TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOK PREPARING A TEACHER HANDBOOK Aim: To design a training manual for a teacher training.María G. Martinez
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOK GENERAL INFORMATION The aims of the training The requirements Which language the training is offered in and for Requirements of the trainee Application form for trainees interested A questionnaire Course rules STRUCTURE AND TIMING CONTENTSCERTIFICATEGeneral informationApplication form for certificationApplication form for lesson observationMANUALDossiers ExplanationInstructions for dossier ElaborationEVALUATIONTeaching dossiers checklistsClass Observation checklistEvaluation Procedure and Assessment criteriaTrainer Evaluation checklistMATERIALReading ListDossiers ExamplesMaterialsMaría G. Martinez
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOK GENERAL INFORMATIONAims of the trainingThis Trainee handbook (TH) is designed and produced by María G. MartínezCaamaño member of the English Academy from Technological University ofSouthest of Veracruz (UTSV), which has provided examinations in English forspeakers since 2006.The teacher in training should know: concepts related to pronunciation training,listening comprehension, understanding different accents, learning spoken andwritten language, planning and preparing dossier in language awareness,language and culture, language learning processes, language teaching,planning and evaluation and self-assessment and development.This handbook also will encourage teachers in their professional developmentby providing steps in a developmental framework for teachers of English.The requirementsThe trainee handbook is suitable for: - Teachers in training who teach levels 1 - 9 in the Technological University of Southest of Veracruz - Classroom assistants who work with levels 1-9 in the UTSV - Candidates taking this certification will normally have some experience of teaching English to speakers of other language. - Teachers need at least an intermediate level of English level B1 of the Council of Europe‟s Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR), e. g. TKT band score of 3. - English as an additional language teacher who work with non-native speaker learners in mainstream classes.Which language the training is offered in and forThis trainee handbook is offered only in English language for helping teachersin training to develop their own teaching dossiers. The TH includes thelanguage used as English teachers and their activities. It guides to understandand design a dossier for the 6 areas, for any topic and level 1-9 that theychoose to work on.Requirements of the traineeMaría G. Martinez
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOKAll the candidates taking this training will normally have experience of teachingEnglish to speakers of other languages. They may also be taken: - Candidates studying for teaching qualifications who may have non-native learners in their classrooms. - Teachers need at least an intermediate level of English. Level B1 of the Council of Europe‟s Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) - Candidates taking this training are expected to be familiar with the language of teaching a represented in the glossary from level 1-9 as well as the terminology related to the description of language, subject vocabulary and concepts for this training. - Successful candidates are likely to have experience of teaching school subjects through the medium of English. - Candidates should be certificated in a teaching Knowledge Test with minimum band 3. - All trainees must receive at least major or bachelor is necessary for our college admission. - All trainees must update their application form for trainees interested. - We are required to send a quarter progress report on the training. - All trainees must answer the questionnaire to integrate their profile. - Trainees‟ must update CVs every year - All trainees are required to be involved in conducting or teaching research and policy. All trainees are required to present work in progress about their dossiers. - Trainees will receive formal and informal instructions in the responsible conduct of research, including language and teaching integrity and ethical principles of teaching.María G. Martinez
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOKApplication form for interested trainees Personal Information Salutation First Name Last nameEmail( ) ( )Phone Mobile phone / /Birth day Birth month Birth yearCitizenship F M GenderMarital StatusCityCountryZip / Postal code Education and ExperienceTitle of BachelorYears of Years as a teacherexperience Certification Band /Score SignatureMaría G. Martinez
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOKA questionnaireNAME:__________________________________________________________Instructions: Choose the best answer1. When you are teaching do you use the appropriate terminology to your students?a) Yes b) Sometimes c) No d) I need toimprove in it2. Do you understand the principles of language learning and teaching?a) Yes b) Sometimes c) No d) I need to improve in it3. Do you select the appropriate teaching points from teaching materials to suitdifferent levels?a) Yes b) Sometimes c) No d) I need to improve in it4. Do you provide your students with clear and effective explanations in a way that is helpful to them?a) Yes b) Sometimes c) No d) I need to improve in it5. Do you use grammar books, platforms or websites effectively to provide your students with clear answers?a) Yes b) Sometimes c) No d) I need to improve in it6. Do you provide to my students styles and strategies for learning?María G. Martinez
