Ci primates in-peril-25-most-endangered-primates_2012-2014

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Ci primates in-peril-25-most-endangered-primates_2012-2014

  1. 1. PRIMATES IN PERILThe World’s 25 Most Endangered Primates 2012–2014 Russell A. Mittermeier, Christoph Schwitzer, Anthony B. Rylands, Lucy A. Taylor, Federica Chiozza, Elizabeth A. Williamson and Janette Wallis Illustrations by Stephen D. Nash 2012
  2. 2. Published by: IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group (PSG) International Primatological Society (IPS) Conservation International (CI) Bristol Conservation and Science Foundation (BCSF)Copyright: ©2012 Bristol Conservation and Science Foundation All rights reserved. No part of this report may be reproduced in any form or by any means without permission in writing from the publisher. Inquiries to the publisher should be directed to the following address: Russell A. Mittermeier, Chair, IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, Conservation International, 2011 Crystal Drive, Suite 500, Arlington, VA 22202, USACitation: Russell A. Mittermeier, Christoph Schwitzer, Anthony B. Rylands, Lucy A. Taylor, Federica Chiozza, Elizabeth A. Williamson and Janette Wallis (eds.). 2012. Primates in Peril: The World’s 25 Most Endangered Primates 2012– 2014. IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group (PSG), International Primatological Society (IPS), Conservation International (CI), and Bristol Conservation and Science Foundation, Bristol, UK. 40pp.Illustrations: © Stephen D. Nash, Conservation International, Arlington, VA, and Department of Anatomical Sciences, Health Sciences Center, State University of New York at Stony Brook, NY, USAAvailable from: Anthony B. Rylands, Conservation International, 2011 Crystal Drive, Suite 500, Arlington, VA 22202, USA e-mail: a.rylands@conservation.org; website: http://www.primate-sg.orgFront cover photos (clockwise from top left):Madame Berthe’s mouse lemur (Microcebus berthae) © John R. ZoanariveloTonkin snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus avunculus) © Tilo NadlerNorthern brown howler monkey (Alouatta guariba guariba) © John J. TschirkyRoloway monkey (Cercopithecus roloway) © West African Primate Conservation Action (WAPCA)Back cover photo:Golden-headed langur or Cat Ba langur (Trachypithecus poliocephalus poliocephalus) © Tilo Nadler
  3. 3. ContentsAcknowledgements ............................................................................................................................. iiThe World’s 25 Most Endangered Primates: 2012–2014................................................................. 1Africa ................................................................................................................................................... 4 Rondo dwarf galago (Galagoides rondoensis) .................................................................................. 5 Roloway monkey (Cercopithecus roloway) ...................................................................................... 6 Bioko red colobus (Piliocolobus pennantii pennantii) ...................................................................... 7 Tana River red colobus (Piliocolobus rufomitratus) ......................................................................... 8 Grauer’s gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri) ....................................................................................... 9Madagascar ........................................................................................................................................10 Madame Berthe’s mouse lemur (Microcebus berthae) ....................................................................11 Sclater’s black lemur or Blue-eyed black lemur (Eulemur flavifrons) .............................................12 Red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra) ....................................................................................................13 Northern sportive lemur (Lepilemur septentrionalis) .......................................................................14 Silky sifaka (Propithecus candidus).................................................................................................15 Indri (Indri indri) .............................................................................................................................16Asia .....................................................................................................................................................17 Pygmy tarsier (Tarsius pumilus) ......................................................................................................18 Javan slow loris (Nycticebus javanicus) ...........................................................................................19 Simakobu or Pig-tailed snub-nosed langur (Nasalis concolor) ........................................................20 Delacour’s langur (Trachypithecus delacouri) .................................................................................21 Golden-headed langur or Cat Ba langur (Trachypithecus poliocephalus poliocephalus) .................22 Western purple-faced langur (Semnopithecus vetulus nestor) ..........................................................23 Grey-shanked douc monkey (Pygathrix cinerea) .............................................................................24 Tonkin snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus avunculus) ..................................................................25 Cao-Vit or Eastern black-crested gibbon (Nomascus nasutus) .........................................................26Neotropics ...........................................................................................................................................27 Variegated or Brown spider monkey (Ateles hybridus) ....................................................................28 Ecuadorian brown-headed spider monkey (Ateles fusciceps fusciceps) ...........................................29 Ka’apor capuchin monkey (Cebus kaapori) .....................................................................................30 San Martín titi monkey (Callicebus oenanthe).................................................................................31 Northern brown howler monkey (Alouatta guariba guariba) ..........................................................32 References........................................................................................................................................33 Editors’ addresses ............................................................................................................................39 i
