventional buildings and emphasizes on the importanceThe study revealed that green buildings had a better indoor air of green buildings to avoid the high indoor RSPM concentrations.quality as compared to conventional buildings as the indoor RSPM It is significant as it also calculates the particles distribution func-concentrations were observed to be least for the green building tions which help in assessing the health risk posed to humans.as compared to others. This might be due to the building design, Based on the result, policies can be formulated for the construc-source control and ventilation control measures. Also, in the green tion of green buildings for all future constructions in sensitive areas.
    • Regional Conference of the 80 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Health Diagnosis of Rc Beams with andwithout Opening of Different Size,Shape and LocationGeetha L1, Neethu Urs2, Dr. M. N. Hegde31 PG student, Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering, Bengaluru, Karnataka2 Sr. Lecturer, Civil Engineering, Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering, Bengaluru, Karnataka3 Professor, Civil Engineering, Dr. Ambedkar Institute of Technology, Bengaluru, KarnatakaI n Multistory buildings, generally utility services (like ducts for without opening which carry load normal to longitudinal directions, air-conditioning, electricity etc.) are placed underneath the soffit are studied. Primarily, static analysis has been carried out to find of the beam which results in “dead space” in each floor, instead deformations and stresses. Then the modal analysis or eigen valueif these ducts are passed through transverse openings in the floor analysis is carried out to find the frequency and mode shapes. Fur-beam, it will result in a compact design and overall saving in terms ther, the dynamic analysis (harmonic analysis and transient analysis)of total building height. For small buildings, the savings thus achieved is performed on the same beam and results are compared with beamsmay not be significant compared to overall cost. But for multistory without openings.buildings, any saving in story height multiplied by the number of sto- A beam is a three dimensional continuum of complicated geometryries can represent a substantial saving in total height, length of air composed of non-homogenous and anisotropic materials. Linear elas-conditioning and electrical ducts, plumbing risers, walls and partition tic models from finite element approach are used for the analysis. Thesurfaces, and overall load on foundation. structural beams are classified according to their parameters, bound- ary conditions, location of openings and geometry of openings.Provision of openings through beam, however changes its simplemode of behavior to a more complex one at both static and dynamic In the next stage, the study is continued with the change in the loca-loading conditions. Therefore, the analysis and design of such beams tion, size and shape of web opening. The results are tabulated andneeds special treatment, which currently falls beyond the scope of the compared for the convergence criteria. The concentration of stressesmajor building codes. near the corners of the openings is taken into consideration for con- vergence studies. With this procedure, the optimum location, size andIn this paper, the static and dynamic behavior of beams with and shape of the web opening in the beam may be decided.
    • Regional Conference of the 81 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Optimization of Steel Truss usingGenetic AlgorithmsSharada.P.N1 and R.Shanthi Vengadeshwari2Lecturer, Dept.of CivilEngg, SJCIT, Chickballapur, Karnataka. email :sharadapn@gmail.com1Sr. Lecturer, Dept.ofCivilEngg, DSCE, Bangalore, Karnataka. email :shanthi.sanjay@yahoo.co.in2A im of this study is to do an optimal design of steel truss for are becoming popular in engineering optimization problems in the minimum cost. In steel structures it is assumed that, cost and recent past are used. GAs mimic the principles of natural genetics weight are proportional. Hence in the present study optimal and natural selection to constitute search and optimization procedure.design of truss is arrived by minimizing the weight of the truss. The They can work on both discrete and continuous design variables andcross sectional areas of the members are taken as design variables. they do not use any mathematical techniques. Hence they are withinConstraints taken are design strength in compression member and the reach of practicing engineers.design strength in tension member. As the first stage of this thesis work, an algorithm is developed toA brief review made on the methods available for optimization reveal get optimal areas of members of the truss incorporating GAs. Thisthat most of them use complex mathematical techniques and can algorithm can be used to optimize any truss by giving the necessarywork only on continuous variable. More over it is not possible to take input. A 37-member, 11m span truss is shown as example in the pres-many important factors into account. Hence practicing civil engineers ent study. All members are grouped into four. Hence the number ofare not able to use them. design variables is reduced to four. Algorithm written in TURBO C++In the present study ‘SIMPLE GENETIC ALGORITHMS’ (SGA), which software. Analysis and modeling of truss is done by ANSYS software.
    • Regional Conference of the 82 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Towards Sustainable Urban TransportKamini Gupta, Dr. Ravinder Kumar & Dr. Nishi MittalTraffic Engineering & Safety Division, Central Road Research Institute, New Delhikamini_marut@rediffmail.comI ndia is a very large country with over a billion people & nearly 50 the improvement of the Public Transport System, which is essential of its cities contain population above one million each. While large features of sustainable transport. Public transport has to be citywide, cities comprising more than 3 million people, each are aware and multimodal, integrated and interchanges with minimum time penalty.active to achieve sustainable transportation system. By 2051 the popu-lation of india is expected to be 1.7 billion. Transportation sustainability In this paper study will be conducted on urban corridors to identifyis an important factor as it has significant impact on economic, social the quality indicators/parameters to achieve sustainability in Publicand environmental aspects. Sustainability supports a paradigm shift Transport. Finally, it will enumerates some of the ways in which ap-occurring in transport planning. Previously, transport was evaluated plication of (modern) information and communication technologiesin terms of mobility (physical movement), but increasingly it is now can help to improve the efficiency of the transportation system andevaluated in terms of accessibility (people’s ability to obtain desired ultimately help in achieving a sustainable urban transportation sys-goods and services). The present urban transport scenario in india in tem. The sustainable transport system mainly involves transportationgeneral is quite unsustainable, the use of cars and two-wheelers is system, road infrastructure, green roads, and symbiotic environmentrising continuously, Public Transport is inadequate, while walking & and policy level strategies.cycling are becoming less popular. Mass Rapid Transit system andNon motorized transport are the backbone of the city. But in Indian Key words: Sustainability, Public Transportaion System, Road infra-cities they are inadequate both in quality & quantity. There is need in structure, Multimodal Integration
    • Regional Conference of the 83 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Sustainable Transport – Practices,Policies and AdaptabilityPrabhati Bhattacharya, P.E.1, Avijit Maji, P.E., Ph.D.2Project Manager, Consulting Engg. Services(India) Pvt. Ltd. Vashi, Navi MumbaiTransportation Design Engineer, Maryland State Highway Administration Hanover, MarylandPrabhati.Bhattacharya@cesinter.comM aking our transportation infrastructure sustainable will lead ods that involve multimodal transport and design and construction to the betterment of the environment, which in turn will bol- methods that enhance sustainability e.g. concept of ‘Green Transport’. ster the economy. Airports, railroad, roads and highways, In the Green transport concept, construction methods should involveharbours and ports are the backbone of transportation infrastruc- use of industrial by-products and recycled material and implementture in our country. It is challenging to maintain sustainability while conservation and management of the ecosystem. In this paper, westriving to meet the transportation demand, e.g. keeping costs low will analyze such policies and design practices in the perspective ofwhile reducing environmental impacts and consumption of natural adaptability to transport scenario in India and also examine the cur-resources. Common perception is that transportation improvements rent Government policies promulgated towards sustainability.lead to added sprawl, which increases energy use and pollution.However, with good policies and design practices embracing sustain- Today India, with over a billion people, is counted among the lead-ability is not uncommon and difficult. In India, much importance is ing developing nations, in terms of growth in gross domestic productgiven to the necessity of augmenting the nation’s infrastructure by (GDP) and economy. However unplanned and haphazard developmentkeeping up with increasing demand and expectations from the public is taking a toll on the environment as well as the quality of life. Roadfor improved transportation system. On the other hand, considering transport system in India has to become sustainable in the long runshrinking resources, competing or adversarial relationships between otherwise it will pose grave challenges to India’s growth and emerg-environmental and transportation communities, and protection of ing economic status. Use of transport network has to be made eco-natural environment takes the back seat during planning and design nomical and environment-friendly by providing mobility to pedestrians,of transportation infrastructure. Hence, the aim of this paper is to bicyclists, solar-powered/ electric vehicles as these non-motorizedhighlight the importance of implementing sustainability in our nation’s modes are finding it increasingly risky to share the same road spacetransportation infrastructure by stressing on how we build them mat- with motorized modes. Moreover motorized traffic has increasedters as much as why we build them. manifold in the past decade. Small strides are being taken towards to make this dream a reality. Bigger steps, serious measures areTransportation policies and design practices supporting sustainability required to implement the sustainable transport. Public awarenesshave been successfully implemented abroad. Some of these include and technical education are essential towards lobbying the Govern-those that accommodate bicyclists, pedestrians, solar powered ve- ment for better policies and encouraging public-private partnershiphicles; designing new transportation system with variable speed limit to promote ‘Green Transport’. This paper deals with the design andand adaptable traffic signals, and maintaining existing system through construction of sustainable transport and possibilities of how it canoptimizing signal system while minimizing delay and pollution; adopt- be implemented.ing energy efficient electrical equipment for lighting; planning meth-
    • Regional Conference of the 84 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)MicroGrids: The Operation of the GridMamtaChamoliAssistant Professor, Manav Rachna International University Faridabadmamtachamoli2010@gmail.comT he work shows developing the concepts of the Micro Grid com- tion infrastructure and coordinated control there in it. Here the work ponents like(Microturbine,Solid Oxide fuel Cell).In order to oper- presented the development of the micro sources connected together ate this new types of power system we should have components showing how the power is being interchanged here in the system bus.modeling developed here in the system .The micro grids is being de- The results show an increase in the currents at bus for the system be-veloped as a low voltage distribution network consisting of various ing connected as a standalone system. Here the modeling of the sys-integrated sources there here in it. They all have having communica- tem is being done on the MATLAB/SIMULINK software for the system.