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOKa) Yes b) Sometimes c) No d) I need to improve in it7. Do you give your students feedback on their language competence in a waythat is appropriate and helpful?a) Yes b) Sometimes c) No d) I need to improve in it8. Do you encourage and motivate your students to improve?a) Yes b) Sometimes c) No d) I need to improve in it9. Do you define the aims of my lesson and understand how to achieve them?a) Yes b) Sometimes c) No d) I need to improve in it10. Do you use a variety of exercise types?a) Yes b) Sometimes c) No d) I need to improve in it11. Do you use various media forms appropriately asmoodle, whiteboard, smartboard, etc?a) Yes b) Sometimes c) No d) I need to improve in itMaría G. Martinez
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOKCourse rulesThis training handbook includes all the rules to do this certification possible. - All traineesinterested trainees need an application form before starting the training. - Trainees‟ updated CVs with their application form - We are required to send a quarter progress report on the training, depending the English level that they‟re teaching. - All trainees must answer the questionnaire to integrate their profile. - All trainees are required to be involved in conducting or teaching research and policy. All trainees are required to present work in progress about their dossiers. - Trainees will receive formal and informal instructions in the responsible conduct of research, including language and teaching integrity and ethical principles of teaching. - This course should be read it completely before planning and doing the dossier. - The questionnaire should be answered by all candidates without any exception.STRUCTURE AND TIMINGFace to faceThe face to face program provides you an opportunity to settle down in theUniversity of Technological of south-east from Veracruz class to exploreexperiential learning in a small class setting. This trainee handbook can bedeveloped in different structures or way to teaching.The training will include “train the trainer” programmes. This course also comeswith a set of a manual where it describes and explain how to do the dossier insix different areas and it will explain the topic of the dossier as LanguageAwareness, Language and Culture, Language Learning Processes, LanguageTeaching, Planning and Evaluation, Self-Assessment and Development.Members of the English academy will explain to the trainees what are the aimsof the each lesson, it will give an example of the description of a class, it alsowill explain what are the correct procedure to do the dossier and the conclusionMaría G. Martinez
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOKof the lesson. It is also important for trainees to know all attachments orresources that they could use to develop their classes.All the material or resources to support are showed face to face by the EnglishAcademy will also be made available. The ultimate objective should be to createincreased the best methodology and strategies for teaching, so that all traineescan utilise the information for improvement of their quality of teaching, and tocreate scope for teaching skills development.All nine members of the English academy will be instructors who will teach inthe face to face format. We should not forget all benefits of face to face trainingwhich are though face to face communication, additional information is availablesuch as the deducting through body language, tone, volume and modulations ofvoice. Sometimes technology often does not facilitate the right type ofinformation being shared or exchanged. This means that learning potential canbe limited. However, the trainees are not entirely passive in this relationship ortutorial, as they give the instructor valuable information about how they areprogressing, areas in which they are doing well and those that would benefitfrom further input. Face to face also delivery allows trainees to share theirpersonal experiences, thoughts and challenges in relation to the content. Thiscan be a rich source of learning and one that many trainees miss whenundertaking distance education.The timing for this program using face to face training will be twice a week,three hours per day, counting 60 hours in total.Blended courseThe benefits of face to face courses are well documented elsewhere on thishandbook. Onsite courses have the face to face contact which online courseslack, and online courses do not include any practice teaching, and for thisreason are less recommended for absolute beginner teachersThere are many factors which may lead a trainee to go for online training,however, factors which include convenience, cost, access, location, learningstyles and preferences.Online courses do enable you to gain a useful insight into this handbook, andwhere there is a lower minimum requirement for the qualifications of teachers,these courses can serve as a passport into teaching. Online courses give afoundation which is ideal for helping to orientate potential teachers who may begoing off on a short term teaching mission, where teaching English is not beingseen as a long-term career, nor to provide a sustainable source of income,where teaching might take place on a casual or volunteer basis.María G. Martinez
