Regional Conference of the                                                                        International Network of...
Regional Conference of the                   International Network of Women Engineers  Scientists (INWES)ContentTheme: Wom...
Women at Work – A Balancing ACT	22                                                                Regional Conference of t...
Improvement in Turbidity of Drinking Water – Experience at Jusco Water Management	      Regional Conference of the        ...
Elevated Busways – An Alternate People Mover System	                                                    Regional Conferenc...
Renewable Energy – A Lower Environmental Impact	       Regional Conference of the                                         ...
The Experience of Women Engineers in a Male Dominated Profession and                   Regional Conference of the         ...
Regional Conference of the          International Network of Women Engineers  Scientists (INWES)Theme:Women in Science, En...
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Regional Conference of the     10          International Network of Women Engineers  Scientists (INWES)Women Entrepreneurs...
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Regional Conference of the 12        International Network of Women Engineers  Scientists (INWES)Women in Civil Engineerin...
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Regional Conference of the 14        International Network of Women Engineers  Scientists (INWES)Women in Water Sector :Ne...
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Regional Conference of the    16         International Network of Women Engineers  Scientists (INWES)PostersImpact of Home...
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Regional Conference of the 18        International Network of Women Engineers  Scientists (INWES)Theme :Effective Practice...
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Regional Conference of the 20        International Network of Women Engineers  Scientists (INWES)Flexible Working Patterns...
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Regional Conference of the    22         International Network of Women Engineers  Scientists (INWES)Women at Work – A Bal...
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Regional Conference of the 24        International Network of Women Engineers  Scientists (INWES)see what good practices c...
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Regional Conference of the 26        International Network of Women Engineers  Scientists (INWES)effectively:             ...
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  1. 1. Regional Conference of the International Network of Women Engineers Scientists (INWES)Abstracts
  2. 2. Regional Conference of the International Network of Women Engineers Scientists (INWES)ContentTheme: Women in Science, Engineering, Architecture and TechnologyFor Women Engineers – It is a Hilly Road and Not a Highway in Plain 8Dr. Vandana Bhatt, Ph.D, FIE, Adjunct Associate Professor, IIT BombayThe ‘Invisible Half’ – Recognizing Contribution of Women in Agriculture 9Dr. Purvi Mehta Bhatt, Head – Asia, International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)Women Entrepreneurs, Poverty Alleviation and Sustainable Development in Nigeria 10* Akpanobong, Uyai E, ** Usoro, Enoidem B * Assistant Lecturer, Dept. of Vocational Education, University of Uyo, Nigeria** Head of Department, Dept. of Vocational Education, University of Uyo, NigeriaIssues and Challenges for Women in Construction Industry in: Global as well as Indian perspective 11* Dr. Vanita Ahuja, **Mrs. Savita Kumari *Assistant Professor, School of Engineering, Gautam Buddha University,Greater Noida, India **Manager, Arbitration Division, Construction Industry Development Council, New Delhi, IndiaWomen in Civil Engineering 12Dr. Neelima Satyam D, Assistant Professor, Earthquake Engineering Research CentreInternational Institute of Information Technology Hyderabad Gachibowli, Hyderabad.Fisherwomen Participation in Coastal Eco-System of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala Tamil Nadu forSocio Economic Empowerment 13Vijaya Khader, Professor Mrs. Vijaya Khader, Former Dean, Faculty of Home Science, ANGRAU, Hyderabad Member,Board of Governor, Farm Rural Science Foundation (FRSF)Women in Water Sector : Need for a Revolution 14R.K.Khanna, Former Chief Engineer (Environment Management) Central Water CommissionWomen in Science Leadership and Sustainable Development 15Dr. (Mrs.) Malti GoelPostersImpact of Homestead Fish Pond Stocking Technologies: Field Experience on Women Farmers for Sustainable SkillAcquisition in Fish Culture in Nigeria 16* Udoh Fidela E. Okon, **Uduakobong Aniebiat (PhD), ***Igba, C. Elizabeth (PhD)*,** Department of Vocational Education Faculty of Education University of Uyo, Uyo. Akwa Ibom State Nigeria.*** Dept of Home Economics Eboyi State University, Delta State Nigeria.Role of Women Engineers and Scientists in Sustainable Development 17Aude Abena, Telecommunications Systems Engineer National Advanced School of Post and TelecommunicationsTheme : Effective Practices for Recruitment, Mentoring and Retention of WomenStrategies for Attracting, Motivating and Retaning Women Engineers and Scientists 18Dr. Sunil Abrol, President, Institute for Consultancy Productivity Research Former Director General, Consultancy Development CentreStrategies for Managing Work Life Balance 19Dr G S PattnaikFlexible Working Patterns and Work-Life Balance Amongst Female SoftwareEngineers in the Indian Information Technology Industry 20Dr. Jyothsna Latha Belliappa, Faculty – Liberal Arts Srishti School of Art Design and Technology“Small Group Support” for Attracting and Retaining Women in Science, Engineeringand Technology in the Busan, Ulsan and Gyeongnam Region of Korea 21Jung Sun Kim1 and Hye Young Park21 Division of Health Sciences, Dongseo University, Korea, 2Center for Gender Equality Family Policy, Ulsan Development Institute, Korea
  3. 3. Women at Work – A Balancing ACT 22 Regional Conference of theMs. Prabhati Bhattacharya1, P.E., Ms. Atasi Das2, Dr. Sudeshna Mitra3 International Network of Women Engineers Scientists (INWES)1 Project Manager, Consulting Engg. Services (India) Pvt. Ltd., Navi Mumbai2 General Manager cum Deputy HOD, Intercontinental Consultants Technocrats Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.3 Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Kharagpur, West Bengal.Research into Businesses in the USA, Australia and India that Recruit and Retain Women inEngineering and Technology Profession 23Margaret Ajibode CEng FBCS, Winston Churchill Fellow 2009, Director of the International Network of Women Engineers and ScientistsEffective Practices for Recruitment, Mentoring and Retention of Women in Science and Engineering Professions 25Namrata KapoorThe Role of Near Peer Mentoring in the Retention of Women and Girls in the Science Pipeline 27* Meghan Groome, *Ellis Rubinstein, *Stephanie Wortel *New York Academy of SciencesEmpowering Women in the World of Work: Tackling the Double Burden Problem in Russia 28Marina Baskakova, Irina Soboleva, Institute of Economy, Russian Academy of SciencesPostersThe Rural Woman as the Beast of Burden and Health Implications: 29Case of Oron, Oruk Anam and West Itam in Akwa Ibom StateJohnny, Adiha. S., Edyang-Ekpa, M., Edyang, Boma. , Ekpa, Victoria. B. University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Akwa Ibom State, NigeriaArchitecture as a Profession for Women in India 30Monicaa JaainManaging Work-Life Balance 31* Pooja Kapoor, **Priyanka Sethi, *Additional Chief Engineer, WAPCOS Limited **Deputy Manager, WAPCOS LimitedWomen in Science and Engineering 32Tatev TadevosyenTheme: Water and Waste ManagementVariation of Groundwater Static Levels in Nairobi City Since 1927 33Caroline K. Onyancha1, Eliud M. Mathu2, Sixtus K. Mwea3, Wilson M. Ngecu41 Civil and Structural Engineering Department, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, Kakamega2 Department of Geological Sciences South Eastern University College, Kitui, 3Department of Civil and Construction Engineering, University of Nairobi, Nairobi4 Department of Geology, University of Nairobi, NairobiDevelopment of Polyester Polyols from Recycled Poly (Ethylene Terephathate) for Coating Applications 34* Dr.Anagha Sabnis, *Mukesh Kathalewar, **Dr.V G Bhave, **Parag Raut* Department of Polymer Surface Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai, India. **Bhavans College, University of Mumbai.Application of Remote Sensing and GIS Technique in Runoff Estimation of a Catchment using SCS-CN Model 35Sneha Murmu1 and Sujata Biswas2 1Assistant Professor, Budge Budge Institute of Technology, Kolkata, West Bengal2 Assistant Professor, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, HowrahAssessment of Suitable Technology for Processing of MSW of Urban India 36Dr Seema AwasthiBehaviour of Concrete with Pond Ash – Thermal Power Plant Waste as Constituent – Durability Perspectives 37Bharathi Ganesh1, H.Sharada Bai2, R.Nagendra3, Netravathi K S41 Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Global Academy of Technology, 2Professor, Faculty of Engineering – Civil, Bangalore University, Bangalore3 Technical Director, Civil Aid Technoclinic Pvt. Ltd, Bangalore, 4Design Engineer, EI Tech Pvt. Ltd. BangaloreVirus Pollution of Indian Surface Water: Health Risk Estimation and Issues Identification 38Divya Singh1, Arun Kumar2* 1Graduate Student, 2Assistant Professor Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology New Delhi, IndiaElectrochemical Oxidation of Textile Dye Wastewater Using Different Electrodes 39Mahaveer Devoor1, Rekha H B2, Usha N Murthy3 1PG Student, 2Assistant Professor, 3Professor, Department of Civil Engineering,UVCE, Bangalore University, Bangalore, Karnataka.