  4. 4. AcknowledgementsThe 2012–2014 edition of the World’s 25 Most Endangered Primates is, for the second time,presented in the form of species fact sheets. For this edition, we have summarized and updated thespecies profiles from the 2008–2010 and 2010–2012 editions of the World’s 25 Most EndangeredPrimates for those species remaining on the list, and added additional profiles for the new species.We would like to thank all of the contributing authors to the 2008–2010 version for their work, whichforms the basis of the fact sheets in the new edition. Each profile from the 2008–2010 edition is citedon the fact sheets:Simon K. Bearder, Thomas M. Butynski, Liliana Cortés Ortiz, Dong Thanh Hai, Jörg U. Ganzhorn,Ha Thang Long, Paul E. Honess, M. Cecília M. Kierulff, Le Khac Quyet, Andrés Link, KarmeleLlano Sanchez, Long Yongcheng, David N. M. Mbora, W. Scott McGraw, Pierre Moisson, AlbaLucia Morales-Jiménez, Tilo Nadler, K. Anne-Isola Nekaris, Vincent Nijman, John F. Oates, Lisa M.Paciulli, Erwin Palacios, Erik R. Patel, Andrew Perkin, Phan Duy Thuc, Clément J. Rabarivola,Martina Raffel, Guy H. Randriatahina, Iary B. Ravaorimanana, Christian Roos, Rasanayagam Rudran,Yves Rumpler, Daniela Schrudde, Nora Schwitzer, James S. Thorn, Bernardo Urbani, Sylviane N. M.Volampeno, Janette Wallis, Ananda Wanasinghe, Kanchana Weerakoon, Indah Winarti and AlphonseZaramody.We would also like to express our thanks for the additional contributions by Stuart Nixon, on Grauer’sgorilla, and Ross Fuller, for help with literature accumulation and proof reading. ii
  5. 5. The World’s 25 Most Endangered Primates: 2012–2014Here we report the seventh iteration of the biennial listing of a consensus of the 25 primate speciesconsidered to be among the most endangered worldwide and the most in need of conservationmeasures. The 2012–2014 list was drawn up during an open meeting held during the XXIV Congressof the International Primatological Society (IPS), Cancún, 14 August 2012. It is a joint effort by theIUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, the International Primatological Society, ConservationInternational, and the Bristol Conservation and Science Foundation.The 2012–2014 list of the world’s 25 most endangered primates has five species from Africa, six fromMadagascar, nine from Asia, and five from the Neotropics (Table 1). In terms of individual countries,Madagascar tops the list with six species. Vietnam has five, Indonesia three, Brazil two, and China,Colombia, Côte d’Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ecuador, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana,Kenya, Peru, Sri Lanka, Tanzania and Venezuela each have one.The changes made in this list compared to the previous iteration (2010–2012) were not because thesituation of the nine species that were dropped (Table 2) has improved. In some cases, such as, forexample, Varecia variegata, the situation has in fact worsened. By making these changes we intendrather to highlight other, closely related species enduring equally bleak prospects for their futuresurvival. An exception may be the greater bamboo lemur, Prolemur simus, for which recent studieshave confirmed a considerably larger distribution range and larger estimated population size thanpreviously assumed. The severe threats to this species in eastern Madagascar remain, though.Table 1. The World’s 25 Most Endangered Primates 2012–2014AfricaGalagoides rondoensis Rondo dwarf galago TanzaniaCercopithecus roloway Roloway monkey Côte d’Ivoire, GhanaPiliocolobus pennantii Bioko red colobus Equatorial Guinea (Bioko Is.)pennantiiPiliocolobus rufomitratus Tana River red colobus KenyaGorilla beringei graueri Grauer’s gorilla DRCMadagascarMicrocebus berthae Madame Berthe’s mouse lemur MadagascarEulemur flavifrons Sclater’s black lemur MadagascarVarecia rubra Red ruffed lemur MadagascarLepilemur septentrionalis Northern sportive lemur MadagascarPropithecus candidus Silky sifaka MadagascarIndri indri Indri MadagascarAsiaTarsius pumilus Pygmy tarsier Indonesia (Sulawesi)Nycticebus javanicus Javan slow loris Indonesia (Java)Nasalis concolor Pig-tailed langur Indonesia (Mentawai Is.)Trachypithecus delacouri Delacour’s langur VietnamTrachypithecus poliocephalus Golden-headed or Cat Ba langur VietnamSemnopithecus vetulus nestor Western purple-faced langur Sri LankaPygathrix cinerea Grey-shanked douc monkey VietnamRhinopithecus avunculus Tonkin snub-nosed monkey VietnamNomascus nasutus Cao-Vit or Eastern black-crested China, Vietnam gibbonNeotropicsAteles hybridus Variegated spider monkey Colombia, VenezuelaAteles fusciceps fusciceps Ecuadorian brown-headed spider Ecuador monkeyCebus kaapori Ka’apor capuchin monkey BrazilCallicebus oenanthe San Martín titi monkey PeruAlouatta guariba guariba Northern brown howler monkey Brazil 1
  6. 6. Nine primate species were added to the 2012–2014 list (Table 3). Seven of them were placed on thelist of the world’s 25 most endangered primates for the first time. The Tana River red colobus and theEcuadorian brown-headed spider monkey had already been on previous iterations of the list, but weresubsequently removed in favor of other highly threatened species of the same genera. The 2012–2014list now contains two members each of these genera, thus particularly highlighting the severe threatsthey are facing.During the discussion of the 2012–2014 list at the XXIV Congress of IPS in Cancún in 2012, anumber of other highly threatened primate species were considered for inclusion (Table 4). For all ofthese, the situation in the wild is as precarious as it is for those species that finally made it on the list.Table 2. Primate species included on the 2010–2012 list that were removed from the 2012–2014 list.AfricaPiliocolobus epieni Niger Delta red colobus NigeriaMadagascarProlemur simus Greater bamboo lemur MadagascarVarecia variegata Black-and-white ruffed lemur MadagascarAsiaTarsius tumpara Siau Island tarsier Indonesia (Siau Is.)Macaca silenus Lion-tailed macaque IndiaPongo pygmaeus pygmaeus Northwest Bornean orangutan Indonesia (West Kalimantan, Borneo), Malaysia (Sarawak)NeotropicsCebus flavius Blond capuchin monkey BrazilCallicebus barbarabrownae Barbara Brown’s titi monkey BrazilOreonax flavicauda Peruvian yellow-tailed woolly Peru monkeyTable 3. Primate species that were added to the 2012–2014 list. The Tana River red colobus and theEcuadorian brown-headed spider monkey were added to the list after previously being removed, andthe other seven species are new to the list.AfricaPiliocolobus rufomitratus Tana River red colobus KenyaMadagascarMicrocebus berthae Madame Berthe’s mouse lemur MadagascarVarecia rubra Red ruffed lemur MadagascarIndri indri Indri MadagascarAsiaTarsius pumilus Pygmy tarsier Indonesia (Sulawesi)NeotropicsAteles fusciceps fusciceps Ecuadorian brown-headed spider Ecuador monkeyCebus kaapori Ka’apor capuchin monkey BrazilCallicebus oenanthe San Martin titi monkey PeruAlouatta guariba guariba Northern brown howler monkey Brazil 2
  7. 7. Table 4. Primate species considered during the discussion of the 2012–2014 list at the IPS Congressin Cancun that did not make it onto the list, but are equally highly threatened.AfricaPiliocolobus preussi Preusss red colobus Cameroon, NigeriaGorilla gorilla diehli Cross River gorilla Nigeria, CameroonPan troglodytes ellioti Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzee Nigeria, CameroonMadagascarCheirogaleus sibreei Sibree’s dwarf lemur MadagascarHapalemur alaotrensis Lac Alaotra bamboo lemur MadagascarEulemur cinereiceps White-collared brown lemur MadagascarPropithecus perrieri Perrier’s sifaka MadagascarAsiaNasalis larvatus Proboscis monkey Indonesia (Borneo)Presbytis comata Grizzled leaf monkey IndonesiaRhinopithecus strykeri Myanmar snub-nosed monkey Myanmar, ChinaNomascus hainanus Hainan black-crested gibbon China (Hainan)Nomascus leucogenys Northern white-cheeked black- Laos, Vietnam, China crested gibbonNeotropicsChiropotes satanas Black bearded saki BrazilLeontopithecus caissara Black-headed lion tamarin BrazilSaguinus bicolor Brazilian bare-faced tamarin BrazilCallicebus caquetensis Caquetá titi monkey Colombia 3