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOKThis kind of course will take more time because it will required more practice forface to face and online practices. It should count 60 hours in total.Online courseWith our busy lives, conventional employee training can become a repetitive,time-consuming task for all involved. In-person classroom training requires thateveryone involved get together at the same time/place, and the teacher must bepaid for his/her time, even though the same material is presented again andagain. Conventional training involves print materials, travel expenses, and manyother cost-producing aspects.Flexibility: Online training works great with tight schedules. Since many peopleare living busy lives, these Web-based applications can be reached from homeor any other Internet-accessible computer anytime! No more scheduled trainingsessions to work around. Trainees can train at their own pace, and work aroundtheir schedules, thereby minimizing loss of productivity.Relevance: All content-managed courses stay up-to-date, ensuring that themost accurate, relevant information reaches trainees.Affordable: Companies with a large volume of high-turnover positions wherecontinuous training is necessary can save thousands with online trainingprograms. They eliminate classroom related costs and materials expenses.Now trainers can develop the course content, present it once and go on to thenext project. Trainers only need to revisit the course if the content needs to bemodified.Retention: Since trainees are learning at their own pace, the learning retentionrate is often higher than in a classroom setting. They can still have opportunitiesto email or call the teacher to ask questions, although many online courses nowoffer an updatable FAQ section where they can look first for answers to themost commonly asked questions, which reduces repetitive questions.Reporting: Most applications, like Osmosis, are customizable. The reportingtools are also customized to suit the company. During the analysis phase of theproject, specialists determine what components are most important and developeasy ways to gather the exact data needed for grading.This kind of course will take more time because it will required more practice forface to face and online practices. It should count 60 hours in total.Weekend courseMaría G. Martinez
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOKThe way for this training will be only apply on weekends, it gives to teachers allthe information that they need to know but on weekends so they will be able todevelope their work and put in practices their experimental work in the weekwith their students.Compact courseIn this course, we use the summary of all the methodologies and strategies forteaching, it also focus in the meaning of the main concepts and includes a lot ofexamples about to how make the dossiers. Talking about compact course isspending the same hours for having this course but the insensitive for learningand practice increase, it means that teachers will have to spend more timepracticing and doing research that reading or assist face to face to a course. Itwill be more practical than theoretical. CONTENTSThis handbook helps the teachers in training to develop their own teachingdossier. It is really practical for trainees; it will help in order to design teacher‟steaching dossiers. This manual contents general information such as the aimsof the training, the requirements of the trainee, the application form for traineesinterested, the questionnaire and all the course rules.It also specifies all strategies, structure and timing that we are using for thistraining. Some strategies are face to face, blended course, online course,weekend course, compact course.This trainee handbook will develop the language awareness, language andculture, Language Learning Processes, Language Teaching, Planning andEvaluation and Self-Assessment and Development in all the trainees teachersin order to guide to meet, understand and design six dossier for different areas,for any topic and level they choose to work on.The six main areas of the training are:1. Language awareness, where trainees will improve their pronunciation training, learning vocabulary, listening comprehension, understanding different accents, learning spoken and written languages. Trainees will be able to describe the language I am teaching and use the appropriate terminology, to understand the principles of language learning and teaching,María G. Martinez
