BASIC CONCEPTS AND BRIEF OVERVIEW OF HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS AND THE RIGHT TO AND EFFECTIVE REMEDY Aug 11, 2008 Unit prese...
Objectives <ul><li>Recognize a human rights violation in the basis of the UNDHR, UN International HR Treaties, and other r...
WHAT IS A HUMAN RIGHT? <ul><li>Human rights are universal legal guarantees protecting individuals and groups against actio...
BASIC CATEGORIES OF HUMAN RIGHTS <ul><li>Right to Dignity </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamental Freedoms  </li></ul><ul><li>Right ...
INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION: IHRL and IHL Universal Declaration  of Human Rights  1948 International Covenant  in Economic, ...
PROTECTION OF HR BC HR Code CDN HR Act CDN Charter of RR and FF IHRL & IHL UN Charter of HR
<ul><li>HAVE YOU EVER EXPERIENCED DISCRIMINATION? </li></ul>
WHAT IS DISCRIMINATION? <ul><li>When an individual, or a group of individuals, have been singled out and treated adversely...
YOUR RISK OF  BECOMING VICTIM OF HR VIOLATION? <ul><li>Minorities </li></ul><ul><li>Children </li></ul><ul><li>Women </li>...
Groups Protected from Discrimination <ul><li>BC HR Code </li></ul><ul><li>Race </li></ul><ul><li>Colour </li></ul><ul><li>...
HUMAN RIGHTS ISSUES <ul><li>.. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
<ul><li>FORCED DISAPPEARANCE </li></ul><ul><li>KIDNAPPING </li></ul><ul><li>TORTURE </li></ul><ul><li>RACIAL DISCRIMINATIO...
<ul><li>CRIME– CRIMINAL (offender)  </li></ul><ul><li>STATE (offended) </li></ul><ul><li>Legal system concern: protecting ...
<ul><li>“ Victims should be treated with compassion and respect for their dignity. They are entitled to access to the mech...
What’s the international definition of “victim?” <ul><li>Art 1 UN Victims Declaration 1985: </li></ul><ul><li>Victim of cr...
What about indirect victims? Witnesses, dependants of a direct victim, friends and other relatives, non-governmental organ...
And then, there are more definitions of victim <ul><li>Victims of Crime Act [RSBC 1996] (BC) / Crime  Victim  Assistance  ...
<ul><li>Identifying a Victim of Human Trafficking   </li></ul><ul><li>Sample Screening Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>What t...
<ul><li>Report    Application    Evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Victimization (Report)    Application    Evidence </li></ul>
VICTIMS’ RIGHTS <ul><li>&quot;[I]n honouring the victims' right to benefit from remedies and reparation, the international...
 
 
VICTIMS’ RIGHT TO COMPENSATION <ul><li>-  Common Law </li></ul><ul><li>+  Civil Law </li></ul><ul><li>+/- International La...
REDRESS
IN CLOSING <ul><li>VICTIMS RIGHTS …. </li></ul><ul><li>AND NEEDS! </li></ul><ul><li>REQUIREMENTS FOR A VICTIMS’ RIGHTS SYS...