  8. 8. 4
  9. 9. Rondo dwarf galagoGalagoides rondoensis (Honess in Kingdon, 1997)TanzaniaTop 25: 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012Biology1: o R  Weighs ~60g2 u  Distinct from other dwarf galagos in a its bottle-brush-shaped tail, its w reproductive anatomy, and its a distinctive “double unit rolling call” 2-4  Mixed diet of insects and fruit F  Often feed close to the ground and R move by vertical clinging and leaping in the shrubby understory 4  Build daytime sleeping nests5  Predation from owls and other k nocturnal predators2 m  Emerging evidence that the northern ² and southern populations may be phylogenetically distinct  Sympatric with a number of other galagos Estimated population1:  UnknownRange1:  Estimated density:  Extremely limited and fragmented o 3–6/ha at Pande Game  Range in a number of remnant patches Reserve9 of Eastern African Coastal Dry Forest o 8/ha at Pugu Forest Reserve10 in Tanzania2, 6  Relative abundance from encounter o Zaraninge forest (06º08S, 38º38E) in Sadaani National rates Park o 3–10/hr at Pande Game Reserve and Pugu/ o Pande Game Reserve (GR) Kazimzumbwi Forest (06º42S, 39º05E), Reserve9, 10 o Pugu/Kazimzumbwi (06º54S, 39º05E), o 3.94/hr at Rondo Forest Reserve2 o Rondo (10º08S, 39º12E), o Litipo (10º02S, 39º29E) o Ziwani (10º20S, 40º18E) forest reserves (FR) Threats1: o Chitoa FR (09º57S, 39º27E)  Very small and fragmented range in o Ruawa FR (09º44S, 39º33E) remnant forest patches  Total area known to occur does not  Forest loss exceed 101.6 km² 1, 7, 8 o Agricultural encroachment o Pande GR: 2.4 km², o Charcoal production o Rondo FR: 25 km², o Logging o Ziwani FR: 7.7 km², o Pugu/Kazimzumbwi FR: 33.5 km², Justification for the Top 25: o Litipo FR: 4 km²  Highly threatened by the logging of o Zaraninge forest: 20 km², remaining small forest fragments Chitoa FR: 5 km² 5
  10. 10. Roloway monkeyCercopithecus roloway (Schreber,1774)Ghana and Côte d’IvoireTop 25: 2002, 2006, 2010, 2012Biology11:  Closely related to Cercophithecus diana12  Distinguished from C. diana by its broad white brow line, long white beard o 14 years ago found in the and yellow thighs Yaya Forest Reserve, the  C. roloway is more seriously Tanoé Forest adjacent to the threatened with extinction Ehy Lagoon and the Parc  Largely arboreal species13 National des Iles Ehotilé16-18  Occurs in canopy of primary and old o Now only found in the Tanoé secondary lowland moist forest, and forest18, 19 riverine and gallery forest13  Rare in degraded forest, but can survive in lightly logged forest where Estimated population11: the canopy remains13  Unknown  Decline exceeding 50% (potentially exceeding 80%)14  Numerous local extinctionsRange11:  Found to the east of the Sassandra River in Côte d’Ivoire to the Pra River in Ghana13 Threats11:  Considerable amount of primary  Hunting for the bushmeat trade habitat loss over the past ~30 years14 o Relatively large size and value  Ghana of its meat and skin makes it a o Steadily extirpated from both preferred game species13 protected and unprotected  Forest loss areas and is nearing extinction o Logging o Several surveys have failed to o Agriculture find this species in any o Charcoal production20 western reserves  Population fragmentation and isolation o Possibly exists in the Ankasa Conservation area15  Côte d’Ivoire o Not known in any protected Justification for the Top 25: areas  Extirpation and continuing decline 6
  11. 11. Bioko red colobusPiliocolobus pennantii pennantii (Waterhouse, 1838)Equatorial Guinea (Bioko Island)Top 25: 2004, 2006, 2010, 2012Biology21, 22:  Previously four subspecies of Piliocolobus pennantii recognized: P. p. pennantii; P. p. bouvieri; P. p. preussi; and P. p. epieni  Debated whether all should be elevated to species level  P. p. epieni at least is considered elevated to species level  P. p. pennantii is largely arboreal  Found in lowland and mid-montane tropical moist forest and marsh forest  Form groups of more than 30 animals  Often found in polyspecific associations23Range21, 22:  Very restricted range on the island of Threats21, 22: Bioko, Equatorial Guinea  Heavy hunting  Restricted mainly to the south-west of o Most notably from the early the island 1980’s when a commercial  Range of less than 500km2 24-26 bushmeat market appeared in  Confined to the Gran Caldera and the town of Malabo24 Southern Highlands Scientific Reserve o Bushmeat considered a (510km2) ‘luxury food’26  Perhaps still at Pico Basile National  Limited range Park (330km2)  Habitat degradation  None of the ranges are well protected o Especially sensitive to habitat degradation27-29Estimated population21, 22: Justification for the Top 25:  Less than 5,000 individuals  Heavily hunted in a very restricted  45% decline in numbers between 1986 range and 200626 7
  12. 12. Tana River red colobusPiliocolobus rufomitratus (Peters, 1879)KenyaTop 25: 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2012Biology30, 31:  Previously Procolobus rufomitratus rufomitratus  Piliocolobus separated from Procolobus32  Elevated to species level32  Inhabits gallery forest dominated by Pachystela and Barringtonia  Not observed moving between habitat patches during the day  Some movement at night which appears to be helping to ensure the continued survival of the groups in the seemingly isolated patches  Broadly sympatric with Cercocebus galeritus and Cercopithecus mitis albotorquatus, and narrowly sympatric on the forest edges with Papio cynocephalus ibeanus and Cercopithecus pygerythrusRange30, 31:  Found only on the levees of the lower Threats30, 31: Tana River in Kenya  Habitat loss, degradation and  Total known range is 60 km from fragmentation36 Kipende in the north to Mitipani in the o Forest clearance for south, where the Lamu–Garsen road agriculture enters the Tana River floodplain o Fires eroding levee forests  Restricted to ca. 34 patches of o Degradation due to livestock fragmented gallery forest, notably and wood collection Guru South, Sifa East, Baomo South, o Selective felling of Ficus trees Mnazini East, Bubesa West 1, Hewani for canoes South 2 forests33  Habitat change  All of these forests are small, ranging o Drastic changes in vegetation in size from <1 ha to c.500 ha. due to dam construction, irrigation projects, and water diversion which changed theEstimated population30, 31: water table  Estimated at 1,100–1,300, down from  Hunting37 an estimated 1,200–1,800 in 197533-35  Parasites38, 39  At least 86 groups occur in 34 forest patches32, 33  Mean group size has declined by Justification for the Top 25: about 50% since the 1970s  Small extent and increasingly smaller and more isolated patches of habitat 8