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOK to select the appropriate teaching points from teaching materials to suit different levels, to provide my students with clear and effective explanations in a way that is helpful to them, to select and apply the appropriate methodological tools to highlight differences in language systems, to use reference materials (i.e. grammar books) effectively to provide my students with clear answers with regards to language-related questions at the end of the course.2. Language and culture, the purpose in this area is awareness of socio-cultural and intercultural aspects of language use and language learning, dealing sensitively with difficult classroom situations relating to intercultural differences, understanding different backgrounds (therefore different study methods) of students, cross-cultural communication and applicacion of this knowledge to the teaching situation. Trainees will be able to take into account and incorporate into my teaching the educational experiences my students have had previously, to provide for individual learner styles and strategies in my teaching, to design my lessons with my students needs and interests in mind in order to make it interesting, lively and motivating, to give my students feedback on their language competence in a way that is appropriate and helpful (i.e. error correction) taking into account the stage of language development they are at, to encourage and motivate my students to improve at the end of the course.3. Language learning processes, in this area the trainees will be able to take into account and incorporate into my teaching the educational experiences my students have had previously, to provide for individual learner styles and strategies in my teaching, to design my lessons with my students needs and interests in mind in order to make it interesting, lively and motivating, to give my students feedback on their language competence in a way that is appropriate and helpful (i.e. error correction) taking into account the stage of language development they are as well as the stage aim we are trying to achieve in a particular stage of a lesson, to encourage and motivate my students to improve, being aware of different types of motivation and capable to relate those to my students at the end of the course.4. Language teaching, trainees will be able to define the aims of my lesson and understand how to achieve them by the end of the lesson as well as make my students aware of what my aims are, to be confident in selecting, adapting and designing materials to suits those aims, to use a variety of exercise types, to use various media forms appropriately (Moodle, whiteboard, Smartboard...), to evaluate learning tasks and activities, to incorporate learning tasks and activities which encourage and facilitate learner autonomy and take into account learners learning styles and cultural expectations, toMaría G. Martinez
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOK give clear instructions and make sure they are understood, to manage a class effectively in a wide variety of contexts taking into consideration the learners needs and levels of language competence as well as mixed abilities and clarify the meaning of new vocabulary through the use of different means and I am able to check that the students have understood at the end of the course.5. Planning and evaluation, in this area trainees will be able to state the general aims of a course with reference to the CEFR (European Framework), to define the aims of my lesson so that they fit within the context of the whole course, to plan lessons and teaching programmes and include appropriate tasks to suit the learning outcomes, to use various ways of conducting a course evaluation, to do a needs analysis and assess my students language competence according to the CEFR, to inform my students on language examinations available to them and advice them on the appropriate options for them, to help my students to plan further learning to suit their needs and use a variety of inductive and deductive approaches to present a grammar structure and select an effective approach taking into account the grammar point in question and the group Im teaching at the end of the course. At the last area but not the least6. Self-assessment and development, in this area trainees wil be able to reflect and draw conclusions from observations and self-observation in order to gain a better understanding of the teaching situation and validate, bring changes to and improve my own teaching, to receive and make use of feedback on my teaching performance, to give constructive feedback to colleagues , to incorporate the systematic sharing of ideas with colleagues to promote best practice, to access the relevant support systems that will enable me to develop further and find solutions to my teaching problems and to put forward ideas on how to ensure continuous professional development at the end of the course. CERTIFICATEGeneral InformationGetting a certification as English trainee teachers will improve the trainee‟steaching-learning strategies in English as a second language. It gives theteacher the abilities and understanding to increase the cognitive process in theway that they teach, it also helps all the communications strategies to developthe intercultural understanding.María G. Martinez
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOKThe global necesity to learn another language, specially English, as teacher, weshould motivate our student the importance of this language at present andgetting this certification will help teachers to do that kind of motivation.This certification will provide to teachers to develop their own teachingstrategies or metodologies for teaching. Getting this certification, teachers willimprove how to correct mistakes from their students in class, it is reallyimportant to teachers use social forms and identify how adults learn a language.The documents require to obtain the certificate are: - A bachelor degree - Teaching Knowledge Test certification (three modules with at least band 3 in each one) - Elaborate and develop six dossiers in areas as Language Awareness, Language and Culture, Language Learning Processes, Language Teaching, Planning and Evaluation and Self-Assessment and Development. - Have at least 1 year of experience in teaching - Trainee teachers should be attendance to all hours of this courseThe candidates receive a certificate for Trainee Teachers. Candidatesperformance is reported to the European Competence Systems Certificate andevaluate it by this important and international organization. This one will be whodecided is the certification has been successful and it will let the teachers knowabout it.María G. Martinez