    • Regional Conference of the 85 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Role of Nanotechnology inRenewable EnergyMaitri. MVI Sem, M.Sc (Int.), Department of Biological Sciences, School of Natural Sciences, Bangalore University.my3.25392@gmail.comN anotechnology is the science and engineering of manipula- these problems lies in the use of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes tions, assembling, synthesizing, characterizing, manufactur- filled with a polymer and combining lead selenide quantum dots with ing and viewing materials at nano scale. It effects the energy titanium dioxide. Exquisite control over an anodically formed TiO2generation, transmission, storage and consumption. Availability and nanotube array architecture, large internal surface area, and lowereconomics pave the way for the revolution in energy generation. Only recombination allows for low-cost high-efficiency hybrid inorganic-5% of total global energy consumption is contributed by the renew- organic solar cells. The bandgaps of quantum dots can be varied byable resources of which solar energy utilization can be enhanced by changing the size of quantum dots. This makes quantum dots attrac-the use of nanotechnology. The fact that solar energy is so bountiful tive for multi-junction solar cells, where a variety of different energyenough, hits the Earth in a minute to meet our global requirements levels are used to extract more power from the solar spectrum. Ad-for at least a week makes it potentially revolutionary. But it is just vancement in this regard is the use of nano-structured layers in thinthe cost of capturing that energy that has been standing in the way. film solar cells. Here the effective optical path for absorption is muchReducing the cost or increasing the cost of alternatives makes it a larger than the actual film thickness and allows for more design flex-winning scenario. ibility in the absorber and window layers in the solar cells.Despite decades of development, solar cells are still relatively ex- This paper highlights the contribution of nanotechnology towardspensive. This not only makes solar an unattractive and uncompetitive making solar energy an efficient and reliable source of renewablealternative to fossil fuels, but it ensures that the technology is not energy.deployed where it is most needed. Conventional solar cells have two Keywords: nanotechnology, solar cells, nanotubes, quantum dots,main drawbacks: inefficiency and manufacturing cost. The solution to bandgaps, thin film solar cells.
    • Regional Conference of the 86 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Use of Bio-Fuel in Transportation Sector:A Step Towards the use of GreenRenewable Enegy and Better EnvironmentDr (Miss) Shobha Lata SinhaAssociate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology,G E Road, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, Indiashobha_sinha1@rediffmail.comT he heavy industrialization and spiraling development in the field sel blends have been compared with base line data of conventional of transport sector of the world have led to a steep rise for the diesel. Significant improvement in engine performance has been ob- demand of petroleum products. Petroleum fuels are obtained served due to the use of bio-diesel. Hence, the use of bio-diesel canfrom limited reserves of foreign countries. Presently our country is replace the petroleum diesel which not only reduce the cost of fuelfacing the problem of foreign exchange due to the import of crude but also harmful pollutants discharged in the atmosphere. Acceptableoil. Hence, it is necessary to look for alternative and green renew- thermal efficiencies of the engine have been obtained with differentable fuel, which can be produced from available bio-mass within the blends of bio-diesel and conventional diesel.country. It has been observed that 20% of jatropha oil can be substituted forIn the present investigation, the bio-diesel produced from the jatropha diesel without any engine modification and preheating of the blends.seeds have been considered as a potential alternative green renew- The level of hydrocarbon emission and noise level have been found toable fuel for running the compression ignition engines (diesel engine) be reduced with the use of more bio-diesel content.as Indian economy depends mostly on diesel. The different blends ofbio-diesel and conventional diesel have been tested on the engine. Keywords: Jatropha , Bio-diesel, economy, Diesel, Compression Igni-The experimental data obtained for various concentrations of bio-die- tion Engine.
    • Regional Conference of the 87 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Power Quality Assessment usingArtificial Neural NetworkS.GuptaAssociate Professor, National Institute of Technology,G E Road, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, IndiaT he goal of power engineers is to provide an uninterrupted sup- ever increasing size and complexity of power-system. In recent years ply of high quality power to customers in a secure and economic Artificial Neural Network has been developed as an alternative tool environment. The quality supply means constant voltage and for quick assessment of power system, to improve the Power-Quality.constant frequency power supply under normal operations. The bus So the best suitable ANN network is developed to assess the power-voltage, system frequency and the reactive power mainly govern the quality of line. In this paper it is concluded that the Artificial Neurallimits for safe operation of power system. For reliable and economic Network can be applied as an effective tool for Power-Quality assess-operation of power system, it is essential to monitor and control the ment, facilitating quick decision making and hence enabling the powerstatus of the entire power lines in a control center. The traditional engineers to ensure remedial measures under stressed operatingmanual and semi-automatic techniques could not survive long due to conditions of the power system.
    • Regional Conference of the 88 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Theme :Knowledge Management and Women Entrepreneurship, Innovationand LeadershipConversational Leadership: CreatingGlobal Architectures for the Successof Women LeadersLana Fountain FlakesS.T.E.M Association LeaderReliability Engineering (Independent Contractor/ Consultant)lana_fountain@msn.comL eaders at every level of any organization are typically judged ideas, and meaning. And subsequently, empowering today’s fe- on how well they address issues and strategic questions that male leader to comprehensively, and adequately, address critical define their domains of responsibility. Spurred by advancing challenges and opportunities.technology, efforts to cut costs, be more efficient, compete moreeffectively, and innovate, leaders in all sectors are seeking new, This presentation explores, and educates the audience, on theand effective ways, to leverage organizational and community re- tools and techniques critical to establishing a framework for ex-sources to generate greater strategic impact – and on a global- ercising conversational leadership. We define core competenciesscale. of a conversational leader; effective use of this leadership style to engage a global audience; and provide insight as to how con-Innate to women leaders is the natural process of conversation. versational leadership is effective in both clarifying purpose andThis process, used intentionally, is core to the cultivation of collec- strategic intent of an organization, and in ensuring adequate guid-tive intelligence needed to create business and social value. Given ance of collective intelligence towards purposeful action. Lastly,the global nature of today’s business landscape, this process this presentation communicates why conversational leadership isserves as the natural conduit for success in leadership - creating a core competency necessary for innovative thinking, capacity de-the architecture for worldwide cross-pollination of relationships, velopment, and the success of women in leadership.