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intro to Human Rights Violations and Victims' Rights

  1. 1. BASIC CONCEPTS AND BRIEF OVERVIEW OF HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS AND THE RIGHT TO AND EFFECTIVE REMEDY Aug 11, 2008 Unit presented by: Angela Contreras-Chavez Course: Truth and Reconciliation: Politics and Possibility of Memory Theme: Introduction to Human Rights Interfaith Institute for Peace, Justice, and Social Movements Burnaby, BC
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Recognize a human rights violation in the basis of the UNDHR, UN International HR Treaties, and other relevant HR instruments. </li></ul><ul><li>Name the groups at higher risk of becoming victims of HR violations. </li></ul><ul><li>Name basic rights and needs of victims of HR violations. </li></ul>
  3. 3. WHAT IS A HUMAN RIGHT? <ul><li>Human rights are universal legal guarantees protecting individuals and groups against actions of state and non-state actors which interfere with fundamental freedoms and human dignity (UN, 2000) </li></ul>
  4. 4. BASIC CATEGORIES OF HUMAN RIGHTS <ul><li>Right to Dignity </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamental Freedoms </li></ul><ul><li>Right to Equality </li></ul><ul><li>Political Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Fair Trial (due process) </li></ul><ul><li>Solidarity Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Protection of Groups at Risk </li></ul>
  5. 5. INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION: IHRL and IHL Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948 International Covenant in Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (ICESCR -1966) International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and Optional Protocols (ICCPR – 1996) Four Geneva Conventions 1949 & Two Additional Protocols (1977) Genocide Crimes Against Humanity War Crimes Grave Breaches Of Geneva Conventions
  6. 6. PROTECTION OF HR BC HR Code CDN HR Act CDN Charter of RR and FF IHRL & IHL UN Charter of HR
  7. 7. <ul><li>HAVE YOU EVER EXPERIENCED DISCRIMINATION? </li></ul>
  8. 8. WHAT IS DISCRIMINATION? <ul><li>When an individual, or a group of individuals, have been singled out and treated adversely or differently than others due to group characteristics such as race, colour, religious belief or sexual orientation, then discrimination has likely occurred . (BC HR Coalition) </li></ul>
  9. 9. YOUR RISK OF BECOMING VICTIM OF HR VIOLATION? <ul><li>Minorities </li></ul><ul><li>Children </li></ul><ul><li>Women </li></ul><ul><li>Elderly and Persons with Disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Refugees </li></ul>
  10. 10. Groups Protected from Discrimination <ul><li>BC HR Code </li></ul><ul><li>Race </li></ul><ul><li>Colour </li></ul><ul><li>Ancestry </li></ul><ul><li>Place of origin </li></ul><ul><li>Political beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Marital status </li></ul><ul><li>Family status </li></ul><ul><li>Physical or mental disability </li></ul><ul><li>Sex </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Age (19 and over) </li></ul><ul><li>Criminal and summary conviction </li></ul><ul><li>Source of income </li></ul><ul><li>CDN HR Act </li></ul><ul><li>Race </li></ul><ul><li>National or ethnic origin </li></ul><ul><li>Colour </li></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Sex </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Marital status and family status </li></ul><ul><li>Disability </li></ul><ul><li>Conviction for an offence for which a pardon has been granted </li></ul>
  11. 11. HUMAN RIGHTS ISSUES <ul><li>.. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>FORCED DISAPPEARANCE </li></ul><ul><li>KIDNAPPING </li></ul><ul><li>TORTURE </li></ul><ul><li>RACIAL DISCRIMINATION </li></ul><ul><li>SUMMARY EXECUTION </li></ul><ul><li>RAPE </li></ul><ul><li>GENOCIDE </li></ul><ul><li> ONE VICTIM </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>CRIME– CRIMINAL (offender) </li></ul><ul><li>STATE (offended) </li></ul><ul><li>Legal system concern: protecting the rights of the offender (punishment, rehabilitation) </li></ul><ul><li> Criminal Justice System </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT ABOUT THE VICTIM? </li></ul><ul><li>Concern for victims’ rights and needs (protection, compensation) </li></ul><ul><li> Victims’ Rights System </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>“ Victims should be treated with compassion and respect for their dignity. They are entitled to access to the mechanisms of justice and to prompt redress, as provided for by national legislation, for the harm they have suffered.” </li></ul><ul><li>– U.N. Victims Declaration,1985 </li></ul><ul><li>paragraph four </li></ul>
