"Gulliver's Travels" - satirical fiction book by
Jonathan Swift, which clearly and wittily
ridiculed human and social vices.
The full title of the book, "Travels in several
remote nations of the world in four parts: an
essay Lemuel Gulliver, first a surgeon, and
then the captain of several ships" (English
Travels into Several Remote Nations of the
World, in Four Parts. By Lemuel Gulliver,
First a Surgeon, and then a Captain of
several Ships). The first edition was
published in the years 1726-1727 in
London. The book became a classic moralpolitical satire, but especially the
widespread popularity of its use reduced
rework (and screening) for children.
"Gulliver's Travels" - a software manifest Swift satirist. In the first part of the book the
reader laugh at the ridiculous self-important Lilliputians. In the second, the giants in the
country, changing the point of view, and it turns out that our civilization deserves the
same kind of ridicule. The third is ridiculed, from different sides of the human ego pride.
Finally, the fourth appear vile Jehu as a concentrate of original human nature, not
refined spirituality. Swift, as usual, does not resort to moralistic teachings, giving the
reader draw their own conclusions - to choose between Jehu and moral antithesis,
bizarrely arrayed in the shape of a horse.
Ship's surgeon Lemuel Gulliver in Lilliput
falls in which they live are small, twelve
times fewer people, fellows. (In the original,
Liliput - Lilliput - is the name of the country
itself, and its inhabitants are called
"liliputiytsy» - Lilliputians). They capture
Gulliver prisoner, after the local king
receives homage from him with a promise
of obedience and releases.
In this part of the tetralogy Swift sarcastically describes an inordinate self-esteem and
the Lilliputians and their costumes, mimicking human caricature. Many of the
episodes here, as in other parts of the book, a satirical hint at the modern Swift
events. There is, for example, a specific satire on King George I (editor deleted in the
first edition) and the prime minister Walpole, and removed the political parties and the
Tories the Whigs ("vysokokabluchniki" and "nizkokabluchniki"). Religious differences
between Catholics and Protestants depicted the famous allegory of a senseless war
"ostrokonechniki" and "tupokonechnikov" dispute, which end should break boiled
At the end of Part I of Gulliver engaged in a war between Lilliput and Blefuscu
neighboring state, the same human race (commentators believe that we have in mind
in France, although there is conjecture that Swift meant Ireland). Gulliver captures the
entire fleet of the enemy, and decides in favor of the war on Lilliput. However,
because of court intrigues Gulliver sentenced to blindness, and he is forced to flee
from Lilliput. Sometimes they see here an allusion to the biography of the statesman
and philosopher, Viscount Bolingbroke, a close friend of Swift, George I accused of
treason and fled to France.
Because of this (most popular) part of the tetralogy in the current language the word
"Gulliver" is often used as a synonym for the giant, in fact Gulliver - an ordinary man
of normal height, which only goes to the country of dwarfs. In the next book,
Gulliver finds himself in a country of giants, and there already is a dwarf himself.
Part 2. Journey to Brobdingneg (Land of Giants)
Exploring a new country, Gulliver left his
companions and found a giant, a farmer,
growing 22 meters (in Lilliput all the
dimensions 12 times smaller than ours, in
Brobdingnege - 12 times more). Farmer
refers to it as a gimmick and shows it for the
money. After a series of unpleasant and
humiliating adventure Gulliver buys Queen
Brobdingnega and leaves the court as a fun
In the small but life-threatening adventures
- such as fighting giant wasps, jumping on
the roof at the hands of a monkey, etc. - he
discusses European policy with the king,
who ironically comments on his stories.