    • Regional Conference of the 89 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Untapping Talent with a StrategicResource ApproachYvette RamosPresident, Swiss Engineering, Geneva Sectionyvette.ramos@swissengineering-ge.chM ainly based on material resources development, the com- we have in the organisation : recruitment, diversity and gen- monly used economic model is now giving more space der management, mobility, entrepreneurship development, ..? and identity to intellectual and human capital. Investing in - How to make the compensation and benefits system evolve inhuman resources is a new key element to increase organizational order to motivate and retain the human capital while maintain-performance. These changes have important impact in terms of ing equity policy, and what are the financial impacts ?competitive strategies, required competencies and increasing de-manded for added value, especially in Emerging regions and coun- Classical information systems are not enough, because they of-tries such as India. ten are focused on operational aspects: they allow a productivity increase of the HR department and quality of data. Some otherHuman Resources stakeholders play an essential role in manag- systems give added value to these because they allow a relevanting competencies; they contribute in transforming human capital and quick decision making process. They allow the federation of allinto a success factor, through alignment of strategic objectives of operational data, organize them in a way to follow-up the strategicthe organisation. They are to make decisions for the organisation indicators.future and respond to diverse issues: The presentation will focus on an innovative solution for Human- How to anticipate evolutions of our fast-developing institutions Capital Management which helps assessing the performance of and organisations and their businesses, through a generalized the organization through its capacity in measuring the strategic strategic planning approach, withing a sustainable develop- value of human capital, the alignment of people, processes and ment context ? technology around common objectives and the proactive planning- How to fill the gap between required competencies and those of human resources needs.
    • Regional Conference of the 90 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Reinforcing African Women Engineersand Scientists Capacities in ICTIssié Yvone GUEYE, Cote d’IvoireEx INWES Director for French Speaking Africa Representative of Côte d’Ivoire for WFEOPresident of NAWES (Network of African Women Engineers and Scientists)guguisis@yahoo.frT he new technologies of information are knowing a light- cess to the internet is estimated globally at 1%. The strategies to ning development whose incontestable profits are not fairly improve the inclusion of African women engineers and scientists shared. This situation is even more dramatic in developing in this digital era will be discussed.countries, particularly those of West Africa, where the rate of ac-
    • Regional Conference of the 91 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Information Technology as a Tool forEmpowering Nigerian Women for LeadershipUdofia, Emem P1 , Etim2 ImaObong A., Shabi, Iwok N. 31 Department Of Educational Technology and Library Science, University Of Uyo, Nigeria2 University Of Uyo Library, Nigeria3 Obafemi Awolowo University Library, Ile-Ife, Nigeriaapageste@yahoo.comA vailability of information as well as knowledge of Informa- and a significant relationship between utilisation of Information tion Technology is a prerequisite for women leadership and Technology and socio-political transformation which invariably transformation. It takes an informed and technologically justifies its inevitability. Results revealed 45.83%, for very highempowered woman to impact the society effectively. The study and 35% for high level of awareness and this invariably shows aaimed at investigating how utilisation of Information Technology good measure of women leaders’ awareness. On their utilisation,enhances Nigerian women leaders’ ability for socio-political trans- the result revealed only 20% of very high and 12.5% of high utili-formation. Three objectives were formulated for the study trans- sation of Information Technology for socio-political transforma-lating to two research questions and one hypothesis. It adopted tion, which does not justify the awareness. Finally, the result ofthe expost-facto research design. A twenty–five items structured the hypothesis showed that women leaders agree that there is aquestionnaire tagged Information Technology and Women Em- significant relationship between the utilisation of modern informa-powerment for Leadership (ITWEL) on a Likert scale was used to tion technology tools and transformation of women in Nigeria. It isobtain data for the study. The population of the study consisted of anticipated that the result of this study will be of benefit to women1,686 women administrators and politicians from southern Nigeria leaders and could constitute a relevant input to administrators onand 10% of the population being 168 were sampled for the study. gender policies and mainstreaming thus impacting lives of Nigeri-Answers to the research questions were presented using bar an women in general. Based on the above, it is recommended thatgraphs and the hypothesis was analysed using PPMC and decisions government should emphasize the acquisition of Information andwere taken at P< 0.05 level of significance. Findings revealed a Communication Technology knowledge for women administratorshigh level women’s awareness of modern technology, low level of to ensure the realisation of the Millennium Development Goalsutilising Information Technology for socio-political transformation make government policy of women inclusion a reality.
    • Regional Conference of the 92 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Young Women Engineer: How toInfluence Positively your world?Reine EssobmadjeOwner-Manager at Evolving Consulting France & Cameroonree@evolvingconsulting.comA s we are trying to promote engineering and involve more 3. By showing how we need to empower ourselves in and more young women in this area; we have to consider entrepreneurship and leadership, we can encourage vocations. the fact that this is not really a success. Therefore, we canstand in a different approach. Young people are nowadays sub- How to influence positively your world is based on two principles:ject to a massive flow of information coming from severalchannels. In this sense, it’s very difficult for them to make their • Revealing the needs and vocationschoices, and in another hand to catch their attention, we need a • Leading by example (importance of role model and share ofvery strong message. On top of that, as the crisis increase in many experiences)countries, they are more and more concerned by their future. Being an engineer is about:What about giving them a strong and positive messageabout their importance and influence in world sustainability and Connecting, sharing, contributing, creating, adapting, and improv-future? ing…This consists of showing how the combination of being young, awomen and an engineer can change the society and influencepositively people around us. It’s about the exposure of ben-efits that a generation of scientists can bring to a struggling so-ciety:1. By giving an ideal and goal of being an major factor in manag-ing the change for a better world, we can then:• Reveal the vocation present in the heart of most of them• Show the important role of scientist in this world• Change the image they have of engineer• Transform the young passive generation in actor for changes• Expose how they could play that role (different trades of engi- neer)2. By sharing the experience of other women engineers (all ofthem were young at the early beginning) we can motivateyoung women to be part of these major changes.
    • Regional Conference of the 93 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)“Women in Entrepreneurship, Innovationand Leadership”Parul DesaiEmail: polykrafttech@gmail.comDream, innovation and leadership is be the inherent quality of • Time Management & planningWomen Entrepreneurs. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT is spoken of all • Formatting basic Organization Designover the world. • Control of the organization • Self AssessmentWhat will lead to the success of women entrepreneur is – • Innovation, creativity and development – a must• Understanding what is entrepreneurship • How women entrepreneurs should motivate employees• What leads to the success of Women Entrepreneurs • Making of the Entrepreneur (projection of PK)
    • Regional Conference of the 94 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)After Sensitizing, Action!Mrs. Aude AbenaTelecommunications systems EngineerNational advanced school of post and telecommunicationsaude_a_2000@yahoo.frI t is the moment to take up challenges of the adequacy for- knowhow and better a know being. BUNKER ROY with his “Bare- mation-employment while setting up systems of dynamic, op- foot University” puts well forward the effectiveness of the train- erational, effective learning. This tiresome work, colored by ings. It is question to educate women not only scientific women,socio-cultural specificities, could be summarized with the resolu- where the studies most of time gets long and tiresome, but to helption of the equation: the women in general to exploit the resources of their localities, with whom they are most of time familiar, and to exploit them for(N-S) + (H-F) + (Fu - Fr) = 0 the direct benefit of their respective communities. The purpose of this is not only to solve the problem of rural depopulation butIt is important to have a growing number of able women, to de- also to make it possible to a woman to acquire knowledge withoutfine, take part, use and share knowledge and information. This uprooting their origins too much.topic will be focus in three fields: the orientation of justice andhealth, the local educational training, the cloud of innovations in Economy of the localities also promoted the natural environmenteconomies. of the beings. All the cities cannot urbanize at the same time. It is not even any more judiciable to consider all the cities industrializedIn the field of justice we can start to secure basic rights, with a with the environmental challenges become increasingly alarming.cell telephone hold bye a good part of the women around the world People can thus produce (denrrées food for example)and servicestoday. Experts in the management of the denunciations and the on the spot and put them at the disposal of all throughout the worldevidence can thus direct the exploitation of those innovations ac- in an instantaneous way, allowing each and everyone to reach thecordingly. The girl has to be a woman on the one hand and science product which it wishes, from any point of the sphere, as we haveevolves in an exponential way on the other hand. Health, even that access to the Internet. This makes it possible to avoid uselessof the reproduction or not, can be managed better starting from risks of travels, the management of the perishable products, andthese Tics. The telemedicine must allow the concepts such as the to profit with the hunger relief throughout the world.family planning, the traditional and different pharmacopeia to be-come concrete palpable accessible to all operational, opened with WISE INDIA in October 2012 at New Delhi is an opportunity, tothe whole world. back up these various practical ideas to imply the woman in sci- ence and technology, making less ironic the thought of DescartesEducation vehicles the knowledge certainly but it can still drain a according to whom “the good sense is the thing best shared”.