  13. 13. Grauer’s gorillaGorilla beringei graueri (Matschie, 1914) Contributing author:DRC Stuart NixonTop 25: 2010, 2012Biology40:  One of two subspecies of eastern gorilla (Gorilla beringei)  The largest, on average, subspecies of gorilla  Inhabits lowland tropical rainforest habitat through transitional forests to Afromontane habitat of 600 to 2,900m asl  Feeds mainly on herbaceous vegetation; fruit preferred when available  Groups consist of 2–36 multi-aged individuals led by a single “silverback” male  Southern Maïko populations exist in a region occupied by Simba rebelsRange40:  Northern Maïko populations remain  Endemic to eastern DRC unknown since 1992 due to lack of  Historical range ~52,000km2 41 park infrastructure and the presence of  Three broadly defined populations: militia Maïko-Tayna (Maïko National Park,  Mt Tshiaberimu population dropped to Tayna Nature Reserve, Kisimba-Ikoba 14 individuals in 2009 Nature Reserve and the Usala Forest),  Now estimated to number 2,000– Kahuzi-Kasese (Kahuzi-Biega 10,000 individuals in 14 National Park (KBNP) lowland sector subpopulations48 and adjacent forest) and the Itombwe Massif (Itombwe Natural Reserve) Threats40:  Isolated populations in the KBNP  Massive forest loss and fragmentation highland sector, Masisi and on Mt o Agriculture Tshiaberimu in Virunga National Park o Pastoral activities  Habitat destruction and fragmentation  Illegal mining widespread o Bushmeat hunting  52% reduction of suitable range since  Illegal capture of infants 199042  Ongoing political unrest and military activityEstimated population40: o Bushmeat hunting43, 49-51  In 1995 estimated at 16,900  Continuous low-level extractive individuals43, 44 activities  Many populations have disappeared o Charcoal production during the last 30 years o Bamboo harvesting  KBNP highland population dropped o Wood cutting from ~270 in 1996 to only ~140  Future challenges may include animals in 200045 concessions for timber, minerals and  Preliminary surveys in KBNP possible petroleum52 lowlands indicate 75–80% decline since 199546 Justification for the Top 25:  Local extinctions on the north bank of  Drastic and continuing population the Lowa River and Masisi47 decline compounded by continuing civil unrest and widespread insecurity 9
  14. 14. 10
  15. 15. Madame Berthe’s mouse lemurMicrocebus berthae (Rasoloarison, Goodman& Ganzhorn, 2000)MadagascarTop 25: 2012Biology53:  World’s smallest primate (average 31g54)  Inhabits dry deciduous forest  0–150m asl  Solitary forager characterized by extensively overlapping ranges55  Male ranges larger than females and more prone to seasonal fluctuation55  Daily torpor, but no prolonged torpor during the dry season  Sympatric with the larger Microcebus murinus across some of the range56, 57  Avoids interspecific competition by spatial segregation, making distributions of both species patchy57  Feeds on fruit and gum58  Relies on sugary excretions from insects during the harsh dry season58 Estimated population53:  <8,000 potentially breeding individuals57Range53:  Densities of 100/km2 recorded in  Menabe region in southwest patches, which suggests high localized Madagascar, south of the Tsiribihina densities River56, 57  Overall generalized density ~30  Area ≤900km2 individuals/km257  Kirindy/CFPF forests and Ambadira  None in captivity  Believed to also occur in the forests of Analabe, but the forest has been heavily degraded, so it is uncertain if Threats53: it still occurs there59  Habitat loss and fragmentation  Formerly occurred in the o Illegal logging Andranomena Special Reserve, but it o Slash-and-burn agriculture is not known if it still occurs there57  Range is severely fragmented Justification for the Top 25:  Decline in the area and quality of habitat  Small and severely fragmented range, which has seen a drastic decline in extent and quality of remaining habitat, especially since the illegal transfer of power in Madagascar in early 2009 11
  16. 16. Sclater’s black lemur orBlue-eyed black lemurEulemur flavifrons (Gray, 1867)MadagascarTop 25: 2008, 2010, 2012Biology60:  Rediscovered in 198361, 62  Initially regarded as a subspecies of E. macaco  Elevated to species level because of consistent morphological differences and pairwise genetic distances comparable to other Eulemur species pairs63, 64  Inhabits primary and secondary forest fragments61, 65-67 western dry deciduous forest region in  Home range size and use differs the south between primary and secondary forest  Largest remaining population in forest fragments, indicating secondary forest fragments on and adjacent to the is less suitable68 Sahamalaza Peninsula71  E. flavifrons has been recorded to consume 72 different plant species Estimated population60: from 35 families, of which 52.3%  In 1999, the estimated population of were fruits and 47.7% were leaves the Sahamalaza Peninsula was 450–  Also feeds on flowers, insects, insect 2,300 wild individuals and had exudates and fungi69 declined by 35.3% in three years72  Bimodal activity pattern70  Estimated total population,  Multi-male multi-female groups, extrapolated from density73, 74 and area ranging in size from 6 to 10 estimates, of 2,780–6,950 severely individuals, including 4 to 7 adults fragmented wild individuals  Both sexes disperse, but only males  80% wild population reduction have been seen moving into a foreign estimated and predicted over 35 years social group  30 captive individuals75  The sex ratio at birth varies strongly between years and could be male- Threats60: biased  Very small range  Births occur between late August and  Forest loss October, at the end of the dry season. o Slash-and-burn agriculture  During two successive birth seasons, o Selective logging infant mortality was 22.7%.  Hunting and trapping o BushmeatRange60: o Live capture for the pet  Very small area of 2,700km² in trade72, 76 northwest Madagascar, south of the o Trap density of up to 570 Andranomalaza, north of the traps/ km2 73 Maevarano, and west of the Sandrakota rivers61, 65-67 Justification for the Top 25:  Transition zone between the humid  Highly fragmented population in very Sambirano region in the north and the small range that is almost totally deforested 12
  17. 17. Red ruffed lemurVarecia rubra (E. Geoffroy, 1812)MadagascarTop 25: 2012Biology59, 77:  Diurnal  Inhabits tropical moist lowland forests  Apparent need for tall primary forest o Primarily inhabiting primary forest o Prefers high forest and is often observed in the crowns of large feeding trees  Sea level to 1,200m asl  Moves quadrupedally through the canopy, leaping occasionally  Largely frugivorous (75–90%), with flowers, nectar and leaves  Home range size: 23–58ha78  Multi-male, multi-female communities of 5–31 individuals78  Mating season May–July Estimated population59, 77:  Births from September–early  Density estimates: November o 31–53 individuals/km2 in  Gestation period: 102 days Andranobe83  Inter-birth interval: 2 years o 21–23 individuals/km2 in  Mean litter size: Ambatonakolahy84 o Wild: 2.1179  Captive population of 590 in 2009 o Captivity: 2.2280Range77: Threats77:  Very restricted range  Habitat loss  Masoala Peninsula and the region o Slash-and-burn agriculture immediately north of the Bay of o Human encroachment Antongil in northeastern Madagascar81 o Illegal logging  4000km2 o First lemur to disappear from degraded forest  Antainambalana River appears to separate this species from V.  Hunting o Heavily hunted in its entire variegata, but the western and range northern limits of the red ruffed lemur’s range remain unclear59  Westernmost distribution near the Justification for the Top 25: confluence of the Antainambalana and  Small distribution range that is under Sahantaha rivers82 severe threats of hunting and habitat loss 13