  4. 4. Improvement in Turbidity of Drinking Water – Experience at Jusco Water Management Regional Conference of the 40 Uma Ramna, Pranay Sinha G S Basu, Jamshedpur Utilities Services Company Ltd. International Network of Women Engineers Scientists (INWES)Environmental Influence on Macrobenthic Invertebrate Distribution in Mbo River, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria 42* Essien-Ibok, Mandu. A., **Umoh, I. A., ***Okoko, Atim C* ** Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, University of Uyo, Nigeria ***Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Agricultureand Natural Resources, Akwa Ibom State. Nigeria.Sensors for Smart Water Management 43Sudakshina BanerjeeWaste is Not Waste 44C. K. Sharma, Certified Energy Auditor Chief Executive Consulting Engineers, Gurgaon, Haryana, India.Coconut Shell – A Potential Source to Remove Iron from Contaminated Groundwater 45Mausumi Raychaudhuri, S. Raychaudhuri, Sucheta Mohanty and Ashwani Kumar, Directorate of Water Management, Bhubaneswar, Odisha.Implications of Anaerobic Condition on Carbon Sequestration in Wetland Sediments 46Susmita Mukherjee Phanibhusan Ghosh, Institute of Engineering management, Kolkata.PostersDevelopment of Novel Biotechnological Approaches for Remediation of Contaminated sites 47Irina Shtangeeva, St. Petersburg University, Universitetskaya nab., 7/9, St. Petersburg 199034 RussiaIntegrated Water Resources Management – A Framework for Action 48R K Khanna, Former Chief Engineer (Environment Management) Central Water Commission New Delhi.Environmental Management of River Valley Projects 49R K Khanna, Former Chief Engineer (Environment Management) Central Water Commission New Delhi.Accumulation of Arsenics in Environmental Samples and Application of a Novel Analytical Method 50Jinsung An1 Mihye Kong1 Hye-On Yoon1* 1Korea Basic Science Institute“On Water” One Pot Synthesis of Tetrazole Substituted 3-Hydroxy Oxindole Derivatives with Quaternary Centres 51Sai Prathima P, CSIR-SRFOzone Based Wastewater Treatment Solutions 52Dhanya Hegde, 7th semester, Bachelor of Engineering ( Visvesvaraya Technological University)Department of Electronics and Communication, S.C.T. institute of engineering.Household waste Management in India: Role of Women in Solving the Issue 53Renuka Saroha and Chandan KhannaTheme: Greening the Infrastructure, Sustainable Transport, Renewable Energy,Training for Green Jobs and Green Buildings and ProjectsSustainable Transport for Indian Cities 54Dr. Geetam TiwariGreen Infrastructure: Opportunities for Environmental, Social and Economic Sustainability 55Dr Poonam Ahluwalia, Senior Manager (Environment), TATA Consulting Engineers LimitedGreening the Infrastructure using Wastes from Thermal Power Plant as Sustainable Construction Material 56Bharathi Ganesh, Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Global Academy of TechnologyDesign and construction of solar passive silkworm rearing house:A demonstration project for sericulture farmers in South India 57Minni Sastry, Fellow and Area Convenor, Centre for Research on Sustainable Building Services, TERI- Southern Regional CentreA Sustainable Model for Developmental Project Management and Green Job Opportunities 58Dr. Ravindra Kaur, Environmental ConsultantSafer-Greener Highways: An Integrated Approach 59Atasi Das and Shilpa Bajpai, ICT Pvt. Ltd. A-8 Green Park. New Delhi
  5. 5. Elevated Busways – An Alternate People Mover System Regional Conference of the 60 International Network of Women Engineers Scientists (INWES)Jyoti C Ubhayakar, Vice President Head- Design and Development, Geodesic Techniques P Ltd., BangaloreManaging Field Work in Infrastructure Projects 61Amita Bhatnagar, Principal Consultant, STUP Consultants Pvt. Ltd. New DelhiControl of Wind Induced Vibration in Transmission Line Towers by the Tuned Liquid Column Damper 62Dr. Aparna (Dey) Ghosh1, Jyotirmoy Dutta Majumdar2 1Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineeering,Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah, India. 2Former Postgraduate Student, Department of Civil Engineering,Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah, India.Green Buildings and Projects 63Ar. Indu GuptaSustainable Transport 64Koneru Bhavani, Chief Engineering Manager, LT Construction, ChennaiInorganic - Organic Composite Materials for Thermoelectric Applications 65Dipali Banerjeea, Krishanu Chatterjeea, Palash Dharab, Kajari Karguptab, Saibal Gangulyca Department of Physics, Bengal Engineering Science University, Shibpur, Howrah India , bDepartment of Chemical Engineering, Jadavpur University,Kolkata, India, cChemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, MalaysiaDamage Assessment of Structures using Experimental and Analytical Techniques 66B.Prakruthi Gowd1, Neethu Urs2, Dr.M.N.Hegde3, 1PG student, Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering,Bengaluru, Karnataka.2 Asst. Professor, Civil Engineering, Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering, Bengaluru, Karnataka.3 Professor, Civil Engineering, Dr.Ambedkar Institute of Technology,Bengaluru, Karnataka.Energy in the Construction and Maintenance of Buildings 67B. Surekha1, M.N. Hegde2 and K.S. Jagadish3, 1Research Scholar, Bangalore2 Professor, Civil Engineering, Dr. Ambedkar Institute of Technology, Bangalore, 3Professor, P G Programme, RV College of Engineering, BangaloreBuilding the Green Building 68Smrithy Sasidharan, Engineer Production Planning Vatson Foams India Pvt. LtdPostersResearch and Development Progresses of Solar Thermal Energy in South Korea 69Jeong Kyun Seo, Junseok Ko, Yong-Ju Hong, Seong-Je Park, Hyobong Kim, Hankil Yeom, Deuk-Yong KohKorean Institute of Machinery and Materials Daejeon, KoreaAn Analysis of Heat Transfer Characteristics in Solar Thermal Concentration for PTC 70Jeong Kyun Seo, Junseok Ko, Yong-Ju Hong, Seong-Je Park, Hyobong Kim, Hankil Yeom, Deuk-Yong KohKorean Institute of Machinery and Materials Daejeon, KoreaEnvironment-friendly and Energy Saving HVAC in Building using Biomimicry 71Jeong Kyun Seo, Junseok Ko, Yong-Ju Hong, Seong-Je Park, Hyobong Kim, Hankil Yeom, Deuk-Yong KohKorean Institute of Machinery and Materials Daejeon, KoreaTheme: Effect of Orientation of Rectangular Opening on the Infill Stresses in Infilled Rein-forced Concrete FramesLinear Analysis of Infilled Reinforced Concrete Frames with Window Openings under Combined Lateral and Gravity Load 72Ms. Sahana T.S.1, Dr. B. P Annapurna2, 1PG student UVCE, Bangalore University, Bangalore, 2Associate Professor,UVCE, Bangalore University, BangaloreTechnologies and Materials in Road Construction in LCA Perspective 73Kirti Bhandari1, Shweta Gaur2, S Gangopadhyay3 , 1Senior Scientist, Environmental Science Division, Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi.2 Research Intern, Environmental Science Division, Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi., 3Director, Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi.PostersSustainable Transport – An Eco Friendly Transport Environment 74Arockia Catherin. M, VI semester, M.Sc (Int.), Department of Biological Sciences, School of Natural Sciences, Bangalore University.