    • Regional Conference of the 95 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)The Experience of Women Engineersin a Male Dominated Profession andTheir Life Values – An Australian PerspectiveSusan Lee FentonFenton Partners Pty Ltd., Melbourne, Victoria, Australiafentonpartners@optusnet.com.auT his paper covers the life journeys, issues and concerns fac- their values and circumstances which have enriched their lives. I ing women engineers in Melbourne. It explores the influence will also be sharing and reflecting on my life in two continents and which our backgrounds, cultures, families and values have my view of how to be a sustainable person in both my work life bal-on the decisions made. Twelve women told their stories and the ance and my involvement in the community. Numeracy and literacypaper presented is based on these oral history findings, a summa- fundamentals and wonderful teachers have empowered the girls.ry of their reflections in the different phases of women engineers’ Engineering training has transferable skills.lives, the paths followed since graduation, the lengths of profes-sional work and family life balance. These are significant factors Keywords: Women Engineers, Reflection, Life Values, Experience,that have led them to pursue similar or different paths based on Numeracy,
    • Regional Conference of the 96 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)PostersSelf Actualization of Career Aspirationsfor Learning Science/Technology Coursesand Female Students’ EntrepreneurialSkill Acquisition1 Dr. Ekukinam, Thelma U., (Ph.D), 2Dr. Udosen, Idongesit N.,(Ph.D)1 Department of Educational Technology/Library Science2 Faculty of Education, University of Uyoapageste@yahoo.comT he poor participation of women in science and Technology is- science/technology courses and female students’ entrepreneurial sues has been the subject of much discussion both in devel- skill acquisition. A total of 500 SS1 female students from various oping countries, and in third world countries including Nige- senior secondary schools in the South South geo-political zone inria. Many studies have shown overlapping relationships between Nigeria were selected for the study through stratified samplingcareer aspirations, self-actualizations, local customs and value technique. A questionnaire titled: ‘Self Actualization of Career As-etc. amongst male and female students. The society assumes pirations for Learning Science/Technology Courses and Femalethat view point because men seem to posses dominant behavior Students’ Entrepreneurial Skill Acquisition (SACALS/TC-FSESA)antecedents and are questionably ascribed the superior sex title, was designed for the study and was found reliable at a coefficientwhich indeed is more of some religious maxim than an accurate of 0.89 using the Cronbach Alpha statistics. The research was aproven aassessment. A single element of raw physical attributes survey research design that adopted a descriptive statistics suchalone cannot adequately define sex superiority, that men have as means, standard deviation and Pearson Product Moment Cor-better brains and learn more easily and faster than women in relation Analysis. The study revealed that female students exhibit-problem solving and achievement matters. Society feels female ed a low tendency for entrepreneurial skill acquisition with the substudents should not develop interests and positive self-concept; variable self-motivation indicating the lowest mean score of 23.16.should not aspire in learning science and technology courses and The study also revealed that there was no significant relationshipbecome business centre owners and should not be vested with between female students entrepreneurial skill acquisition andmanagerial and leadership positions in business enterprises. The self actualization of career aspirations for science and technol-incontestable fact remains that nature has endowed both human ogy courses. Thus, female students need a complete reorientationsexes, male and female equal ability to thrive and excel in all field of the need to relate the self-actualization of career aspirationsof endeavour. Thus, science and technology issues should not be on the development of entrepreneurial skills. It is then that theyperceived as masculine and difficult and therefore with little or no would be equipped to become owners, managers and leaders ofrelevance to female in career aspirations. This paper therefore, any business enterprise apart from waiting for white collar jobs.investigated self actualization of career aspirations for learning
    • Regional Conference of the 97 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Perception of Impact of Donor Agencieson the Socio Economic Wellbeing ofFisherfolks in Southeast Nigeria* Okoko, Atim C., **Udoh, James P* Fisheries Department, Ministry of Agriculture, Uyo, Nigeria.** Department of Fisheries & Aquaculture, University of Uyo, Nigeria.apageste@yahoo.comT he study evaluated the overall influence of the United Na- school blocks and town hall provided for the entire community. This tions International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) high level abdicates that the intervention contributed adequately fisheries intervention on the socio-economic wellbeing of to the socioeconomic wellbeing of respondents. The least utilizedfisher folk in Akwa Ibom State, southeast Nigeria, using a bi-polar intervention components were income generation (49.10%). Thescale. A multi-stage sampling technique was adopted to select 220 wellbeing of the beneficiaries however, had not changed sincebeneficiaries, resident in five IFAD-intervention recipient coastal most of them still lived in poor accommodations (huts = 40.37%)fishing communities from five benefiting Local Government Areas with their source of lighting being kerosene lamp (60.55%), whichin the State. The beneficiaries were mostly women (63.3%) be- is dangerous to health. Over 56.9% of respondents depended oning the most poverty vulnerable group of fisher folk. Majority of well water as their source of drinking water while 56.40% de-respondents (39.90%) had at least primary education, households pended on local chemist shop for healthcare treatment. This situ-of 4-7 members and were married (63.36%) and aged between ation is buttressed by the clusters of mean of 2.75 which indicates34 and 55 years (79.80%). The beneficiaries’ perception revealed inadequate provision of IFAD assistance to beneficiaries in themultidimensional aspects of wellbeing; what one respondent con- study area, and clusters of mean of 3.49 supporting high utiliza-sidered as important indicator of wellbeing may be different from tion of scarce facilities provided by IFAD fisheries interventionthe other. Results revealed effective and high utilization of IFAD among beneficiaries. The study posits that wellbeing has severalintervention among beneficiaries. The highest utilization compo- dimensions; hence, interventions in fisherfolk communities shouldnents were health care facility, water and sanitation, footbridge, be intensive, broad and multidimensional in approach.