  18. 18. Northern sportive lemurLepilemur septentrionalis (Rumpler and Albignac, 1975)MadagascarTop 25: 2008, 2010, 2012Biology85:  Originally described based on cytogenetic and morphometric characteristics86  Supported by more detailed studies since, especially molecular data87-89  Small grayish-brown sportive lemur with not very prominent ears90  Nocturnal  Sleeps in tree holes during the day  Little known about its ecology and behaviorRange59, 85:  Strictly limited to a few small patches of dry forest in extreme northeastern o Sahafary (degraded forest patches Madagascar, just to the south of in Western Sahafary, Sahafary Antsiranana on the east coast East, Sahafary North, Andravina,  Very small remnant forest patches: Sahandrano, Andranomadiro, and o Near the villages of Madirobe Analalava) - about 100 individuals and Ankarongana in the  In 2012 probably only 19 individuals Sahafary region remaining in total o In the immediate vicinity of Andrahona, a small mountain about 30 km south of Threats59, 85: Antsiranana, east of Route  Very small fragmented range Nationale 6 o Most habitat already gone o Does not occur in protected areasEstimated population59, 85: o Uncertain if remaining fragments are of sufficient  Total population unknown, but very small size to warrant protection  A survey in 2007 provided the  Habitat destruction o For Eucalyptus plantations following estimates: o Firewood collection o Andrahona (forest patches and o Charcoal burning gallery forests of Andrahona, Analajanana, and  Hunting Analanjavavy) - 20  Most restricted and least protected individuals lemur o Ankarakataova (forests of Ankarakataova Be and Ankarakataova kely) - none Justification for the Top 25: found  Combination of small population, small range and rapidly decreasing suitable habitat, with high pressure from hunting 14
  19. 19. Silky sifakaPropithecus candidus (Grandidier, 1871)MadagascarTop 25: 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012Biology91:  Large, white sifaka from northeastern Madagascar  Recently raised to full species level 59, 92, 93  This species does not occur with other sifakas and cannot be confused with other lemurs  Found mainly in tropical montane forest  Group size: 2–9  Home ranges 34–47ha94, 95  Quarter of time travelling between foraging sites  Folivorous and granivorous,  A few groups have been found in the consuming fruits, seeds and leaves from a large number of plant groups Makira Forest Protected Area at two sites: Andaparaty (central-east  Mating occurs just a few days a year Makira) and Manandriana, 44 km to in November and January the northwest, adjacent to the  Young born in June or July94 Anjanaharibe-Sud Special Reserve).  Well-developed olfactory  Also found in the Betaolana Corridor communication that connects Anjanaharibe-Sud and  Scent-marking of territory Marojejy, and the unprotected  Males gouge trees prior to scent- Tsaratanana Corridor to the northwest marking Estimated population91:  Less than 250 individuals96Range91:  Marojejy: 40 inidviduals/km2 and 90  Restricted range in northeastern individuals/km2 97 Madagascar  Includes the humid forest belt Threats91: extending from Maroantsetra to the  Habitat destruction Andapa Basin and the Marojejy o Slash-and-burn agriculture Massif o Illegal logging of precious  Precise limits unknown woods, including rosewood96  Marojejy National Park is the northern o Firewood limit of its known distribution and the o Occurs in and adjacent to forests of Makira and the protected areas they are found Antainambalana River are regarded as in98-100 the southern limit96  Hunted throughout range  300–1,875m elevation  Patchy distribution and low densities Justification for the Top 25:  Majority of the remaining population  Small fragmented population under found in two protected areas: Marojejy extensive pressure from habitat National Park and Anjanaharibe-Sud destruction and hunting Special Reserve 15
  20. 20. IndriIndri indri (Gmelin, 1788)MadagascarTop 25: 2012Biology59, 101:  Largest extant species of lemur  Vertical clinger and leaper, with long hind limbs  Identified by its eerie wailing song  Male indri are slightly larger than females  Males and females can also be distinguished by song  Inhabits tropical moist lowland and montane forests  Usually found at low elevations, but ranges up to 1,800m102  Lives in groups of 2–6 individuals, usually consisting of a monogamous adult pair  Groups in fragmented habitats tend to Estimated population101: be larger103, 104  Low population density  Primarily feeds on immature leaves,  5.2–22.9 individuals/km2 106 with flowers, fruit, seeds and bark also  50% reduction over the past 36 years consumed105  Descends from canopy every day to consume soil, which may help detoxify seeds consumed105, 106 Threats101:  Home range size 18ha in fragmented  Habitat loss forest, up to ~40ha in pristine forest o Forest loss for fuel and timber  Reproduction is highly seasonal, with o Slash-and-burn agriculture a single offspring born in May or June  Hunting  Birth interval: 2–3 years o Previously considered a taboo, but now significant in some  Reproductive maturity: 7–9 years 107 areas o Hunted for skins and meat o Unsustainable108Range59, 101:  Eastern rainforests from Anjanaharibe-Sud in the north to Anosibe An’ala Classified Forest in Justification for the Top 25: the south  High rate of habitat destruction and  Not found on the Masoala Peninsula or in the Marojejy National Park unsustainable hunting  Subfossil evidence indicates that indri were once widespread across Madagascar 16
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  22. 22. Pygmy tarsierTarsius pumilus (Miller and Hollister, 1921)Indonesia (Sulawesi)Top 25: 2012Biology109, 110:  Largely data-deficient  Prior to 2008, known only from three specimens from 1916, 1930 and 2000111, 112  Thought to be extinct until the 2000 specimen was found dead in a rat trap  In 2008, 3 individuals were captured and 1 additional individual was observed110  Mean body mass: 50g, less than half of adult lowland tarsiers110  Nocturnal  Largely arboreal  Lives in small groups  Returns to the same sleeping tree each morning110  Unlike lowland tarsiers, pygmy tarsier groups contain multiple adult males, and they rarely vocalize or scent- mark110  Found at high altitudes (~1,800– 2,200m asl)  Adapted to colder, montane cloud forests112  Arthropod based insectivorous dietRange109: Threats109:  Southern and central Sulawesi,  Habitat encroachment and destruction Indonesia o Expanding human population  Specimen 1 (1916): 1,800 m from  Human conflict Rano Rano, in the mountains between o Some areas of Central Palu and Poso Sulawesi near known sites are  Specimen 2 (1930): 2,200 m on Mount conflict zones Rantemario in South Sulawesi o Factional fighting has seen the  Specimen 3 (2000): 2,200 m on the dislocation of large human flank of Mount Rorekatimbu111 populations that are then  2008 capture: Lore Lindu National resettled in refugee camps Park, Central Sulawesi110 Justification for the Top 25:Estimated population109:  Highly fragmented and isolated  Unknown populations threatened by human  3 museum specimens encroachment and conflict  3 captured and 1 additional observation in 2008110 18