  6. 6. Renewable Energy – A Lower Environmental Impact Regional Conference of the 75 S.B.Chethna, VI Semester, M.Sc (Int.),of Womenof Biological Sciences, School of Natural Sciences, Bangalore University, Bangalore. International Network Department Engineers Scientists (INWES)Energy Audit: A Tool to Reduce Carbon Footprint of Energy 76Kirti Bhandari1, Shweta Gaur2, S Gangopadhyay3,1 Senior Scientist, Environmental Science Division, Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi.,2 Research Intern, Environmental Science Division, Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi, 3Director, Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi.Greening the Infrastructure- Sustainable Transport 77Deepali Gupta, ECE , 3rd year, IGIT, IP University, DelhiA Comparison of Indoor-Outdoor Particulate Matter Relationship between aGreen Building and Conventional Buildings in Delhi 79Isha Khanna, Krishna Malakar, Suresh Jain, Department of Natural Resources, TERI University, Vasant Kunj, New DelhiHealth Diagnosis of Rc Beams with and without Opening of Different Size, Shape and Location 80Geetha L1, Neethu Urs2, Dr. M. N. Hegde3, 1PG student, Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering, Bengaluru, Karnataka2 Sr. Lecturer, Civil Engineering, Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering, Bengaluru, Karnataka3 Professor, Civil Engineering, Dr. Ambedkar Institute of Technology, Bengaluru, KarnatakaOptimization of Steel Truss using Genetic Algorithms 81Sharada.P.N1 and R.Shanthi Vengadeshwari2, 1Lecturer, Dept.of CivilEngg, SJCIT, Chickballapur, Karnataka.2 Sr. Lecturer, Dept.ofCivilEngg, DSCE, Bangalore, Karnataka.Towards Sustainable Urban Transport 82Kamini Gupta, Dr. Ravinder Kumar Dr. Nishi Mittal, Traffic Engineering Safety Division, Central Road Research Institute, New DelhiSustainable Transport – Practices, Policies and Adaptability 83Prabhati Bhattacharya, P.E.1, Avijit Maji, P.E., Ph.D.2, Project Manager, Consulting Engg. Services(India) Pvt. Ltd. Vashi, Navi MumbaiTransportation Design Engineer, Maryland State Highway Administration Hanover, MarylandMicroGrids: The Operation of the Grid 84MamtaChamoli, Assistant Professor, Manav Rachna International University FaridabadRole of Nanotechnology in Renewable Energy 85Maitri. M, VI Sem, M.Sc (Int.), Department of Biological Sciences, School of Natural Sciences, Bangalore UniversityUse of Bio-Fuel in Transportation Sector: A Step Towards the use of Green Renewable Enegy and Better Environment 86Dr (Miss) Shobha Lata Sinha, Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, G E Road, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, IndiaPower Quality Assessment using Artificial Neural Network 87S.Gupta, Associate Professor, National Institute of Technology, G E Road, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, IndiaTheme : Knowledge Management and Women Entrepreneurship, Innovation and LeadershipConversational Leadership: Creating Global Architectures for the Success of Women Leaders 88Lana Fountain Flakes, S.T.E.M Association Leader Reliability Engineering (Independent Contractor/ Consultant)Untapping Talent with a Strategic Resource Approach 89Yvette Ramos, President, Swiss Engineering, Geneva SectionReinforcing African Women Engineers and Scientists Capacities in ICT 90Issié Yvone GUEYE, Cote d’Ivoire, Ex INWES Director for French Speaking Africa Representative of Côte d’Ivoire for WFEOtPresident of NAWES (Network of African Women Engineers and Scientists)Information Technology as a Tool for Empowering Nigerian Women for Leadership 91Udofia, Emem P1 , Etim2 ImaObong A., Shabi, Iwok N. 3, 1Department Of Educational Technology and Library Science, University Of Uyo, Nigeria2 University Of Uyo Library, Nigeria, 3Obafemi Awolowo University Library, Ile-Ife, NigeriaYoung Women Engineer: How to Influence Positively your world? 92Reine Essobmadje, Owner-Manager at Evolving Consulting France Cameroon“Women in Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Leadership” 93 Parul DesaiAfter Sensitizing, Action! 94Mrs. Aude Abena, Telecommunications systems Engineer, National advanced school of post and telecommunications
  7. 7. The Experience of Women Engineers in a Male Dominated Profession and Regional Conference of the Their Life Values – An Australian Perspective International Network of Women Engineers Scientists (INWES) 95Susan Lee Fenton, Fenton Partners Pty Ltd., Melbourne, Victoria, AustraliaPostersSelf Actualization of Career Aspirations for Learning Science/Technology Courses andFemale Students’ Entrepreneurial Skill Acquisition 961 Dr. Ekukinam, Thelma U., (Ph.D), 2Dr. Udosen, Idongesit N.,(Ph.D)1 Department of Educational Technology/Library Science 2Faculty of Education, University of UyoPerception of Impact of Donor Agencies on the Socio Economic Wellbeing of Fisherfolks in Southeast Nigeria 97* Okoko, Atim C., **Udoh, James P, *Fisheries Department, Ministry of Agriculture, Uyo, Nigeria. **Department of Fisheries Aquaculture, University of Uyo, Nigeria.Theme: Women in Academics: Breaking the Glass CeilingThe Glass Ceiling: A Myth or Reality 98Prof. Nupur Prakash, Principal, Indira Gandhi Institute of Technology, GGS Indraprastha University, DelhiSensitizing Teachers to Gender Issues in Sciences Classes: Can it Help Encourage Girls to Sciences? 100Liette Vasseur1, Claire Deschênes2, Jeanne d’Arc Gaudet3 and Louise Lafortune41 Dept. Biol. Sci., Brock University, 500 Glenridge Avenue, St Catharines, 2Département de génie mécanique, Université Laval.3 Faculté des sciences de l’éducation, Université de Moncton, 4Département des sciences de l’éducation, Université du Québec à Trois-RivièresWomen and Academics: Breaking the Glass Ceiling 101Shruti Gandhi, Indira Gandhi Institute of TechnologyAre Women Engineers Discriminated? 102Seema Singh, Associate Professor in Economics Department of Humanities Delhi Technological University DelhiInhibitions to Careers in Science and Technology andDifferentiated Mentoring Approach for Nigerian Secondary School Girls 103* Nwosu, Stella N. (PhD.) , **Etiubon, Rebecca U. (PhD.), ***Udofia, Theresa M.* Department of Educational Technology, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Uyo. ******Department of Science Education, University of Uyo, A.K.S. NigeriaChanges in the Architecture of Sperm Cell Membrane, Leading to Syngamy 104Kaiser Jamil, Past President- TWOWS (now OWSD) Dean and Director, School of life Sciences,Centre for Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Secunderabad, A.P, India.Role of CSIR-CRRI Women Scientists and Engineers in RD Achievements 105Neelima Chakrabarty, Kamini Gupta, Nishi MittalLearning from Experience – European Efforts to Improve the Situation of Women in Science Technology 106and Research – Lessons Learnt from the GENDERA Project (FP7)Judith Abrahami, PhD, ORT Braude College, Karmiel, IsraelGender Analysis of Computer-Based Training and Nigerian Secondary Education System: 107Case of Senior Science Schools in Akwa Lbom State* Uduakobong A. Okon (PhD.), **Godwin A. Akpan (PhD.), ***Aniefiok E. Udofia (PhD.) Faculty of Education, University of Uyo, Nigeria***, ***,PostersAcademic Glass Ceiling of Sex Abuse on Nigerian Secondary School Girls: Breakage Possible? 108* Okon, Uduakobong A, **Ekpa, Uwem O, Okon ***Ukemeobong A.* Dept of Vocational Education, University of Uyo, AKS. Nigeria. **Institute of Education University of Calabar, Cross River State Nigeria.*** Bethesda Family Clinic, A. Close, Festac Town, Lagos. Nigeria.Dirac Coupled Channel Analysis of the Intermediate Energy Inelastic Scatterings from 12C 109Sugie Shim, Department of Physics, Kongju National University, Kongju, South KoreaModified Penna Model of Biological Aging on a Square Lattice 110Gi-OkKim1 and Sugie Shim21 Department of Physics, Woosuk University, Wanju-Gun, Jeonbuk, South Korea,2 Department of Physics, Kongju National University, Kongju, Chungnam, South KoreaCompany ProfileShort History of Outokumpu 111