    • Regional Conference of the 98 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Theme:Women in Academics: Breaking the Glass CeilingThe Glass Ceiling: A Myth or RealityProf. Nupur PrakashPrincipal, Indira Gandhi Institute of Technology,GGS Indraprastha University, DelhiT he human civilization is a continuous process of discovery first woman to independently discover 8 comets. and self-liberation driven by Science and Technology, during which women have always played a brilliant role. Huang Dao Po (1245-1330) from China, was the renovator of cot- ton spinning technology and the Inventor of cotton gin and tri-in-Today, as we have entered into a new era of knowledge civilization got spinning wheel.and facing a new revolution in Science and Technology and thewisdom of women scientist and engineers is shining with greater Wang Zhenyi (1768-1797) was an astronomer, arithmetician andbrilliance. physician from China who discovered the ball-shaped earth, the five principles of Chinese medicine and simplified the calendar.Science and Technology has always been used for the progress ofhuman civilization and therefore, there is a great need to foster a Women are playing a greater role in future development of Sci-better environment for women participation in Science and Tech- ence and Technology as they are blessed with remarkable intel-nology, besides being actively involved in academics. ligence and creativity and have their own advantages in making scientific discoveries.Women’s role in development of Science and Tech-nology Science has developed better with women’s participation, as women areWomen have made brilliant contributions to the world of scienceand technology in history. They form 50% of the population and • Capable of conducting precise and creative scientific re-therefore play a greater role in future development of Science and searchtechnology, health care industry, financial sector and academics • Capable as rational observers, interpreters and discoverers ofall over the world. the order and laws of nature. • Capable as inventors of new methods, techniques and tech-Before the 19th Century, while most women were dedicated to nologieshousework and the upbringing of their children a small number ofoutstanding women left their footprints in the history of Science Women’s inclination to pursue harmony and humanism has posi-and Technology through persistent efforts and pursuit of science. tive effects on the goals and methodologies of scientific research, making it more sustainable and human, with greater attentionThey can be counted on finger tips. paid to the ethics of science and environment, thereby, achieving the harmony between man and nature.Hypatia (370-415) was a mathematician, astronomer and philoso-pher from Rome who was the inventor of astrolabe and hydrom- Women’s networking skills and associative thinking is unique andeter. special, providing new perspectives and approaches to multi- disciplinary, systematic and integrated scientific research. TheirCaroline Herschel (1657-1848), an astronomer from UK, was the patience, carefulness and cleverness enables them to be highly
    • Regional Conference of the 99 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)focused on research, helping them carry out experiments meticu- pability by participating in academic exchanges and collaboration.lously. They should aim to achieve a balance between the roles of being a wife, a mother, a technologist, an academician, an entrepreneurWomen’s organizing skills and collaborative behaviors are ex- and scientist.tremely helpful in promoting teamwork in scientific research andany other activity undertaken by them at their workplace. Sustainable workplaces need to be created to accommodate tal- ented women. Changes in traditional work practices are essential.The emergence of new economy and participation of Many organizations are now focusing on making their workplaceswomen more facilitative with better improved services and support sys- tem to attract and retain women employees. Creating an enabling,We have entered an era of knowledge economy at an accelerated women friendly environment at workplace can leverage upon thespeed, where innovation has become the primary driving force, strengths of female employees and bring out the best in them.knowledge the primary resource and the knowledge-based indus-tries have become the leading industries. Due to their physical New work patterns such as flexible timings and work from homelimitation, demanding work schedule and harsh working environ- options are emerging, setting women free from strict work sched-ment, women could not contribute much in heavy engineering in- ule and helping them strike a work-life balance.dustries. The Perception of Glass CeilingBut, today, mental labor has become the main source of socialtransformation and revenue generation, where, gender is no lon- The human journey of self-development is sometimes stalled byger an obstacle. Knowledge-based mental services have devel- self-imposed limitations. The proverbial glass ceiling is a similaroped rapidly, creating many new industries and job opportunities mental barrier that comes in the way of women’s progress andsuitable for women. prevents them to realize their full potential. The glass ceiling is a perception and women with talent and determination must riseWomen in Academics and major challenges above this perception. Women have to work much harder than men to balance domestic realities with career dreams.Today 90% of school teachers in India are women and around40% of women are involved in teaching Science and Technology in Till mid management level women perform really well as they arethe institutes of higher learning at the level of TGT, PGT, Assistant great team players, sincere and dedicated. However, during theseProfessors and Lecturers. productive years at workplace they also remain reproductive atHowever, when it comes to leadership roles only 5% women make home and go through the process of child bearing and rearing.it to the senior level, holding top leadership positions like that of The dual responsibilities sometimes take a toll on most womenProfessors, Directors, and Vice Chancellors. There are very few and they sometimes sacrifice their careers to buy peace at home.women scientists, whose work have got recognition as only 2.8% Women in academics and corporate face the same challenges un-of Nobel laureates are female and only 10% of IEEE and ACM less they have a strong support system at home.members are female. However, for women for whom their work is a passion, are able toAlthough Indian govt. has a well defined legal/policy framework strike a work life balance and forge ahead.providing equal rights, opportunities and wages to women em- If the women exhibit enthusiasm, zeal and passion to be good atployees, but, due to household responsibilities there is a greater work, then people forget the gender bias and the glass ceilingchallenge for women to devote time and engage themselves in shatters. Hence, the women who never adopt this self defect-meaningful research, take up full time corporate jobs and climb ing belief in glass ceiling are the ones who make it to the top inthe corporate ladder. their chosen vocation, whether it is academics, politics, business,Women often hit the glass ceiling despite being capable and wor- finance, scientific research or technical innovation. In the financethy of leadership roles. sector, already the glass ceiling has been broken by many women CEOs where 50% of workforce constitutes female employees.Remedial Measures India is a country where women PM, CMs and mayors have beenA better social and cultural environment needs to be created by accepted without any gender bias because most of them haveincreasing self-awareness among women to consider themselves performed better than their male counterparts. Therefore, it isto be equal, independent, confident and creative in their thinking. completely upto the individual to accept the glass ceiling as anThey need to improve their professional skills and innovation ca- obstacle or rise above it.
    • Regional Conference of the 100 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Sensitizing Teachers to Gender Issuesin Sciences Classes: Can it HelpEncourage Girls to Sciences?Liette Vasseur1, Claire Deschênes2, Jeanne d’Arc Gaudet3 and Louise Lafortune41 Dept. Biol. Sci., Brock University, 500 Glenridge Avenue, St Catharines, ON L2S 3A12 Département de génie mécanique, Université Laval, 1065 ave. De la Medecine, QC G1V 0A63 Faculté des sciences de l’éducation, Université de Moncton, Moncton, NB E1A 3E94 Département des sciences de l’éducation, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, CP 500, Trois-Rivières, QC G9A 5H7lvasseur@brocku.caD espite many efforts over the past decades to increase the Sciences, Technologie, Ingénierie et Maths (AFFESTIM) is issues number of women in sciences, technologies, engineering of gender equity for girls and women in these sectors. For ex- and mathematics (STEM), in several countries, this remains ample, AFFESTIM wants to support school teachers interested ina challenge. According to research, the number of women has in developing new approaches by designing a sociopedagogy modelfact declined in some of these disciplines. This is especially true in with an emphasis in how they can better include girls and boys inengineering, computing sciences, and physics. There are barriers STEM. In this presentation, we discuss the framework that hasthat remain and discourage women to pursue studies in STEM. been considered in order to reach this objective. Through a pilotSome have argued that the main reason for this gender unbal- project, AFFESTIM is planning to develop material which can thenance is due to the low interests of girls in hard sciences preferring be transferred to other schools through a train the trainer systemlife sciences or humanities as they may be able to help societies. model. We believe that working with teachers instead of focus-Recent reports (NSERC 2011) however suggest that there may be sing only on students may have a more significant impact. Pastother conditions that predispose girls in the choice of carrier such observations show that students are highly influenced by teach-as the way teachers deliver their material differently to girls and ers and the way that they interact with them when choosing theirboys. L’Association de la Francophonie à propos des Femmes En careers.