  23. 23. Javan slow lorisNycticebus javanicus (Geoffroy, 1812)IndonesiaTop 25: 2008, 2010, 2012Biology113:  Recognized as a species in 2006  Nocturnal and arboreal  Found in both primary and secondary forest114  Requires arboreal connectivity between trees, via vines and lianas  Feeds on sap, floral florescence, gum and insects114  Found at elevations of 0–1,600m but more common at higher elevations114 Threats113:  Habitat loss o DeforestationRange113: o After an area is cleared,  Western and central Java, Indonesia lorises are collected as they  Less than 10% of the original forest remain clinging to the trees115 remains, most covering the higher  Hunting slopes of the central mountains o Traditional medicines o Pet trade116, 117  Less than 20% of suitable habitat o Not always the intended target remains but are picked up when found  17% of the potential distribution is o Numbers in animal markets protected exceed the ability for population numbers to recover o Front teeth removed at markets o Most lorises die of dentalEstimated population113: abscesses, pneumonia or  Unknown malnutrition  Very low population densities (0.02– o Unable to eat preferred gum 0.20 animals/km2 113 and exhibit important social  5–10 km must be walked to see a behavior118 single loris o Confiscated animals unlikely  Small population of confiscated to survive in the wild animals in rescue centers but 95%–  Roads and human disturbance119, 120 100% mortality has been reported due  Intrinsic risk: slow-reproducing121 to health conditions associated with captivity Justification for the Top 25:  Intensive hunting pressure 19
  24. 24. Simakobu or Pig-tailedsnub-nosed langurNasalis concolor (Miller, 1903)IndonesiaTop 25: 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008,2010, 2012Biology122:  Two subspecies: o Nasalis concolor concolor (Millar, 1903) o Nasalis c. siberu (Chasen and Kloss, 1927)  N. c. siberu ~6,000–15,000 in Siberut  Very little published on behavior and National Park ecology  Total population down from 26,000 in  Found in swamp forests and lowland 1980 rainforests and primary forests on  Maximum decline of 75% in 20 hillsides123-125 years124  Diurnal124  Population densities also reduced,  Semi-terrestrial124 indicating a 73–90% decline in 10  Almost equal time resting (46%) and years128-130 feeding (44%) and less time moving (7%)126  Primarily folivorous124 Threats122:  Birth season from June to July125  Hunting o Preferred game species in some areas130, 131Range122: o Hunting pressure increased  Endemic to Indonesia with improved access and  Confined to the Mentawai Islands off replacement of bows with air the western coast of Sumatra124 rifles128  N. c. concolor o In 1987, estimated that twice o Inhabits Sipora, North Pagai, as many individuals were and South Pagai Islands and hunted as were born in the several small islets off South Pagai islands123 Pagai o Pet trade o Remaining forest cover on the  Forest loss Pagai islands ~826km2 127 o Commercial logging124, 128 –  N. c. siberu particularly sensitive130 o Only on Siberut Island o Conversion to palm oil o 190,500ha Siberut National plantations and cash crops124, 128 Park covers 47% of Siberut Island o Human encroachment o Remaining 53% outside of o Forest clearing and extraction protected areas by local people124, 128Estimated population122:  N. c. concolor two estimates: ~3,347 Justification for the Top 25: individuals on the Pagai islands127 and  Heavy hunting and commercial 700–1,800 total population128 logging 20
  25. 25. Delacour’s langurTrachypithecus delacouri (Osgood,1932)VietnamTop 25: 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006,2008, 2010. 2012Biology132:  Restricted to limestone karst forest habitat, with additional records of secondary forest in limestone areas133, 134  Up to 1,000m asl135  Two protected areas with important  Caves thought to offer protection from subpopulations showed a decline of predators and temperature extremes136 20% in 5 years from 2000 to 2004  Diurnal and crepuscular  Four protected areas showed a  Degree of terrestriality is habitat- dramatic decline during 2009137 dependent135  Approximately 6 locations extirpated  60–80% of the diet consists of leaves,  Current total population unknown, but with 20–40% shoots, fruit, flowers and likely to be a maximum of 250 wild bark135 individuals Threats132:Range132:  Small population size  Very restricted area in north Vietnam  Hunting  5,000km² between 20º–21ºN and o Traditional medicines 105º–106ºE o Meat  Distribution closely related to the  Fragmentation limestone mountain ranges in the o Only the largest population of provinces Ninh Binh, Thanh Hoa, Hoa 68–70 individuals is thought Binh, and Ha Nam133 likely to survive136, 137  17 isolated locations totaling less than o Inbreeding may result in loss 400–450km² (size estimates from 18 of genetic viability locations)136, 137  Minor threat: Forest loss and degradation o Illegal grazing of goatsEstimated population132: o Limestone quarrying138, 139  1999/2000 estimated 281–317136  Potential threat: Tourism and  320 hunted individuals over 10 years, associated development135 but actual number undoubtedly higher  60% of total population in isolated subpopulations with less than 20 Justification for the Top 25: individuals133  Critically small, fragmented  Largest subpopulation, in the only population under hunting pressure well guarded forest, has increased and totals ~68–70 individuals133, 138, 139 21
  26. 26. Golden-headed langur orCat Ba langurTrachypithecus poliocephaluspoliocephalus (Trouessart, 1911)VietnamTop 25: 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006,2008, 2010, 2012Biology140:  Inhabits tropical moist forest on limestone karst hills  70–100m asl, possibly 0–200m141  Six to seven taxa of the T. francoisi group share range Threats140:  Caves thought to offer protection from predators and temperature extremes,  Small population size but are accessible by human hunters136 o Fragmentation resulting in inbreeding in subpopulations,  Diurnal which could compromise  Arboreal and terrestrial142 genetic viability  60–80% of the diet consists of leaves, o Limited mate choice with 20–40% shoots, fruit, flowers and o Susceptible to natural or bark135 human disaster causing total extinction142, 143  HuntingRange140: o Traditional medicines  Confined to the island of Cat Ba in the o Bushmeat Gulf of Tonkin, northeastern Vietnam o Driven by increasingly  Further restricted to ~100km2 area of attractive commercial gains occupancy143  Habitat disturbance and fragmentation  Mostly in Cat Ba National Park, which o Increasing human population covers more than half of the main o Tourism and associated island143 development  Wildlife protection deficient o Rampant fires due to honey  Divided into seven isolated collectors142 144 subpopulations due to habitat fragmentation143Estimated population140: Justification for the Top 25:  60–70 individuals (64 in 2006142)  Critically low population size and low  3–4 all-female, non-reproducing reproductive output, with threats from groups143 hunting  Reproductive output low  Stagnated at 1–2 offspring per year143 22