  8. 8. Regional Conference of the International Network of Women Engineers Scientists (INWES)Theme:Women in Science, Engineering, Architecture and TechnologyFor Women Engineers – It is aHilly Road and Not a Highway in PlainDr. Vandana Bhatt,Ph.D, FIE, Adjunct Associate Professor, IIT Bombayedoncenter@technolegal.orgW hen I received the invitation to participate in the semi- job. I knew somewhere I have to begin and I must continue to be nar related to Women Engineers, I thought it proper to on my own with a promise that organization will not be dominated use such platform for sharing the experience and evolve by men and I am successfully practising as a Consultant, besidesstrategies for betterment of Women Engineers. Each one of us has being an Adjunct Associate Professor at IIT, Bombay.a small epic to narrate that we have fought all the way to achieveour desire. Of course, I do not belong to struggling decades and We must be determined to make our adventure a success. Wecenturies, when women practicing and working in men’s domain, should began being little different, we shall be continued to bewere considered masculine. However, I do belong to the era, discriminated. I have one message for Women Engineerswhen I came out from an exclusive vernacular school meant forgirls only. This curious arrangement of “Girls Only” educational “I must look for no support and I must believe in that Iinstitution, hardly prepares us for rough and tough career of pro- have done what most of the girls cannot dream of doing.”fessional and practising Engineers. The story of success should be an inspiration for a female, whoLike most of us, I too wanted to prove myself I could be different. wants to join the profession. This society of Women EngineersMy family, to begin with, had no idea about my tenacity and ap- must provide the platform to share about the experience, discussplication. I was admitted to Women’s University (SNDT) in Arts the problems and work out the solutions. We need to be unitedfaculty. It was my love for numbers and formulas while helping and supportive in the cause of Women Engineers. Our societymy relative with preparation of bill for Engineering works that he should not restrict the membership only to Engineers as it is notrecommended me for admission to Polytechnic for Diploma in Civil meant for academic enhancement and, therefore, I want to rubEngineering. I was glad, my flair for numbers and formulas helped the shoulders with lawyers, doctors and administrators so thatme to go through the entire course without losing first rank. This we can evaluate our handicap in proper perspective and work forqualified me for a graduation and later on for Master in Engineer- overall upliftment of our personalities for having achieved some-ing topping the list at the University of Bombay. thing.I was taking a shape and I got selected for a Class-I job in Govt. Progressively, I am glad, we are meeting more and more of wom-of India. The nightmare began. My colleagues exhibited strange en in the leadership bracket in their enthusiasm to compete withcomplex. Senior Engineer male colleagues would be uncoopera- males. Let them find time to motivate and push ahead others. Lettive and hostile to prove that I was only good at answering the us be successful women professionally. While we look certainlyexamination papers. Oblique insults and sarcastic remarks suffo- ahead and forward, we need to look around.cated me and one fine day, I resigned to teach at my Polytechnic.It was so sober and simple. However, when it came to selection In this context, I am under an obligation to pamper and motivateand making a choice for the special recognition, it was very dif- girl students for taking up Engineering career and I only engageficult for these academicians to recognize my inputs and efforts. Women Engineers in my team as a Consultant. I reiterate, weAnd once again, I faced the same situation as I faced in my earlier have made success.
  9. 9. Regional Conference of the International Network of Women Engineers Scientists (INWES)The ‘Invisible Half’ – RecognizingContribution of Women in AgricultureDr. Purvi Mehta BhattHead – Asia, International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)r.oli@cgiar.orgI n recent times, economic, social and constitutional develop- two decades. In most regions where farming has not intensified, ments have led to landmark achievements on the road to we closely observe a phenomenon of ‘feminization of agriculture gender equality in India. And yet, persistence of patriarchal ‘where women play an increasingly important role in agriculturenorms within south Asian culture and society means that women and work spanning, from cultivating field crops, to livestock rear-still continue to face discrimination in many areas of their lives. ing, gardening, gathering, and fishing. A woman’s command and knowledge of farming, particularly in livestock management,By examining the Indian agricultural sector, one can clearly see should not be underestimated. Out of the 22 million people involvedboth the progress that has been made so far and the obstacles re- in animal husbandry in India, over 16 million are women2. Thesemaining. Several effective laws, policies, and initiatives guarantee women are important drivers of economic and ecological sustain-the protection and empowerment of women farmers across the ability: their strategies diverse and their minds a rich source ofcountry. For example in some states, such as Ladakh and Megha- indigenous knowledge. And, yet, women farmers are among thelaya, women control family policy and enjoy full inheritance rights1. most isolated people in the country – physically, socially, and eco-Moreover, the Government of India’s Directorate of Research on nomically. In stark contrast to their contribution to rural suste-Women in Agriculture and Planning Commission Gender and Ag- nance economies, women in these farming communities are oftenriculture Sub-group ensure better representation of women and hit hardest by poverty and implications of climate change. Manyconsideration of gender issues during decision-making activities, do not share equal rights to property and land, and suffer fromincluding drafting and assessment of the Government’s Five Year restricted access to agriculture services and information, educa-Plans. tion and healthcare facilities. Furthermore, women often have the additional responsibility of household and family.Despite the progress that has been made, general recognitionand appreciation for women’s contribution to agriculture in this More attention needs to be paid to the pivotal role women play incountry still leaves much to be desired. While women play an un- feeding the population of India. Better acknowledgement will, indisputedly important role in farming, accounting for close to 60 to turn, lead to a paradigm shift at policy and social level. Women’s70 percent of all agricultural activities, the face of farming in India role in agriculture and food security must remain in the limelightis stereotypically male. Poverty, discrimination and lack of aware- for necessary changes to take effect. We must strive to ensureness negatively impact the livelihoods of millions of women in that men and women farmers receive equal rights and dividesustenance economies. Thus remains an urgent call for increased responsibilities so that women in rural India can be relieved ofunderstanding, acknowledgement and empowerment of women the disproportionately heavy burden they carry at present. Morefarmers and their role in agriculture. capacity building and training programs should be developed to empower women and equip them with the right skills to stand upWith rapid expansion of India’s economy, and with more and for their rights and engage in development processes, and to sen-more men shifting from farm life to off-farm jobs, women’s role sitize communities on gender issues.in the agriculture sector has changed dramatically over the past1 P.Mehta, The ‘Invisible Half’ – Recognizing Contribution of Women in Agriculture Only by fully recognizing the ‘invisible’ half shall we be able to2 D. Thaker M.Chander, Gender Factor in Access to Livestock-based Information meet the challenges of a vision in which men and women sharein India [April, 2012] equal rights and responsibilities in the Indian agricultural sector.
  10. 10. Regional Conference of the 10 International Network of Women Engineers Scientists (INWES)Women Entrepreneurs, Poverty Alleviationand Sustainable Development in Nigeria* Akpanobong, Uyai E, ** Usoro, Enoidem B* Assistant Lecturer, Dept. of Vocational Education, University of Uyo, Nigeria** Head of Department, Dept. of Vocational Education, University of Uyo, Nigeriaapageste@yahoo.comT he position of women and their status in any society is an women entrepreneurs in poverty alleviation and national develop- index of its civilization. Women are to be considered as equal ment. Data collection was done using a structured questionnaire, partners in the process of development. For reasons of cen- Women Entrepreneurs and National Development (WEND). Pear-turies of exploitation and subjugation, Nigerian women have re- son Product Moment Correlation Co-efficient analysis was used inmained at the receiving end. They have not been actively involved testing the hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level. The results indicatedin the mainstream of development even though they represent a a significant relationship between women entrepreneurs, povertylarge proportion of the population and labour force. This paper alleviation and sustainable national development. Based on theexamines the impact of women entrepreneurs in poverty allevia- findings, it was concluded that Nigerian women entrepreneurstion and sustainable national development. The population of the impact significantly on sustainable development of the country. Itstudy comprised women entrepreneurs in the Niger Delta Region was recommended, among others, that women in Nigeria shouldof Nigeria, totaling 120. The purposive sampling technique was be encouraged to engage actively in entrepreneurial activitiesused. Two null hypotheses were formulated based on the role of through enlightenment and empowerment.