    • Regional Conference of the 101 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Women and Academics: Breakingthe Glass CeilingShruti GandhiIndira Gandhi Institute of Technologyshruti4gandhi@gmail.comThere is a swathe between the elite and the plebeians, dividing Then there is the “glass ceiling” that presumes barriers at higherthe two. levels of careers, there is a particular career level that a woman may reach, but after that level there is a blockage to further ad-Maintaining the disparity between them, so that beyond a certain vancement, e.g. women are blocked from attaining full professor-limit there is no possibility of growth. ship in science departments at leading universities.How do we reach this class of the elitists? How do we counter this The main three factors that have been identified to have conjuredimpervious barrier? the glass ceiling for women in the academia have been discussed at length in the paper:We work as hard as they do, we deserve as much as they do, evenif we reach the swathe, we cannot cross it. Firstly, the differential socialization patterns of men and women, and non academic factors such as marriage and family. Secondly,We the women, the plebeians, the normal day to day working, that shows negative academic ad- vising between the mail advisors and their female graduate stu-Balancing the family, facing the societal pressures, leaving no dents. Thirdly, the chauvinistic, orthodox and taken for grantedstone unturned as a professional, for most of us the plane above male model of academics that discourages women from full par-the glass ceiling still appears to be a mirage. ticipation.Such are the harsh ignominies of a woman’s life! Shattering the ceiling Irrespective of all the odds, there have been women, who have successfully thrived in the male dominated aca-India has had its own share if illustrious women leading the coun- demia and have still made a mark for themselves. So what are thetry from the vantage points of their respective fields. Yet India ingredients that would help us shatter this glass ceiling?ranks 129 out if 146 countries on the gender Inequality Index.There are barriers infiltrating all the levels ranging from food in- Self confidence, determination, energy, ambition, acceptance ofsecurity to education that prevent women from bridging this gap. criticism, efficient organization, mobility, being able to defend one’s self, knowing how to gain support of influential persons,There are two stages at which a barrier hinders a woman in her knowing how to create and use networks, knowing how to gainprofessional field, a threshold “beyond which gender no longer men’s respect, having charm, good social and communicationmatters,” and a “glass ceiling of gender specific obstacles to ad- skills and the importance of appearance and image!vancement into top positions”. In the first stage women encounterdifficulties whilst their advent in a particular field, but after at- Are these are the only requisite characteristics that once imbibedtainment of a certain status the obstacles fall away. This is the would help us break through the stolid, infrangible glass ceiling?“threshold effect” wherein the women face barriers in the early These are some of the questions, answers to which are exploredstages of their careers. in this paper.
    • Regional Conference of the102 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Are Women Engineers Discriminated?Seema SinghAssociate Professor in Economics Department of HumanitiesDelhi Technological University Delhi- 110 042, Indiaseemasinghdtu@gmail.comT hough engineering is always considered as a male bastion, supply side and, prejudice of not only male but female bosses also in recent years, women in growing numbers are joining the in giving them important work to handle, which may be considered profession and making significant dent. But even then, in the as demand side. As there is a degree of discrimination, the paperprofessional hierarchy, they find themselves at the lower rung. In discusses affirmative actions which are being taken to enhancethe board room of any corporation, male presence is normal and female participation in both, government and private engineer-female are few and far between. The classical answer for low rep- ing institutions in Delhi on the basis of primary data. Secondaryresentation is the traditional differentiation between production data has been used to discuss the same for other states and otherand reproduction. Women, even in case of engineers, are primar- parts of the world. To enhance participation from the demand side,ily considered as home maker and work is considered as a sec- the paper discusses that in the pre-reform era, there were someondary to them. They can leave their secondary responsibility any affirmative action for female in industries but in the post-reformtime for the primary one which may hamper overall performance era, when the market has become very competitive, are losing itsof the business. In this background, the paper makes an in-depth ground. In those circumstances, role of association and societ-investigation of theoretical justification for low representation of ies like WISE and INWES in mentoring young women engineers inwomen engineer’s and concludes that it is a combined result of their professional career has become very important.low availability of women engineers which may be considered as
    • Regional Conference of the 103 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Inhibitions to Careers in Science andTechnology and Differentiated MentoringApproach for Nigerian Secondary School Girls.* Nwosu, Stella N. (PhD.) , **Etiubon, Rebecca U. (PhD.), ***Udofia, Theresa M.* Department of Educational Technology, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Uyo. Department of Science Education, University of Uyo, A.K.S. Nigeria**&****apageaste@yahoo.comR etaining women in Science and Technology must start with physical hindrances to girls studying science and technology. In- the young girls. In developing countries such as Nigeria, strument reliability was .81 using the Cronbach’s Alpha reliability girls find it difficult to study science and technology and estimate.Data obtained was analyzed using percentages to de-even pursue careers in them. The average Nigerian school girl may scribe the distribution of conceptual, psychological and physicalbe willing to embrace science and technology subjects, but due to variables in bar graphs. The results revealed that:some inhibiting factors they are not able to pursue these subjectsto conclusion. These young girls will require more than the routine i) the major conceptual problems to studying science are under-mentoring to assist them in surmounting the odds against them standing mathematics(68%)and chemistry (54%) concepts.in pursuing science and technology careers. What mentoring ap- ii) the psychological problems are mainly perception of scienceproach could best attract these girls to and retain them in science and technology as being a difficult course (71%).and technology careers? The study identified factors that hinderNigerian girls’ from undertaking careers in science and technology ii) the physical problems are inadequate time to study (59%) andand designed a ‘Differentiated’ approach to mentoring that takes poor manipulative skills (51%)cognizance of these hindrances. The study used a causal compara- iii) In all, conceptual problems (56%) as opposed to psychologicaltive design in which the observed variables are not manipulated. (10%) and physical (34%) are the major hindrance to choos-A sample of 336 Nigerian secondary school girls and teachers in ing science and technology subjects among the Nigerian girls.Akwa Ibom State Nigeria were selected through stratified randomsampling. Four schools (two rural and two urban) were randomly From the findings, the girls require mentoring in the form of strat-selected from each of the three senatorial districts in the State. A egies to help them understand difficult concepts in science andsample of 288 secondary school girls was obtained by randomly technology and counseling to cope with studies and home de-selecting twenty four students from each of the twelve schools (8 mands. A Differentiated mentoring framework was designed tostudents each from Senior Secondary I, II and III). Fourty eight engender effective mentoring of female science students. It in-(48) science teachers, 4 from each school were also used for the volves holistic mentoring that attempts to take care of all domainsstudy. The instrument was a ‘Female Science Student Mentor- required in encouraging female students to engage in science anding Needs Questionnaire’ (FSMEQ). The items elicited responses technology. The framework defines the roles of mentors, providesfrom the girls and their teachers on conceptual, psychological and feedback and evaluation formats.