  27. 27. Western purple-facedlangurSemnopithecus vetulus nestor(Bennett, 1833)Sri LankaTop 25: 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010,2012Biology145:  Inhabits lowland tropical rainforest  Refugee populations presently inhabit semi- urban and rural home gardens, rubber plantations and areas with adequate canopy cover146  Highly arboreal Estimated population145:  Fragmentation forces this species to  Unknown the ground for which it is ill-  Believed to have undergone a decline adapted147 of more than 80% over three  Folivorous generations151  Fragmentation and urbanization in  Extirpation151 most of this species’ range has resulted in a diet mainly consisting of Threats145: fruits from residential gardens148  Habitat loss and fragmentation152, 153  Nutritional consequences of urban diet o Urbanization, including unclear, but feeding on fruits long- human settlement and term may be detrimental as they are infrastructure and industry not adapted to a frugivorous diet and o Agriculture, particularly crop fruits tend to occur seasonally plantations o Deforestation  Dependent on gardens for survivalRange145:  Dangers from power lines and  Western Sri Lanka, from the north of roads147, 151, 152 the Kalu Ganga as far north as the  Dogs147 rainforest limit149  Occasional hunting  Ranges up to 1,000m asl146 o Pet trade  Inhabits an area of high human density o Persecution for crop-raiding154  81–90% of the entire historic range o Local trade for meat, but not deforested and urbanized147, 150 significant152  Only recorded as present in 43% of o Becoming more tolerant to eastern (n=23) and 78% in the western humans which is putting them (n=27) halves of the historical range147 at increased risk153  Population fragmentation and isolation  Largest inhabited forests, with a total Justification for the Top 25: area of 21km2, surround two reservoirs  Habitat loss, fragmentation and (Kalatuwawa and Labugama)147 urbanization 23
  28. 28. Grey-shanked douc monkeyPygathrix cinerea (Nadler, 1997)VietnamTop 25: 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010,2012Biology155:  Mostly found in primary mountain evergreen forest156  Altitude of 900–1,400m asl  Canopy cover of 80–90%156Range155:  Central Vietnam between 13º30 and 16ºN  Recorded in five provinces: Quang Nam, Quang Ngai, Kon Tum, Gia Lai, and Binh Dinh136, 156  Occurrence confirmed in eight protected sites: Song Thanh Nature Reserve, Ngoc Linh Nature Reserve, Ba To Cultural and Historical Site, An o Snares common Toan Nature Reserve, Kon Cha Rang o Degraded habitats increase the Nature Reserve, Kon Ka Kinh risk of being caught in snares National Park, Mom Ray National whilst travelling Park and A Yun Pa Nature Reserve o Hundreds of traps installed in trees frequently used by monkey groupsEstimated population155: o Trapped animals are often severely injured or mutilated  600–700 individuals156 o Less than one quarter of  Fragmented hunted animals are  Some areas with assumed occurrence confiscated alive155 not yet surveyed156  Forest loss  Endangered Primate Rescue Center o Agricultural expansion has begun a breeding program with o Illegal logging confiscated animals o Firewood collection o Almost 10,000ha of forest are selectively logged every yearThreats155: in the central highlands156  Hunting o Meat o Traditional medicine o Pets156 o Problem inside protected areas Justification for the Top 25: o Response to hunting is to hide  Intensive logging and hunting motionless rather than fleeing, which makes them more susceptible136 24
  29. 29. Tonkin snub-nosed monkeyRhinopithecus avunculus (Dollman,1912)VietnamTop 25: 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008,2010, 2012Biology157:  Described in 1912  Collected on no more than two occasions over the next 50–60 years  Presumed extinct  Rediscovered in 1989  Tropical evergreen forests associated with karst limestone hills and mountains158, 159 o 2006: No evidence, but local  Largely restricted to primary forest160 reports suggested 8–12  200–1,200m asl158  TSM conservation area, Ha Giang  Selective feeder consuming young Province leaves, unripe fruits and seeds159, 160 o 2001: estimated 30–40 based  Diurnal161 on interviews164 o 2006: observed about 81  Arboreal and terrestrial159 animals; estimated 90158Range157:  Tung Vai Commune of Quan Ba District close to the border with China  Northeastern Vietnam149 o 60 individuals  Historically occurred east of the Red  Total population: estimated around River136 200–250+ individuals throughout  Due to widespread deforestation and range157, 159 intensive hunting, its distribution has become severely restricted136 Threats157:  Currently, five completely isolated  Hunting pressure159 localities known o Traditional medicines136, 158  Small forest patches in Tuyen Quang, o High pressure158 Bac Kan, Ha Giang and Thai Nguyen o Hydroelectric power project Provinces136 increases number of people and demand for meat136, 158Estimated population157: o Not shy and do not necessarily  Tat Ke sector158 flee when encountered161 o 1993: 72 individuals  Habitat degradation observed, 80 estimated160 o Firewood o 2005: far lower densities, 17– o Timber exploitation 22 estimated158 o Shifting cultivation  Ban Bung sector158 o Collection of non-timber o 1993: 23 observed, 50 forest products for estimated160 commercial purposes o No verifiable information for o Roads159 2005158  Cham Chu Nature Reserve Justification for the Top 25: o 1992: survey with locals  Critically small fragmented population estimated 20–40 individuals162 under hunting pressure o 2001: 70 estimated163 25
  30. 30. Gibbons in Peril:  Three species of gibbon were considered for this edition: Nomascus hainanus, N. leucogenys and N. nasutus  N. hainanus was recently listed on the ZSL/IUCN list of 100 most threatened species (Priceless or Worthless), with just 23–25 individuals remaining  For the World’s 25 Most Endangered Primates 2012–2014, we have selected N. nasutus as a flagship species to highlight the plight of other gibbonsCao-Vit or Eastern black-crestedgibbonNomascus nasutus (Kunkel dHerculais, 1884)China, VietnamTop 25: 2008, 2010, 2012Biology165:  Historically one of two subspecies, but both elevated to species level166, 167  Inhabits montane and limestone forests in a wet tropical monsoon climate168  500–900m asl168  Primarily fruivorous (86.6%), but also consumes leaves (4.7%), animal matter (0.5%) and undetermined food class (8.2%)169, 170Range165:  2002: estimated 26 individuals in five  Historical range was east of the Red groups171, 172 River in China and Vietnam  2004: 37 individuals in eight groups173  Current range very restricted  Total population estimated at 110  Sino-Vietnam border, northeastern individuals living in 18 groups173 Vietnam167, 171, 172 o 48km² Threats165: o 22º55N 106º30E  Habitat loss and disturbance o Includes the northern Phong o Cleared for cultivation Nam-Ngoc Khe forests (about o Pasture for livestock 30km²) of Trung Khanh o Firewood collection District, Cao Bang Province, o Charcoal production Vietnam o Already restricted range170  Jingxi County, Guangxi Zhuang  Small population Autonomous Region, southeastern o Inbreeding effects China167, 171, 172 o Poor mate choice o Area immediately adjacent to o Human or natural disaster167, 170 Vietnam o ~18km²  Hunting 170 Justification for the Top 25:Estimated population165:  Small range and population size, with  Feared extinct until a survey a large threat from habitat loss and rediscovered a population in the disturbance limestone forest of Phong Nam-Ngoc Khe Communes171, 172 26