  11. 11. Regional Conference of the 11 International Network of Women Engineers Scientists (INWES)Issues and Challenges for Women inConstruction Industry in: Global as well asIndian perspective* Dr. Vanita Ahuja, **Mrs. Savita Kumari* Assistant Professor, School of Engineering, Gautam Buddha University, Greater Noida, Indiavanita_ahuja@yahoo.com** Manager, Arbitration Division, Construction Industry Development Council, New Delhi, INDIAsavita_kb@yahoo.comC onstruction activity is an integral part of a country’s infra- Today, India is one of the fastest growing economies in the world. structure and industrial development. Globally, the con- Indian construction industry, the second largest industry of the struction industry contributes about 1/3 of gross capital country after agriculture is an integral part of the economy and aformation and is an important vehicle for economic development. conduit for a substantial part of its development investment. How-It contributes to seven per cent of total world employment and 28 ever, similar to the global phenomenon, it is facing a huge short-per cent of industrial employment. age of workforce, especially those with skill-sets. The strength of skilled workforce has dwindled substantially, whereas relativeThe construction industry is typically a male dominated industry proportions of unskilled workers have gone up. To make up thisand presents a major challenge for equal opportunities for women. shortage, it becomes imperative to convert semi-skilled or un-Globally, women remain a rare sight on the job sites. In developed skilled women workers into skilled workers at site and increasecountries like USA, about 3 percent of construction laborers are the number of women workers in managerial positions. This re-women, 1.5 percent of carpenters and operating engineers are quires looking into the issues that deter women from working infemale, while 9.5 percent of construction engineers are women. the construction industry and creating an awareness and under-In UK, women constitute 50% of the total workforce, but they still standing tha status of women in the society is an important factorconstitute only 9% of the construction industry work force. In de- affecting the overall development of a country.veloping countries like India, women constitute more of unskilledworkforce at sites. Their presence in managerial positions is very This paper presents the study of status of women in the globalminimal. Thus lack of women in construction has been a concern construction industry and issues to be looked into to increase thefor many years now and studies have been conducted to look into number of women in the construction workforce. This is a part ofthe issues leading to this situation and the measures to be taken the study being conducted for a PhD thesis in this area. Though thein this regard. But, in recent times this issue has become more paper discusses issues with respect to global perspective, focus isprominent due to the potential skill shortage facing the industry. on the Indian construction industry.
  12. 12. Regional Conference of the 12 International Network of Women Engineers Scientists (INWES)Women in Civil EngineeringDr. Neelima Satyam DAssistant Professor, Earthquake Engineering Research CentreInternational Institute of Information Technology HyderabadGachibowli, Hyderabad, Email: neelima.satyam@iiit.ac.inC ivil engineering is one of the oldest branches of engineer- rent engineers faced at work was the lack of clarity in the goals, ing which includes planning, design, construction, and op- objectives, and responsibilities in their work roles and these role eration of facilities essential to modern life, ranging from related barriers were related to a diminished sense of satisfac-transit systems to offshore structures to space satellites. Civil tion with their jobs and careers. Research has shown that lackengineers are problem solvers, meeting the challenges of pollu- of clarity regarding job roles and expectations can create tensiontion, traffic congestion, drinking water and energy needs, urban and stress for employees and negatively affect their satisfaction.redevelopment, and community planning. Our future as a nation A variety of personal and organizational factors lie behind cur-will be closely tied to space, energy, the environment, and our rent women civil engineers’ career success. For example, currentability to interact with and compete in the global economy. Women women engineers who expressed high levels of satisfaction within civil engineering will perform a vital role in linking these themes their careers were likely to have received ample opportunities forand improving quality of life. If we forget or underestimate the training and development, felt supported by their supervisors, co-value of women who are working hard for their careers in tough workers, and their organizations and perceived avenues for fur-and effort consuming disciplines such as civil engineering, then ther advancement within the company. These women had clear,the competitiveness of our construction industry in both the na- identifiable set of task goals, responsibilities, and expectations totional and international arenas will advance at a slower rate. work with; they also felt confident in their abilities to navigate theWomen who are currently working in engineering have to face and political landscape in their companies and manage multiple lifecontend with a variety of barriers that dampen their satisfaction role responsibilities. Furthermore, successful women engineerswith their jobs and careers. One of the biggest barriers that cur- reported working in companies that supported their efforts.
  13. 13. Regional Conference of the 13 International Network of Women Engineers Scientists (INWES)Fisherwomen Participation in CoastalEco-System of Andhra Pradesh,Karnataka, Kerala Tamil Nadufor Socio Economic EmpowermentVijaya KhaderProfessor Mrs. Vijaya Khader, Former Dean, Faculty of Home Science, ANGRAU, HyderabadMember, Board of Governor, Farm Rural Science Foundation (FRSF)W omen play a vital role in the operation of India’s fish- by 44.9% of the respondents who had availed loans mostly from eries, which provide needed protein for the country’s non-institutional sources. people as well as seafood exports. The contributionsof the fisherwomen penetrate every aspect of post-harvest han- Much of India’s national food security rests on the shoulders ofdling, preservation, processing and marketing of seafood products its fisherwomen. Affording comprehensive care for these womenand provide an integral link between producers and consumers. is correct in principle and a practical necessity if India’s fisher-Increased competition, declining resources and difficult working ies sector is to be satisfactorily sustained and the fisher womenconditions make their work challenging. empowered, both socially and economically. This can only be done through education about nutrition, health, sanitation, andWomen, who constitute approximately half of India’s population, child care, and training on current technologies and best practicesplay vital role in the operation of the fisheries and their continuing techniques.growth as a component of the agriculture sector of the economy. Education materials viz., CDs, Flash Cards, Pamphlets, BrochuresThe study was carried out in the coastal areas of Andhra Pradesh, and Folders on health and hygiene, disaster management and in-Karnataka, Kerala and Tamilnadu. From these states, 13 districts come generation activities developed to create awareness. Twoand 28 villages were selected. A total of 5,744 households were equipments namely Low cost Ice Cream Freezer and multipurposecovered. The assessment of the socio economic status indicated fresh fish vending and display table fabricated received patentsthat very few households (15.41%) maintained livestock for in- and licensed the technology to an woman entrepreneur.come generation. About 60 per cent of the fisherwomen carriedout post-harvest activities to earn income. Food expenditure com- Key words: fisherwomen, processing, post harvest handling, lowprised 60.68% of the earned income contributing to the major cost ice cream freezer, multipurpose fresh fish vending and dis-share of the spending. Debt servicing was serious problem faced play table
  14. 14. Regional Conference of the 14 International Network of Women Engineers Scientists (INWES)Women in Water Sector :Need for a RevolutionR.K.KhannaFormer Chief Engineer (Environment Management)Central Water Commissionkhanna_env@yahoo.comW oman, the carrier and giver of life to the human spe- with the men and (ii) the front activities of agriculture viz sowing cies and water, the essential ingredient and symbol of and ploughing etc are done by men. life, are two universals, without which life cannot exist.Both need to be healthy for mankind and the planet in general, to In realm of transfer of management to farms, the women folkprosper and survive. No wonder, vedic hymns have praised most should be made to play a definite and distinctive role which will goof the rivers as goddesses. Women play a very significant role in a long way in making participatory irrigation management a suc-water sector. However, there is a need to make their role more cess. Similarly, their role needs to be strengthened in areas sucheffective. as drinking water supply and sanitation.Women play a crucial role in the water sector in India. As 83% Some steps have been initiated for women empowerment in theof the total water consumption in the country is used in irrigation country. However, there is a need to make concerted efforts ini.e. irrigated agriculture, women’s role in water sector assumes this direction so that their role in the water sector, which has beensignificance. However, their role in this regard, particularly the passive, unrecognized and behind the scenes can be made moreagriculture sector, is generally under estimated and undervalued. active , direct and recognized.The farm women have to shoulder a large chunk of agriculturalactivities which are multifarious. At the same time, they are home- The paper touches upon the role of women at global level whilemakers, cattle managers and laborers on farms. The relegated describing it in detail at the national level. It presents the needposition of women in agricultural sector is mainly because of two for reforms in this regard and the requisite steps needed to bereasons viz. (i) ownership of property and control of assets are taken.