    • Regional Conference of the104 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Changes in the Architecture of SpermCell Membrane, Leading to SyngamyKaiser JamilPast President- TWOWS (now OWSD) Dean and Director, School of life Sciences,Centre for Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Secunderabad, A.P, India.E-Mail: kj.bmmrc@gmail.comB ackground: Transmission (TEM) and Scanning electron reticulum. We have shown that calcium is transported into the cell microscopy (SEM) are powerful tools to investigate ultra- interior via the ionophore A23187. This transport initiates the mo- structures and has long been used in the discovery lecular events resulting in conformational changes in the plasmaand description of microorganisms, viruses and several higher membrane leading to capcitation and acrosomal reaction- as seenbiota. With appropriate sample preparation and application in the in-vivo condition. We determined these events electron mi-on a grid or coating, the visual look of samples can be croscopically- showing a sequential pattern since calcium is adirectly obtained and photographed. Besides traditional elec- signaling molecule we could record these events as follows :tron microscopy techniques such as negative staining, ultra-thin sectioning, immunoelectron microscopy, and techniques In normal cells the plasma membrane forms a continuous andsuch as cryoelectron microscopy (Cryo-EM) with single particle smooth layer covering the head, midpiece and tail region of theanalysis provides us a set of methods to investigate the 3D atomic sperm cell; however upon receiving the Ca signal it undergoesresolution structures of macromolecules and cryo-electron tomog- conformational changes, which are distinct and different in eachraphy (CryoET) allows the visualization of cellular structures of the 3 regions of the sperm cell. These events were followedunder close-to-life conditions. To investigate structures inside by various electron microscopic instruments-like TEM, SEM, andthe cell or cell membrane Freeze Fracture EM has been an added FF- EM. These are presented in a series of EM micro-tool. Hence my work revolves around all these techniques in graphs. We have seen very clear domain formations in thethe process of understanding the Molecular events taking place plasma membrane, further the movement of intra-membraneousduring- “Syngamy “ in mammalian reproductive biology. (IPM) particles mostly membrane proteins and membrane lipids were found to aggregate and segregate at particular regions ofMaterials and methods: The mammalian spermatozoa during the plasma membrane – appearing to bring about definitespermatogenesis, maturation in the epidydemis, and capacita- changes preceding a particular even. These events as describedtion in the female reproductive tract changes its shape, size above include capacitation and acrosome reaction which lead toand reorganizes its cell organelles. The fertilization process is syngamy. The deceptively simple appearance of the plasmaa net result of multiple molecular events which enable ejacu- membrane revealed the molecular architecture of the domains,lated spermatozoa to recognize and bind to the egg’s extra- which can also be interpreted in biochemical terms as conforma-cellular coat- the zona pellucida. Only capacitated spermatozoa tional changes leading to an important event in their life.are capable of binding the zona intact egg, this interactionsignals the acrosome reaction which then proceeds to syn- Reference: Kaiser Jamil – Chapter in book; “Electron Microscopygamy. These events were studied by us in-vitro, by inducing the in Medicine and Biology” – Science Publishers –Enfield (NH) USA,sperm to undergo capacitation and acrosome reaction with cal- Plymouth, UK.cium ionophore A23187-a carboxylic acid ionophore; a probefor studying membrane changes. Acknowledgements : my mentors and colleagues- Dr.I.G.White (Australia), Dr, E.L. Benedetti (France), Dr. G. ThyagarajanResults and discussion: It is known that Ca2+ pump is respon- (former director-IICT), Dr.P.M. Bhargava (former Directorsible for pumping calcium from the cytosol into the sarcoplasmic CCMB); Dr. David Cokyne (Australia), and my colleagues.
    • Regional Conference of the 105 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Role of CSIR-CRRI Women Scientistsand Engineers in R&D AchievementsNeelima Chakrabarty, Kamini Gupta, Nishi Mittalneelima.chakrabarty@gmail.comC ouncil of Scientific & Industrial Research, a premier autono- competence to organise national and international training pro- mous R&D organization, is a multidisciplinary, multiloca- grammes to disseminate R&D finding to the society. tional set-up, comprising of 38 laboratories and 47 regionalcenters has completed sixty one years of its existence. In India, Present Study reveals the role of women scientists and engineersit symbolizes a culture that links science with society through working in CSIR-CRRI in perspective of their R&D scientific andtechnology and industrial manufacture. CSIR-CRRI (CSIR- Central industrial outputs for the benefits of the end-users i.e. society, itRoad Research Institute) is one of these laboratories , established also highlight the strength of female scientists and engineers.in 1952, is engaged in carrying out research and developmentprojects on design, construction and maintenance of roads and Through an opinion survey and observation matrix present studyrunways, traffic and transportation planning and safety audits of highlights their strength/capabilities in managing as well as bal-mega and medium cities, landslide control, environmental pollu- ancing their working areas and other life aspects e.g. handling alltion ,road traffic safety, driver diagnostics ,performance moni- responsibilities and leading businesses towards transformationtoring and evolutional studies on highways. The institute has the through their R&D achievements.
    • Regional Conference of the106 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Learning from Experience – European Effortsto Improve the Situation of Women in ScienceTechnology and Research – Lessons Learnt fromthe GENDERA Project (FP7)Judith Abrahami, PhDORT Braude College, Karmiel, Israeljabrahami@braude.ac.ilT he call for greater involvement of women in science and the projects described by the participating countries reflectthe engineering, and the aspiration for an economic and social cultural heterogeneity, the different levels of technology, and the system that reduces the conflict, usually suffered mainly by social constructs. An analysis that sets the practices in the contextfemales, between life and work, are of global scope. However, of each participating countryreveals the social, cultural and legalthe lesson to be learnt from international projects and studies is issues that define the problems and determine the steps taken tothat there can be no uniformity either in the initiatives to change increase the engagement of women in science in each case.stereotypical expectations in order to ensure recruitment and pro-motion, or in the measures taken to alleviate the conflict between The significance of this cultural reading of the database goes be-life and work to warrant retention. Both require cultural sensitivity yond the lifetime of the GENDERA project and carries implicationsand appropriately modified practices. for all those aspiring to learn from foreign experience: replication of initiatives to engage and promote women in science and engi-As part of the GENDERA project (November 2009 – April 2012) a neering, or improve work –life balance is never a viable option.database of “good practices” from the nine participating countries Learning from the experience of others becomes meaningful onlywas compiled (www.gendera.eu) in order to report on initiatives following a reflection on the multiple factors affecting each cul-that worked, and offer ideas to other interested parties. The con- ture, including a critical view of ones own.siderable differences in quantity, format andstakeholders between
    • Regional Conference of the 107 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Gender Analysis of Computer-Based Trainingand Nigerian Secondary Education System:Case of Senior Science Schools in Akwa Lbom State* Uduakobong A. Okon (PhD.), **Godwin A. Akpan (PhD.), ***Aniefiok E. Udofia (PhD.) Faculty of Education, University of Uyo, Nigeria***, &***,apageste@yahoo.comT here is ICT application in every sector of Nigeria’s life and students are incompetent in basic computer operations. A greater particularly in education. Computer-Based-Training (CBT) percentage of the girls were more competent than the boys in the has been introduced into secondary education since 1988 use of word processing packages with 13% of girls against 6% ofand is a component part of the national curriculum for secondary boys. A higher percentage of girls also showed higher competencesschools. It is expected that students at this level would acquire in typing speed than the boys, with 10% of competent girls againstknowledge and competencies in basic computer operations and 6% of the boys and 11% of highly competent girls as against 5%that teachers would show meaningful progress in pedagogical ap- of the boys. A greater percentage of boys (6%) showed compe-plication of computer-based training tools. The aim of the study tence in simple excel operations with 4% of them showing highwas to investigate the status by gender of Computer-Based Train- competence against 1% of highly competent the girls. with. Again,ing (CBT) in Senior Science Schools in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria, a greater percentage of boys (4% boys against 1% girls) showedwith specific focus on science students’ acquisition of basic com- competence in simple Corel Draw operations. Only 26% and 12%puter skills and Science teachers’ pedagogical applications of ICT of teachers indicated frequent use of computer in students’ practi-training tools. Research questions formulated to guide the study cal lessons and for class information management respectively,were 1.) What is the status by gender of senior science school among other lesser rates of usage. Gender analysis of teachers’students in basic computer operations? 2.) What is the status by pedagogical application of Computer-Based Training Tools indicat-gender of science teachers in pedagogical application of com- ed that, greater percentages of the male teachers frequently usedputer-based training tools in senior science school of AKS? The computer based tools than their female counterparts. Inclusion ofstudy adopted a survey research design. Validated and reliable ICT contents in teachers’ training curricula with clear and definitequestionnaire with four-points rating scale and CBT Competency policy for ICT curriculum for all levels of teachers training as wellAssessment Test were used as research instruments. The popula- as adequate and periodic training of secondary school teacherstion of the study was estimated at 6,870 and sample size of 700 on use of computer software to enhance their pedagogical appli-subjects was drawn, using stratified random sampling technique cations of ICT training tools is recommended.on existing districts. Percentages and means were used for data Key words: Computer-Based-Training, Computer-Based Traininganalysis. The findings indicated that greater percentages of the Tools, pedagogical applications, Secondary Education