Here, as in Part I, satirically criticized by
human and social mores, but not
allegorically (in the guise of Lilliput), and
directly through the mouth of the king of the
My brief history of our country over the last century cast the king in astonishment. He
declared that in his opinion, this story is nothing but a heap of conspiracies, revolts,
assassinations, massacres, revolutions, and expulsions, which are the worst result of
greed, partisanship, hypocrisy, treachery, cruelty, rage, madness, hatred, envy , lust,
anger and ambition ... Then he took me in his arms and gently caressed, approached
me with the following words, which I will never forget, never forget how to pitch and
how they were told:
"My little friend Grildrig, you pronounced the eulogy of astonishing your fatherland,
you clearly proved that ignorance, idleness and vice are often the only qualities
inherent to the legislator: that laws are best explained, interpreted and applied in
practice by those who are most interested in and capable of to distort, confuse and
avoid them ... From what you have said is not clear that you have to occupy high
positions required the possession of what some merit, is even less clear for people to
complain ranks high on the basis of their virtues, that the clergy received raising for
his piety and scholarship and military - for his courage and noble conduct, judges - for
their integrity, senators - for love of country and government advisers - for their
wisdom. As you yourself (continued the King), who spent most of his life in traveling, I
think is that until now you have managed to avoid many vices of your country. But the
facts noted by me in your story, as well as the answers that I worked so hard to
squeeze out of you, and can not but lead me to conclude that the majority of your
countrymen is disgusting breed of small reptiles, the most pernicious of all, what if -or
crawling on the earth's surface. «
King of the Giants - one of the few noble characters in the book of Swift. He is kind,
insightful, skillfully and fairly control of their country. Gulliver's proposal to use the
powder for wars of conquest, he indignantly refused, and forbade under pain of death,
any mention of this diabolical invention. In Chapter VII of the King says the famous
phrase: "Anyone who has ears instead of one, or a stalk of grass will be able to grow on
the same field twice, and the will to mankind a great service to his country than all the
politicians put together."
The country has some of the features of the giants of utopia.
Knowledge of these people are very scarce, they are limited to morality, history,
poetry and mathematics, but in these areas need to be fair, they have achieved great
perfection. With regard to mathematics, it has a purely applied character and aims to
improve agriculture and different branches of engineering, so we have it would have
received a low rating ...
This country is not allowed to formulate any law with the number of words in excess
of the number of letters of the alphabet, and in it they account for only twenty-two, but
very few reach even the laws of this length. All of them are expressed in the most
clear and simple terms, and these people do not differ a cunning mind to open
several meanings in the law, to write a comment on any law is considered a great
The last paragraph brings to mind discussed for nearly a century earlier "National
Agreement", the political project of the English Revolution, the Levellers, which stated
The number of laws must be reduced to fit all the laws in a single volume. Laws must
be presented in English, that every Englishman could understand them.
During a trip to the coast of a box, made especially for his stay on the road, captured
by a giant eagle, who would later drop it into the sea, where Gulliver picked sailors
and returned to England
Judging from the correspondence of Swift,
in his book idea took shape around 1720.
 Beginning work on the tetralogy refers to
1721 and in January 1723 Swift wrote: "I left
the Land of Horses and remain volatile on
the island ... two of my last trip will end soon
Work on the book continued until 1725. In
1726 the first two volumes of "Gulliver's
Travels" (without specifying the name of this
author) are published and the remaining two
were published in the next year. The book is
somewhat ruffled by the censors, enjoyed
unprecedented success, and the authorship
of it is no secret. For several months,
"Gulliver's Travels" reprinted three times,
soon appeared translations into German,
Dutch, Italian and other languages, as well
as extensive comments from the transcript
Swift's allusions and allegories.
Voltaire, who was then exiled in London, gave a rave review about the book and sent
a few copies in France.  The first translation into French, for many years to become
a classic, performed in 1727 the famous writer, the Abbe Pierre Defonten.
Subsequent translations into other European languages for a long time (almost half a
century) are not on the original English and the French version. In a letter to Swift
Defonten apologized for the fact that many people (almost half of the text), he rewrote
the book to match the tastes of the French. In his reply Swift awkwardly aloof from
authorship, gave an assessment of his creation: 
Supporters of Gulliver, which we are legion, claim that his book will live as long as our
language, because its value is independent of the transient habits of thought and
speech, and consists in a series of observations on the eternal imperfection, folly and
vices of the human race .
The first French edition of "Gulliver" broke up last month, shortly followed by reissues,
all defontenovskaya version was published more than 200 times. The non-degraded
French translation, with superb illustrations by Grandville, appeared only in 1838.
The popularity of Swift hero brought to life the numerous imitations, fake sequels, and
even staging an operetta  based on "Gulliver's Travels." At the beginning of the XIX
century in different countries appear much shorter children's retellings of "Gulliver."
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