  15. 15. Regional Conference of the 15 International Network of Women Engineers Scientists (INWES)Women in Science Leadership andSustainable DevelopmentDr. (Mrs.) Malti GoelT his paper describes social transformations taking place ences leadership much remains to be achieved. A study by Indian in the 21st century to support women participation in sci- National Science Academy had pointed out that less 4% women ence and sustainable development. Historically, women are Fellows in science or engineering academies in India. Daunt-have made important contributions and sacrifices for science, but ing environmental challenges faced by the mankind such as globalthere are a few women Nobel laureates in Science. In this context warming and climate change demand informed choices for sus-new policies and initiatives in India for gender enabling environ- tainability solutions. There is need for sharing information aboutment are discussed. Share of women in engineering colleges has their work, careers and how women can contribute towards envi-steadily increased from less than 1% in 1970s to 10% in 1990s ronmental leadership. The role of governance systems and timelyand 30% in 2010. Their visibility is improving in the corporate sec- communications in improving future prospects for women in sci-tor and on political scene. However, in sciences and applied sci- ence is discussed.
  16. 16. Regional Conference of the 16 International Network of Women Engineers Scientists (INWES)PostersImpact of Homestead Fish Pond StockingTechnologies: Field Experience on WomenFarmers for Sustainable Skill Acquisitionin Fish Culture in Nigeria* Udoh Fidela E. Okon, **Uduakobong Aniebiat (PhD), ***Igba, C. Elizabeth (PhD)*,** Department of Vocational Education Faculty of Education University of Uyo, Uyo.Akwa Ibom State Nigeria.*** Dept of Home Economics Eboyi State University, Delta State Nigeria.apageste@yahoo.comH omestead fish culture is a recent technology in Nigeria of 8weeks. It is anticipated that this would enhance sustainable fish raising fish in enclosures within the living quarters. Effec- production. Data on skill acquisition level were collected before and tive approach of imparting this innovation to women farm- after the expoure using Skill Acquisition Test Instrument (SATI).ers for skill acquisition in fish culture is disturbing. Therefore Data was analyzed using mean and t-test statistics. The resultsthis study was conducted to determine the impact of field prac- showed that exposing women to field experience was significantlytical experience on pond stocking technologies and women skill (t- 31.89. p0.05) associating with high level of skill acquisition inacquisition in homestead fish culture. Using a complete random- homestead fish culture. A group mean of 3.49 was also obtained.ized design, 200 registered women farmers with Akwa Ibom State It is recommended that skill acquisition in homestead fish cultureIntegrated Farming Scheme in Nigeria were exposed to theories should be imparted through integrating theories with field experi-and field practical experience on pond stocking technologies for ence to enhance skill acquisition among women farmers.
  17. 17. Regional Conference of the 17 International Network of Women Engineers Scientists (INWES)Role of Women Engineers and Scientistsin Sustainable DevelopmentAude AbenaTelecommunications Systems EngineerNational Advanced School of Post and Telecommunicationsaude_a_2000@yahoo.frT he goal of the international conference of the women engi- her course, so that she can study and specialize, by sparing all neers and scientists since 1965 is to promote objectives of these social constraints and these stereotypes. equality, development and peace for all the women every-where in the world in the interest of all humanity. It from now on With regard to the women of sciences and technologies of Africa,proved to be necessary to stimulate the investment of the girls Information Technologies and communication can be regardedand the women on the local plan, national, regional, continental, as tools for mobilization of girls, promotion of the women in theirworld. With an aim of building strong families, strong communi- careers and of networking. The approach kind can be thus inte-ties, a strong world. A stable family builds itself by able men, the grated, because they not only will use these innovations, but alsomotivated girls and boys, dynamic women. to control them and break the inequalities in the easy relations of exchanges and divisions. The scientific disciplines and technologi-The women constitute more than 50 %of each nation on the cal present concerns such as the technology transfer, digital equi-ground (Canadian co-operation 2008). In Africa in general and in ty, the number of scientists and women of science, opening-up. ItCameroon my country in particular, they are more of times giv- thus proves necessary to increase the number of girls who woulding the life and besides, educating human being, for reasons as be interested in the studies referring to science and technology,various as varied. It would be prejudicial to deprive her of the to revalorize the role of the woman of science and technology andknowledge. Worse still in the scientific discipline and technologi- to encourage strategies of the dynamic networks. WISE-INDIA,cal where the evolutions make legions and the less obvious stud- the regional conference of the global area network of the womenies. It is easily noted that these women appear very little in the engineers and scientist of October 2012 in New Delhi, like ICWESspheres of decision. Objectively, it is abnormal to name a person 15 in Australia, and the others are opportunities offered to reflec-in charge by simple concern of the gender issue, under penalty tions on the Role of Women Engineers and Scientists in Sustain-of compromising its effectiveness and its efficiency with the task. able Development.The best solution would be thus to frame the woman throughout
  18. 18. Regional Conference of the 18 International Network of Women Engineers Scientists (INWES)Theme :Effective Practices for Recruitment, Mentoring and Retentionof WomenStrategies for Attracting, Motivatingand Retaning Women Engineersand ScientistsDr. Sunil AbrolPresident, Institute for Consultancy Productivity ResearchFormer Director General, Consultancy Development Centresunilabrol@rediffmail.comO ut of over 3 lakh graduate engineers passing out each year among the engineering and scientific professionals. out of Indian technical institutions, more than 30 % of There is need for identifying factors that contribute to such a state them are women. Out of those who get into jobs half leave of affairs and what can be done by employers to reverse the phe-engineering career within 4-5 years of joining. Only a fraction of nomenon.those who continue to work reach senior management positions.A variety of reasons both personal and organizational contribute This paper brings together through case studies how innovativeto a large no. of women engineers and scientists moving out of HR policies and practices can help organizations to attract, mo-professional careers. This is a great national waste of technical tivate and retain women engineers and scientists and enhanceknowledge and experience besides frustration and depression organizational productivity.
  19. 19. Regional Conference of the 19 International Network of Women Engineers Scientists (INWES)Strategies for Managing Work Life BalanceDr G S PattnaikW omen in particular feel overworked and find it more Rethink your errands. Consider whether you can outsource any challenging than ever to juggle the demands of their of your time-consuming household chores or errands. Exchang- job and the rest of their life”. A lot of people are having ing services could be a welcome alternative.”You could exchangea more difficult time finding balance in their lives because there gardening services for babysitting services,” “If you like to cook,have been cutbacks or layoffs where they work. They’re afraid it you could prepare and freeze a couple of meals and give them to amay happen to them, so they’re putting in more hours, “But even if friend in exchange for wrapping your holiday gifts.”you don’t have much control over the hours you have to work, youcan ask yourself: In what other ways am I bringing greater enjoy- Get moving. It’s hard to make time for exercise when you have ament into my life? Focus your time and attention on things you can jam-packed schedule, but experts say that it may ultimately helpcontrol. There are many ways to bring a little more balance to your you get more done by boosting your energy level and ability todaily routine. The author recommends a few practical ways. concentrate. “Research shows exercise can help you to be more alert,”Building downtime into your schedule. When you plan your week,make it a point to schedule time with your family and friends and Remember that a little relaxation goes a long way. Don’t get over-activities that help you recharge. whelmed by assuming that you need to make big changes to bring more balance to your life. Try setting realistic goals, like tryingDrop activities that sap your time or energy.”Many people waste to leave the office earlier one night per week.”Slowly build moretheir time on activities or people that add no value -- for example, activities into your schedule that are important to you,” therapistsspending too much time at work with a colleague who is constantly points out that even during a hectic day, you can take 10 or 15venting and gossiping, “I would recommend taking stock of activi- minutes to do something that will recharge your batteries. Taketies that aren’t really enhancing your career or personal life and a bath, read a trashy novel, go for a walk, or listen to music. “Youminimizing the time you spend on them. You may even be able to have to make a little time for the things that ignite your joy.”leave work earlier if you make a conscious effort to limit the timeyou spend on the web and social media sites, making personal Maintaining a balance at home and the workplace could be a wellcalls, or checking your bank balance. balancing act and is necessarily an art to be learnt.