  15. 15. What’s the international definition of “victim?” <ul><li>Art 1 UN Victims Declaration 1985: </li></ul><ul><li>Victim of crime is any person, or group of persons, that individually or collectively, has suffered harm, including physical or mental injury, emotional suffering, economic loss or substantial impairment of fundamental rights, through acts or omissions that are in violation of criminal laws operative within Member States, including those laws proscribing criminal abuse of power. </li></ul>
  16. 16. What about indirect victims? Witnesses, dependants of a direct victim, friends and other relatives, non-governmental organizations (juristic persons)… UN Basic Principles and Guidelines (2005):
  17. 17. And then, there are more definitions of victim <ul><li>Victims of Crime Act [RSBC 1996] (BC) / Crime Victim Assistance Act . [SBC 2001] CHAPTER 38. Assented to August 27, 2001 (BC) </li></ul><ul><li>Mandate for Truth and Reconciliation Commission (Canada) </li></ul><ul><li>Guatemala’s Commission for Historical Clarification (CEH) </li></ul><ul><li>Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power --Adopted by General Assembly resolution 40/34 of 29 Nov 1985 </li></ul><ul><li>UN Basic Principles on Victims’ Right to Remedy and Reparation ---The right to restitution, compensation and rehabilitation for victims of grave violations of human rights and fundamental freedoms --------- E/CN.4/RES/2002/44 - 23 April 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>U.N. Declaration of Basic Principles for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power (“the Victims Declaration”) </li></ul><ul><li>U.N. Basic Principles and Guidelines on the Right to Remedy and Reparation for Victims of Gross Violations of International Human Rights Law and Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law ----------A/Res/60/147 21 Mar 2006  </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Identifying a Victim of Human Trafficking </li></ul><ul><li>Sample Screening Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>What type of work do you do? </li></ul><ul><li>Are you being paid? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you leave your job? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you come and go as you please? </li></ul><ul><li>Have you or your family been threatened? </li></ul><ul><li>What is your working and living condition like? </li></ul><ul><li>Where do you sleep and eat? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you have to ask permission to eat/sleep/go to the bathroom </li></ul><ul><li>Are there locks on your doors/windows that you cannot unlock? </li></ul><ul><li>Has your identification or documentation been taken from you? </li></ul><ul><li>(Copied from the Rescue and Restore, HHS, &quot;Look beneath the Surface“ </li></ul><ul><li>question card; US. Department of Health and Human Services Website, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>http://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/07/HumanTrafficking/IdentVict/ib.htm#Defining </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Report  Application  Evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Victimization (Report)  Application  Evidence </li></ul>
  20. 20. VICTIMS’ RIGHTS <ul><li>&quot;[I]n honouring the victims' right to benefit from remedies and reparation, the international community keeps faith and human solidarity with victims, survivors and future human generations, and reaffirms the international legal principles of accountability, justice and the rule of law&quot; Preamble, E/CN.4/2000/62 </li></ul>
  21. 23. VICTIMS’ RIGHT TO COMPENSATION <ul><li>- Common Law </li></ul><ul><li>+ Civil Law </li></ul><ul><li>+/- International Law: </li></ul><ul><li>+ UDHR </li></ul><ul><li>+/- UN Specialized Treaties: </li></ul><ul><li>+ Convention Against Torture (CAT)  Redress ; </li></ul><ul><li>+ International Convention for Protection of Rights of Migrant Workers and their Families (1990); </li></ul><ul><li>+ Convention Against all Forms of Racial Discrimination; </li></ul><ul><li>+/- International Covenant on Economic/Social/Cultural Rights (ICESCR) </li></ul>
  22. 24. REDRESS
  23. 25. IN CLOSING <ul><li>VICTIMS RIGHTS …. </li></ul><ul><li>AND NEEDS! </li></ul><ul><li>REQUIREMENTS FOR A VICTIMS’ RIGHTS SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li> Compensation </li></ul><ul><li> Redress </li></ul><ul><li> Testimony </li></ul><ul><li> Truth </li></ul><ul><li> Acknowledgement </li></ul><ul><li> Memory </li></ul><ul><li> Reparation </li></ul><ul><li> Justice </li></ul><ul><li> Reconciliation </li></ul><ul><li> Prevention ( Never Again!) </li></ul><ul><li> JUSTICE </li></ul>

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