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  32. 32. Variegated or Brown spidermonkeyAteles hybridus (I. Geoffroy, 1829)Colombia, VenezuelaTop 25: 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012Biology174:  Two subspecies: o Ateles hybridus brunneus o A. h. hybridus175  Large size  Slow reproductive rate of a single offspring at 3–4-year intervals  Spider monkeys are generally highly frugivorous (83%), but also eat young leaves and flowers176  They form groups of up to 20–30 individuals176Range174:  A. h. brunneus o Restricted to Colombia  Potential extirpation o Between the lower Ríos Cauca and Magdalena in the  Held in captivity in zoos and rescue Departments of Bolívar, centers in Colombia Antioquia and Caldas177 o Small geographic range where Threats174: forest loss, degradation and  Habitat loss and increasing fragmentation are widespread fragmentation o Surrounded by human o Agriculture and cattle populations o Human expansion o 9% of potential range remains o Land clearing continuous forest o Logging  A. h. hybridus o Conversion to secondary o Right bank of the Río forest Magdalena extending into o Potential corridors at risk western Venezuela175, 178  Hunting o Extremely fragmented, with o A. h. hybridus a favourite small populations game species in the Perijá Mountains179Estimated population174:  Pet trade  Unknown  Low population densities Justification for the Top 25:  A. h. hybridus extremely fragmented and there may be few populations of  High rate of habitat loss and hunting an adequate size to be viable in the mid- to long-term175, 177 28
  33. 33. Ecuadorian brown-headedspider monkeyAteles fusciceps fusciceps (Gray, 1866)EcuadorTop 25: 2006, 2012Biology180:  Tropical and subtropical human forests from 100 to 1,700m asl181  Diurnal  Strictly arboreal, preferring the uppermost levels of the canopy  Group size of up to 35 individuals  Diet consists mainly of ripe fruit (83%), but also flowers and a number of species of leaves182  Slow reproductive rate of one offspring at up to 3-year intervals183Range22, 180: Estimated population22, 180:  Endemic to Ecuador in the north, west  Unknown of the Andes, in the Province of  Population density of 1.2 Esmeraldas, and, at least historically it individuals/km2 in Cotacachi- would seem, south as far as the Cayapas184 Cordillera de Colonche  80% decline due to habitat loss185  Very small distribution, which is highly fragmented  Two populations remaining: o North of the Rio Mira, in the “Reserva Etnica Awá” close Threats22, 180: to the Colombian border22  Habitat loss and fragmentation o To the south, largely within o High rate due to the limits of the “Reserva deforestation185 Ecológica Cotacachi-  Hunting Cayapas” and the o Strong pressure185 neighbouring forest (north), mainly in a private reserve: “Reserva Biológica Los Cedros” 22  It has been suggested that A. f. Justification for the Top 25: fusciceps may be found in southern  Restricted distribution with high Colombia, continuous with the fragmentation, and small population populations in Ecuador178, but there is size still no evidence to support this 29
  34. 34. Ka’apor capuchinmonkeyCebus kaapori (Queiroz, 1992)BrazilTop 25: 2012Biology186:  Arboreal quadrupeds, typically found in the lower to mid-canopy and understorey187-189  Undisturbed and slightly disturbed dense lowland Amazonian high forest  Estimated density:  Altitudes of 200m or less190 o 0.98 individuals/km² in the  Can also be found in edge habitat in Gurupí Biological Reserve192 the transition with the Zona dos o 0.99 groups/10 km in the Cocais Fazenda Cauaxi in  Frugivorous and insectivorous diet, Paragominas191 they are manipulative and extractive  Three groups in 480km walked in the scavengers Gurupí Biological Reserve197  Groups observed to be 1–7 individuals191 Threats186:  Males disperse  Habitat loss  Both sexes take up linear hierarchies, o Forests in southern Pará and the top ranking male being dominant Maranhão have been over the top ranking female187 extensively destroyed  Sympatric with Cebus apella, causing o Region with the highest inter-species competition192 human population density and the highest level of deforestation and habitatRange186: degradation in the entire  Northwest Maranhão and northeast Brazilian Amazon191 Pará in the Brazilian Amazon190 o Occurs in only one protected  Ranging from east of the lower Rio area, which has lost half of its Tocantins to the bank of the Rio forest Grajaú where it enters the Zona dos o Selective logging of trees Cocais190, 191, 193-196 providing fruit that are a  Now absent east of the Rio Grajaú 193 significant part of the diet197  Hunting  Pet trade190Estimated population186:  Unknown Justification for the Top 25:  Drastic decline of at least 80% over  Extreme threat from deforestation and the past three generations hunting causing drastic population decline 30
  35. 35. San Martín titi monkeyCallicebus oenanthe (Thomas, 1924)PeruTop 25: 2012Biology198:  Able to survive in a wide variety of habitats including, at least in the short term, in forest fragments199, 200  Monogamous  Found in small family groups of two to six  Females usually give birth to one offspring per year  Diet consists primarily of insects and fruit o Liana species and fruits from the mistletoe family are particularly important o Insects form a larger portion of the diet than in most other titi monkey species201Range198:  Found in the upper Rio Mayo Valley, extending to the south into the Bajo Mayo and Huallaga central o This is largely the cultivation  At least 60% of the original habitat of rice and coffee has been lost202 o Cattle ranching and selective  Additional surveys are required in all logging also occur potential habitats in San Martin o Rapid rates of deforestation  Not found in any protected areas have caused the loss of 40% of the forest over the last 20 yearsEstimated population198: o Construction of a two-lane  Estimated density of 1.4 individuals asphalt road has further /ha increased human activity in  Remaining populations extremely the area fragmented and in small groups  Also hunted for bushmeat 200, 202, 203,  Groups observed in fragments as small with pressure likely to increase as as 2ha199 other game becomes scarce and forest  Estimated decline of 80% over the last fragmentation increases access. 25 years  Popular as pets 200, 202-204Threats198: Justification for the Top 25:  Habitat loss and fragmentation200, 203  Massive deforestation of this species’ o Major agrarian program has preferred habitat resulting in a drastic attracted huge numbers of population decline immigrants to the area 31
  36. 36. Northern brown howlermonkeyAlouatta guariba guariba(Humboldt, 1812)BrazilTop 25: 2012Biology205, 206:  Validity as a subspecies in question  Inhabits lowland, submontane and montane forest  Prehensile tail  Communicates with howls which can Estimated population205, 206: be heard up to 2km away207  Unlikely to be more than 250 mature  Group size is usually four or five, but individuals can be up to eleven  No subpopulation above 50 mature  Usually only one dominant male, individuals is thought to exist occasionally two  Quite small and broadly overlapping home ranges, of 5ha up to 45ha, depending on the type of habitat208  Leaf-based diet Threats205, 206:  The only New World primates to  Hunting regularly include mature leaves in  Deforestation their diet, though younger leaves are o Hunting is a larger threat as preferred groups can survive in small  Molar teeth are particularly adapted forest fragments if they are for chewing leaves through shearing not hunted  Mature fruit is also an important part o Selective logging of the diet  Disease epidemicsRange205, 206: Justification for the Top 25:  Restricted to a small area north of the  Very small population under a number Rio Jequitinhonha of threats 32

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