    • Regional Conference of the 108 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)PostersAcademic Glass Ceiling of Sex Abuseon Nigerian Secondary School Girls:Breakage Possible?* Okon, Uduakobong A, **Ekpa, Uwem O, Okon ***Ukemeobong A.* Dept of Vocational Education, University of Uyo, AKS. Nigeria.** Institute of Education University of Calabar, Cross River State Nigeria.*** Bethesda Family Clinic, A. Close, Festac Town, Lagos. Nigeria.e- mail: apageste@yahoo.comV ictims of Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) in most cases are psy- tion, Health, and Social Welfare, on remedial strategies for Child chologically, socially, physiological, economically and aca- Sexual Abuse. The survey employed descriptive and comparative demically battered. These negative effects are conceived research designs. The population of the study was estimated atby the researchers as ‘a Glass Ceiling’ to social and academic 9,525. The sample of the study was made up 952 secondary schoolprogress of abused girls. The aim of this survey was to investigate girls within the age bracket of 9 to 17 years. Multi-stage clusterthe prevalence of sexual abuse and its effects on academic prog- proportionate random sampling was used to draw the sampleress of secondary school girls and determined some possible mea- based on the three clans in Uyo urban, tagged Clan A, B and C). Insures to control child sexual abuse based on prevalent situations each clan, two secondary schools were randomly selected usingin Nigeria. The objectives were to 1.) determine the prevalence of hat and draw method and the names of the schools were not dis-sexual abuse among secondary school girls within different age closed. A team of education and health professionals validated theranges, 2.) compared academic performances in science subjects instruments. Test re-test reliability proof of the instrument usingbetween abused and non abused girls, and 3.) determine remedial Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) indicated 0.88. Datastrategies to control sexual abuse on secondary school girls in was analyzed using Percentage, Mean and Independent t- test .Uyo urban. The research is very significant as its results exposed The findings reveal that girls within ages of 15 to 17 years werethe extents of sexual abuse on high school girls and also provides mostly abused with 71% prevalent rate. 61% of girls within 12-relevant information to parents, guardians, governments, school 14years and 32% of girls within the age of 9 -12 were abused asadministrators, on measures to control of sexual abuse on sec- well. Significant difference in academic performances of abusedondary school girls, with a view to breaking the ‘academic ceil- and non abused girls was observed in favour of the non-abuseding’ over high school girls. Questionnaire instrument tagged ‘Lets ones @ 95% probability level. Findings of FGD indicated, leg-Know More About Our Community Not You’ with hidden identity islation against indulgence, provision of more hostels for femalewas used to elicit responses from secondary school girls on their students, encouraging religious and moral counseling in schools,experiences on sexual abuse. Focused group discussion (FGD) was early and yearly screening for abused girls among others strate-organized with a team of experts drawn from the field of Educa- gies as control measures for CSA.
    • Regional Conference of the 109 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Dirac Coupled Channel Analysis of theIntermediate Energy Inelastic Scatteringsfrom 12CSugie ShimDepartment of Physics, Kongju National University, Kongju, South Koreashim@kongju.ac.krD irac coupled channel analysis is performed for the inter- low lying excited states of ground state rotational band of the mediate energy inelastic scatterings of proton from the deformed nucleus and a irrational model for low lying 3- state, light, axially symmetric deformed nucleus of 12C using op- deformation lengths are obtained and compared with those of notical potential model. Dirac phenomenological scalar and time-like relativistic calculations. The energy dependence of the transitionvector optical potentials are obtained using sequential iteration potentials are calculated and analyzed. It is shown that the strongmethod. Microscopic relativistic impulse approximation optical coupling to low lying 2+ states improves the agreement with thepotentials are calculated theoretically by folding a modified rela- large angle experimental elastic differential cross section data fortivistic Hartree nuclear density with Lorentz invariant amplitudes. the phenomenological calculation.Using the first order rotational collective model to describe the
    • Regional Conference of the 110 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Modified Penna Model of BiologicalAging on a Square LatticeGi-OkKim1 and Sugie Shim21 Department of Physics, Woosuk University, Wanju-Gun, Jeonbuk, South Korea,2 Department of Physics, Kongju National University, Kongju, Chungnam, South Koreashim@kongju.ac.krW e implement the modified Penna bit-string model where It is shown that the over domination problem of the Verhulst fac- the reproducibility of each individual is determined by tor on the stationary population size is drastically improved when means of the number of activated mutations on a square we use the modified Penna model applied on the square lattice.lattice to study the evolution of the population in population biology. The survival rates is observed to be decreased more rapidly start-We calculated the changes in the spatial distribution according to ing at younger age, comparing to those of the same model withtime, the changes in the total number of individuals with time, the Verhulst factor. It is analyzed as that the environmental effect ofactivated mutation probability distribution with age, the average the Verhulst factor reduces the drastic changes caused by geneticactivation ages of each mutation and the survival rates accord- effect. In addition, we calculated the mortality and found that it ising to age using Monte-Carlo simulation, considering 1024-1024 increased exponentially as the individual grow older, satisfying thesquare lattice. The results of our calculations are compared with Gompertz law that agrees with the biological observations.the those of the same model with conventional Verhulst restriction.
    • Regional Conference of the 111 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES)Company ProfileShort History of OutokumpuO utokumpu takes its name from a town in the eastern part of are used in numerous applications – such as the construction in- Finland where a rich copper ore deposit was discovered in dustry, the automotive industry and equipment for the process 1910. Over the years Outokumpu has experienced a major industry. Wide and thick individually rolled quarto plates are usedtransformation, evolving from a mining and multi-metal company in the energy sector, chemical transportation, desalination, and into one of the world’s leading producers of stainless steel. applications such as pressure cylinders, tanks, thick-walled tubes, bridge structures and process equipment. Our tubes are mainly used in oil refining and the pulp and paper industries; bars are so-called long products, from which i.e. wire and reinforcement bars are manufactured.The company that today makes Outokumpu has a rich tradition.The Group’s history dates back to 1848 in Sheffield, where stain-less steel was invented around 1913. Harry Brearley found that Sustainability has always been – and continues to be – a keysteel that had been alloyed with a sufficiently high level of chromi- element of our strategy. Over the years, Outokumpu has beenum was not susceptible to attack from etching acids or moisture. a leader in environmental performance in the industrial sector.The Swedish firm Avesta purchased a licence to manufacture this Our commitment to the people who work for us – providing a safesteel, resulting in the first production of chromium alloy steel in workplace with opportunities for skills development – is a corner-Sweden in 1924. stone of our efforts to further improve the sustainability of ourOutokumpu – The Home of Stainless Steel operations. Sustainability is a continuing journey and the recogni- tion we receive for the Group’s performance in this area is en-Outokumpu is a global leader in stainless steel with a strong couraging. While we are pleased with the progress already made,customer focus. Customers in a wide range of industries use our more ambitious and demanding objectives for different aspects ofstainless steels and services worldwide. We are well known from sustainability are being set.our high quality, reliability, world-class technical support, researchand development. All of our major production sites are certifiedaccording to key environmental and quality standards. Our prod-ucts have relevant national and international certifications and au-thorisations. Outokumpu operates in more than 30 countries andis headquartered in Espoo, Finland.Stainless Steel Products The idea of sustainability is embedded in our product, stainlessWe produce a wide range of stainless steel products including hot steel - fully recyclable and maintenance free material. Sustainabil-and cold rolled, precision strip, tubular and stainless long products ity in our operations stands for safe and healthy workplace andtogether with a comprehensive range of stainless fittings, flanges continuous development of our processes to minimise the environ-and welding consumables. All our stainless products are available mental impact of stainless steel production. Corporate responsibil-in various grades, dimensions and surface finishes. ity is seen as an integral part of all operations, business processes and decision-making including economic, environmental and socialHot and cold rolled stainless steel sheets, plates and strips that aspects and their impacts on different stakeholders.
    • Regional Conference of the 112 International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES) Notes............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................