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOKApplication form for certificationFill in the boxes with your information, all required fields must be completed oryour form will be returned.LAST NAME (as photo ID)FIRST NAME (as photo ID)ADDRESS. LINE 1ADDRESS. LINE 2CITYCOUNTRY ZIP CODEPHONE NUMBER GENDER MAL FEMALE EDATE OF BIRTH NATIVE LANGUAGEMO D YEANTH A R YMaría G. Martinez
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOKApplication form for lesson observationDate / Time: Duration:Teacher: Level. & Subject: No. in Class:Support Staff: Observer:Context:Where the teaching was effective, it was Where the teaching was not so effective itbecause: was because:Where the learning was effective, it was Where the learning was not so effective itbecause: was because: Agreed areas for developmentMaría G. Martinez
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOKMANUALDossiers ExplanationThe first area is Language Awareness. Here the trainee is going to be able todescribe the language taught in class, and making reference about appropriateterminology. The apprentice is going to learn how to select the appropriateteaching points from materials, in order to share the principles of languagelearning; also he/she is going to learn how to provide effective explanations tothe learners through the use of appropriate methodological tools. By doing this,is necessary to make use of reference materials which are going to provideclear information related to the language.Instructions for dossier ElaborationCover.- Your dossier must contain a cover where you specify the area that youare going to work with. Provide the title, the date, and the name of the personthat is elaborating the dossier.Description of the area.- Here you have to explain the characteristics of the areathat you are developing, providing just a brief explanation about the area in nomore than a full page.Description of the class and course.- here you have to explain the participantsof the class. You have to include number of students that are in the class, thelevel of the learners, their age; the characteristics of the course like the goals ofthe session, the topic, and the order which is going to be performed.Topic.- You have to provide the main topic that you are using to elaborate yourdossier.Aims of the lesson.- provide the objectives that learners have to achieve at theend of the lesson according to the topic.Personal aims.- provide the personal objectives that you want to achieve at theend of the lesson.Procedure.- In this section you have to describe all the activities of the class.This description has to be very detailed. It must be described in order, andexplaining what should the learners do and the dynamic issues. It is importantto add the materials that students need in every activity. It must cover the wholeclass, from the introduction to the conclusion.María G. Martinez
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOKConclusion.- here you have to write a general conclusion about the way youdeveloped the dossier. You have to provide your thoughts about the aims youcompleted, and if it is necessary changing anything.Self evaluation.- in this section you have to elaborate a personal evaluationabout your performance and if you found any problem during the dossiercreation. You have to include what you have learnt, and what do you think youcould improve for future activities.Lesson plan.- here you have to include the lesson plan that you elaborated forthe dossier. You have to consider all the activities of the class, the material thatyou are going to use, the time for each activity, and how is going to be theinteraction per activity.Attachments.- in this section you have to include all the extra materials that youare going to use for the class; they could be worksheets, flashcards, pictures,etc.Dossier FormatCover.- “ENGLISH LEVEL” Objectives of the lesson Topic Theme: “NAME OF THE AREA” DateMaría G. Martinez
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOKBody.-You have to consider this format: Font: Arial 12 Line space: 1.5 Include a content table.Note: The information of each section of the dossier, does not have to pass 15lines, only the procedure section must be no less than a full pageEVALUATIONTeaching dossiers checklists Teaching Dossier Area: Language AwarenessNecessary point to cover Covered? Observation/comment yes noThe teacher is completely familiar with thebasic tools for language analysis.The teacher is able to make generalcomparisons between the source languageof the learners and the target language.The teacher can deploy this knowledge inhis/her teaching, using it in particular for theplanning of language lessons and languagecourses.The teacher is able to check his/herknowledge of the language system and tofurther develop it, using relevant referencesources.Uses correct and appropriate terminology todescribe language.María G. Martinez