  20. 20. Regional Conference of the 20 International Network of Women Engineers Scientists (INWES)Flexible Working Patterns and Work-LifeBalance Amongst Female SoftwareEngineers in the Indian InformationTechnology IndustryDr. Jyothsna Latha BelliappaFaculty – Liberal Arts Srishti School of Art Design and Technologyjyothsna@srishti.ac.inT he Indian Information Technology (IT) industry provides to conform to the demands of their professional lives. In return several flexible working options to women employees to for the substitute care provided by families, they undertake subtle help them to manage the priorities of paid employment and forms of care work and kinship work, conforming to the traditionalfamily life. However, these options are undermined by the val- expectations associated with their positions as mothers, daugh-ues of flexibility, mobility and 24 hour availability that are intrinsic ters and daughters-in-law. Much of the current work life balanceto the IT industry’s culture. This paper investigates how female literature tends to overlook the relationship between these formsengineers employed in the IT industry conform to these values of work and paid employment. This paper argues that by recogniz-whilst adopting flexible working patterns. In particular, women ing the circulation of kinship work and care within families, under-mobilize reciprocal relationships of care in their extended families standing of work-life balance can be deepened
  21. 21. Regional Conference of the 21 International Network of Women Engineers Scientists (INWES)“Small Group Support” for Attracting andRetaining Women in Science, Engineeringand Technology in the Busan, Ulsan andGyeongnam Region of KoreaJung Sun Kim1 and Hye Young Park21 Division of Health Sciences, Dongseo University, Busan 617-716, Korea2 Center for Gender Equality Family Policy, Ulsan Development Institute, Ulsan 683-804, Koreajsk@gdsu.dongseo.ac.krA government commissioned regional institute, BIS-WIST, the profiles of women scientists and engineers by bringing to light was established in 2006 at Dongseo University with aims the problems they face. The major outcomes of the BIS-WIST to provide support for women scientists and engineers in “small group support” include the formation of two new legal as-the Busan, Ulsan and Gyeongnam area, otherwise classified as sociations of women in SET in the region. In 2011, ten new “smallthe southeastern region of Korea. The center opened in accor- groups” were funded and their accomplishments will be describeddance with Section 2, Article 14 of the “Act on Fostering and Sup- in this presentation. Women scientists today are recognized as anporting Women in Science and Technology” which was enacted in important asset for boosting the national competitiveness throughDecember, 2002. In Korea, the underrepresentation of women in the advancement of science. For six years, BIS-WIST has providedthe science and technology sectors is more serious in areas fur- women scientists and engineers in the region with education andther away from the national capital. Even though the overall edu- training programs as well as career services, professional devel-cation attainment falls within the range of the national average, opment programs, networking opportunities and statistical datacontingent type of employment is significantly higher in women in for policy making. In March 2012, WIST regional centers have in-the southeastern region. Thus, one of the important attempts BIS- tegrated with other related programs under the newly organizedWIST had made upon successful completion of Stage 1 projects KAI-WISET (Korea Advanced Institute of Women in Science, En-(2006-2008) was to implement the “small group support” funding. gineering and Technology). The new structure is anticipated toThis program was to ensure visibility and empowerment of women further strengthen the national support system as well as regionalin science, engineering and technology (SET) unique to the Busan, specific programs for Korean women scientists and engineers, es-Ulsan and Gyeongnam district. Whether informal or well-estab- pecially in the local regions.lished, women’s networks have played a valuable role in raising
  22. 22. Regional Conference of the 22 International Network of Women Engineers Scientists (INWES)Women at Work – A Balancing ACTMs. Prabhati Bhattacharya1, P.E., Ms. Atasi Das2, Dr. Sudeshna Mitra31 Project Manager, Consulting Engg. Services (India) Pvt. Ltd.Vashi, Navi Mumbai e-mail: prabhati.bhattacharya@cesinter.com2 General Manager cum Deputy HOD, Intercontinental Consultants Technocrats Pvt. LtdNew Delhi e-mail: atasidas@ictonline.com3 Assistant Professor, Department of Civil EngineeringIIT Kharagpur, West Bengal e-mail: sudeshna@civil.iitkgp.ernet.inT he traditional division of labour by gender typically requires have the flexibility to work beyond work- hours and single-mind- women to assume a major share of house-keeping and child- edly pursue a career. Options such as flexible timings, working rearing allowing men to work outside the home to financially from home, counseling and mentoring which could greatlysupport the family. However from times immemorial, women have facilitate the career of women professionals, e.g. during preg-been balancing work both inside and outside the home. In the Pa- nancy, are few and far between. This paper will recommend someleolithic age, when humans were hunter-gatherers, men worked policy instruments that can be crucial in encouraging women toon gathering food and tool-making, while women gathered food work and also to have a family. Work breaks see women planningand firewood, assisted men with hunting and tool-making, along their schedules after work-hours to fully utilize their family time,with raising children and house-keeping. Recent research argues in an attempt to achieve work-life balance. The term ‘work-that this division of labour did not exist in the early Paleolithic ing women’ coined for professional women, is an understatement,age where gender equality was more prevalent than it is in con- because women who are not employed full-time are busy fulfillingtemporary society. Evolution and societal changes saw majority their various roles within the home. The paper will highlight chal-of women running mostly household chores rather than con- lenges faced by women engineers and scientists in achievingtributing towards the household income. Aided by education and a work-life balance e.g. ‘triple burden’ due to prevailing socio-social awareness, contemporary society in India has increasing cultural system. The authors, with significant family com-number of women being employed in various sectors. This mitments, will contribute their experiences on working abroadmay be due to need for financial stability and better quality and in India. The methodology will build on root factors (socio-of life. Even with a patriarchal family structure, the percent- economic, political), analyze current trends and predict emergingage of women engineers has risen significantly over the last two scenarios. We will study good practices followed by developed na-decades. In-depth study reveals though that industry remains tions that are advantageous to working women who have familythe lowest preferred occupation among women with few at and other social commitments. The research will investigate toupper management/ high-level executive positions. Even in what extent it is possible for women to build a successful careeracademia, women can rarely be seen in major leadership in prevailing socio-cultural system. We will identify advantagesroles. Renowned scientific and research organizations have and challenges faced by women in developing countries asvery low percentage of women (14% at the most) on board. compared to their counterparts in western countries. Based onUnderstandably, women engineers and scientists have to per- these we will recommend policies that may be critical in ensuringform a balancing act due to reduction in time to fulfil family success of working women.and social commitments. In developing countries, women rarely
  23. 23. Regional Conference of the 23 International Network of Women Engineers Scientists (INWES)Research into Businesses in the USA,Australia and India that Recruit and RetainWomen in Engineering and TechnologyProfessionMargaret Ajibode CEng FBCSWinston Churchill Fellow 2009Director of the International Network of Women Engineers and Scientistsmargaret@obatec.comC urrently, globally, there is a big skills shortage in particu- of those that do graduate with an engineering degree do not then lar in Engineering and Technology. “The Engineering and pursue a career in the industry. This is largely down to the draw Technology Board’s flagship publication, Engineering UK, of higher salaries within other industries; engineering courses in-reported in May 2009 that 61% of the nation’s skills shortages volve teaching mathematics to a very high level, a skill which isare in technical, engineering and engineering related roles.” very attractive to the banking and financial sectors. Companies operating within these areas can offer higher salaries and theThe skills gap is the result of a combined issue of an ageing work- widely reported large bonuses are already making their way backforce and a lack of young graduates and apprentices entering the for those working in banking. This can often tempt graduate engi-engineering sector. The average age of an engineer working in neers to switch to a career in the financial sector, further addingindustry is 53. to the current skills gap the engineering sector is struggling with.The current economic downturn has amplified this problem, as the But the engineering skills shortage is not just a UK problem butrecession has led to downsizing and early retirements, causing a global problem, as other countries are facing similar levels ofmajor concerns that over half of the global engineering workforce engineering skills shortage.will retire in the next five years, taking their expertise and skillswith them. In addition to the issue of experienced engineers re- We know that the recruitment, retention and promotion of womentiring, the industry is also suffering from the current workforce is part of the solution to the problem currently faced in the UK andnot having the necessary skills to respond to the ever-changing globally and can bridge some of the deficit.demands and challenges of the industry. The main purpose was then:A definite reduction in the number of young people pursuing en- • To understand what businesses in particular SMEs in the USA,gineering as a career is cause for concern; the number of engi- Australia and India were doing to recruit and retain women inneering graduates has steadily fallen over the last ten years, with Engineering and Technology profession even when they havea 45% decline in the number of engineering students between career breaks or circumstances changes.2001–2007. This is a pattern which is echoed across the globe. • To identify best practices/initiatives/policies that have beenThree decades ago, when many of the current engineers were implemented to enable the retention of these highly skilledtraining, there simply were not many options when looking at a womencareer, as people either trained as an engineer or in a trade. Thisis simply not the case anymore; the choice of careers for young Businesses in the USA and Australia were chosen because of thepeople today is vast – in sectors that simply did not exist 30 years advancement of women at all levels of society and also the dif-ago. The birth of computers has seen a wealth of opportunities ferent initiatives that have been done to promote and encourageopen up in the IT and digital arenas, whilst careers in the arts and more females’ in particular young girls to studying engineeringentrepreneurial fields are also booming. and technology and was curious if this was also demonstrated in the workplace. India was chosen because businesses globallyThis problem is compounded by the fact that around 60 per cent were recruiting engineers from India for these roles. I wanted to
  24. 24. Regional Conference of the 24 International Network of Women Engineers Scientists (INWES)see what good practices could be learnt and adapted in the UK. work force which was reflective of the global market that they were dealing in today’s market.It is also important to note these countries are miles apart notonly geographically but also in social and cultural values, although Data from surveys indicate that the factors affecting recruitmentyou can argue that USA and Australia have similar social and cul- and retention of women in engineering are very similar in all thetural values. countries.Engineering has traditionally been a male dominated profession. The image of the engineering profession is that it is still male dom-While progress is being made in encouraging women in engineer- inated, is physically demanding and requires sound mathematicaling and technical fields, the progress rate has been very slow. and scientific background and these were the major hurdles inMost of the women who have been successful in this profession attracting more women into engineering but is this really a truehave had very supportive managers or mentors and good support statement. Study has shown that females excel academically, evennetwork outside of work such as family and other women; they in areas of science and mathematics, engineering is no longerhave had to be very focused and determined and have made sac- just about heavy labour, the roles are quite broad and diverse.rifices along the way, in order to achieve success in the profes- While workshops, special courses, seminars, congenial academicsion. and workplace environments designed to improve the numbers of women in engineering are essential, ATTITUDE changes in soci-Progress is been made but at a very slow pace, businesses inter- ety towards women in all countries has to change to encourageviewed did not have gender specific policies or initiatives but the women to select engineering as a profession.companies try to provide family friendly workplaces and a culturethat tries to cater for everyone and make it an inclusive environ- I would like to share my findings and discuss if there has been anyment to work in, some of the companies tried to consciously re- improvement since 2009 to date in the recruitment, retention andcruit women as they were aware of the need to have a diverse promotion of women in the field.
  25. 25. Regional Conference of the 25 International Network of Women Engineers Scientists (INWES)Effective Practices for Recruitment,Mentoring and Retention of Women inScience and Engineering ProfessionsNamrata Kapoornamrata.kapur@industeqsite.comT he under-representation of women in science, engineering, 3. Young workers in the work-force are increasing. in both higher education and employment has been well- 4. Ethnic minorities’ proportion in the total work-force is con- documented, with negative consequences for both the talent stantly increasing.pool available for the future workforce and equal opportunity. Even 5. International careers and expatriates are becoming common.the UNO wants global enterprises to help women rise in organiza-tions as that is seen as critical for sustainable develop Mentoring 6. Necessity of international experience is felt for career pro-is a proven strategy to improve retention of women .Many women gression to many top-level managerial positions.sacrifice their careers for someone or something close to their 7. Cultural differences in a workforce increase potential costs inheart. It could be a move with the spouse to his new work location, the form of higher turnover, interpersonal conflicts, and com-or raise a family or to take care of an ailing parent. A large no of munication breakdowns.woman 26-38 yrs even stay away from home for fertility treat-ments. Data says that out of 1.5 million women in India who have Benefits of Diversity Managementquit their corporate jobs 90% of them want to return to work but Progress is made on the gender ratio of the organization. The hir-only 20% are able to do so. Reason being that most Indian enter- ing managers at Sudexo have been told not to accept candidatesprises are apprehensive of hiring women back on the assumption brought by a recruiter unless a few of them are women. Othersthat they not serious about their carriers. like Kotak mahendra give preference to women employees in theIntroduction hitherto unknown male dominated frontline sales and collection jobs. Out of 4 interviews set up at least 2 should be women. HeadOrganizations in a bid to improve their gender diversity ratio are hunters are incentivised with and additional 2% fee if they get apulling out all the stops to recruit female employees beginning with woman candidate.higher fees for head hunters. Deutche bank offers a 2% additionalfee to a recruiter for bringing women candidates to the bank. Also Things are changing as many corporate giants like IBM, COGNZ-“Executive Access” an executive search firm says it earns an ad- ANT, Accenture, Dell, Microsoft, ABB, Vodafone are working onditional 10% fee payable if a female candidate is hired. “second career” programmes for women. This initiative is linked to the gender diversity drive and aims at reviving their careers.Why Diversity Management? Companies are currently working with their HR policies with a fo- cus on diversity and gender inclusion. When a woman takes an ab-The growing trend of globalization of business is giving rise to a solutely legitimate break from career why cannot she come backneed for the development of effective international management grace fully? Recently YAHOO CEO Mrissa Mayer broke the newsteams. The various countries which have faced recessions in the ground for fortune 500 companies by starting her job more than 6past are looking for a strategic model to handle worst scenarios months pregnant, a trend already embraced by young women run-by penetrating into other geographical markets and cultures. ning Silicon Valley startups. She brings the no. of woman running fortune 500 firms to 20. Many others including Indra Nooyi hadIn nut shell with the passing days, diversity management is going children before becoming CEO.to be an important issue for the HR manager due to the followingreasons: Guidelines for Gender Diversity Management in Or- ganisations1. A large number of women are joining the work-force.2. Work-force mobility is increasing. The following are some important guidelines to manage diversity
  26. 26. Regional Conference of the 26 International Network of Women Engineers Scientists (INWES)effectively: organizations. 7. To study the employees consisiting of different age groups,• Commitment from top management towards diversity as a culture, beliefs, work attitudes, and leadership styles and pre-requisite. their mindset towards top manangement.• To arrange mentoring programme by senior managers to iden- 8. To study the organizational approaches to managing diversity tify promising women and minority employees and nurturing which include unbiased selection methods, diversity training, their career progress. and mentoring.• To conduct diversity training programmes to bring diversity 9. To suggest ways to develop the capabilities of employees in a awareness and educate employees on cultural and gender dif- diverse workforce. ferences and how to respond to these in the workplace.• To consider female employee needs, such as child care and job Predictive Model sharing, to prevent their turnover. Considering these issues selectively, a predictive model may be• Employer should set up a support group to provide a conducive developed involving; climate for employees who would otherwise feel isolated or alienated. Implementation of Diversity-Related Policies: Companies that in-• To conduct diversity audits to review the effectiveness of an vest time and money into diversity training and develop company organization’s diversity management programmes. policies designed to reflect this are ensured a diverse and dy-• Communication -Speeches by senior executives and inclusion namic workplace to a larger extent . of diversity in corporate vision statements Diversity Management: Related to the challenge of policy imple-• Publication of diversity brochure and inclusion of diversity as a mentation, diversity management must be properly delegated and new topic in employee orientation. enforced in order to be effective. If only one person or department• Develop a strategic Diveristy model of HRM for strengthening is in charge of enforcement and implementation of any type of and sustaining corporate growth. policy, it goes without saying that the policy will most likely not be• To impart cross-cultural trainings which will give managers effectively followed or enforced. working on international assignments the required cultural Communication: Without proper communication, barriers that understanding to accomplish their tasks. exist between groups of people due to actual or perceived dif-Objectives of the Study ferences and pre-conceived notions cannot be effectively broken down. The purpose of diversity training in the workplace, among1. To develop a strategic conceptual model pertaining to diver- other things, is to improve communication between diverse social sity management in the emerging global market to handle dif- groups. ferent cultures under the same roof. Summary2. To facilitate knowledge transfer, effective learning and skill development in other geographical boundaries and cultures. An attempt has been made to highlight the need of creating a more3. To understand , build relationships, negotiate and market in diverse workplace should be the goal of every company and its different cultures. employees as well. While overcoming the existing attitudes and4. To motivate and organize people from diverse backgrounds. beliefs of others is difficult, at the same time the resulting benefits (more dynamic workplace and an environment where everyone5. To analyze the various demographic characteristics contribut- feels accepted and valued for his/her contributions) far outweigh ing to diversity such as; age, gender, ethnicity and education. the costs. Diversity provides organizations the ability to compete6. To enlist best practices in the area of diversity management in in global markets.

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