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOKFormulates learning objectives clearly andcomprehensibly for language lessons andparts of language lessonsAnalyses language and help learners tounderstand language structuresPerceives and understand difficulties relatedto the structures of the target languagewhich learners encounter and to provideappropriate didactical and methodologicalmeasures to deal with such problemsProvides grammatical explanations whichare readily comprehensible and accessibleto his/her learners Teaching Dossier Area: Language and CultureNecessary point to cover Covered? Observation/comment Yes NoThe teacher is aware of socio-cultural andintercultural aspects in language use andlanguage production.The trainer is able to sensitive learners tocultural differences.Shows empathy with/sensitivity to thecultural background(s) of the learnersPromotes sensitivity towards culturaldifferences whilst avoiding culturalstereotypes in his/her learners.Integrates socio-cultural and interculturaltopics into the language lessons.María G. Martinez
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOK Teaching Dossier Area: Planning and EvaluationNecessary point to cover Covered? Observation/comment Yes noIs the teacher able to plan and evaluatelanguage lessons within the context of agiven curriculum/syllabus.Understands the institutional context ofhis/her teaching activities and is familiarwith the overall training programmesoffered within his/her institution.Understands the levels of competencedefined in the European Framework ofReference, is familiar with the mainlanguage examinations offered in thetarget language and is able to preparelearners to take such examinations.States general aims and objectives for acourse or a series of lessonsDefines aims and objectives for a lessonand integrate them in the context of acoursePlans lessons, selecting appropriatelearning tasks and activities to suit theaims and objectives of the lessonMaría G. Martinez
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOK Teaching Dossier Area: Language AcquisitionNecessary point to cover Covered? Observation/comment Yes noThe teacher is aware of the mostimportant concepts related to currenttheories of language acquisition, canrecognise development patterns in thetarget language, and is able to integratethese into the planning of languagelessons, thus structuring and supportingthe language learning process.Integrates learners previous learningexperience in his/her language lessonsPresents learning materials in a lively andrelevant mannerTakes into consideration the needs andinterests of the learnersRecognises the level of languagecompetence of the learnersAnticipates possible language problemsand show evidence of envisaged solutionsin his/her planningMaría G. Martinez
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOK Teaching Dossier Area: Global EvaluationNecessary point to cover Covered? Observation/comment yes NoCombines theoretical knowledge withpractical language teachingAcquires basic methodological-didacticcompetence and skills and know whenand how to apply themUnderstands the different aspects andproblems related to modern languageteachingReflects and analyse own teaching,based on practical examples, and drawconclusions for own further development.Tries out and evaluate new andalternative solutions.Learns from others.Works together with others.María G. Martinez
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOKClass Observation checklistName of trainee _____________________ Observer ___________________________Class observed _____________________ Date ____________________________ Mark with an X in the appropriate space: 1: Excellent, 2: Good, 3: acceptable 4: Could improve, 5: Not observed Teaching Dossier Area: Global EvaluationNecessary point to cover Result Observation/ 1 2 3 4 5 CommentBefore the lesson takes part: The planning of the lesson The choice of material, activities and tasks Reflection on potential problems Well designed materialsDuring the lesson: Review of previous topic Invites to class discussion Solicits students input Demonstrates awareness of individual needs of students aims of the lesson (clear and transparent) correction (how) language of instructionMaría G. Martinez
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOK Context appropriate? classroom management social forms atmosphere Confidence provider Content organized Relates concept to students needs and experienceAfter the lesson: topics to be discussed Commitments Proper and clear feedback Personal feedback (if needed)Evaluation Procedure and Assessment criteriaThe evaluation criteria for the trainee are going to be according to the waywhich evaluation is held in the institution. The evaluations‟ university is dividedin two parts, 70% practice and 30% theoretical knowledge. Based on this, theobservation must be considered by following the practical part. It is importantthat the trainee provides practical activities, more than grammar explanation.Also, the institution is focused on communicative approach; for this reason, theinteraction must be by speaking practices.The evaluation criteria would be obtained by taking into account the nextactivities:Class preparation, class development, and class ending. The first part mustcontain the way which the trainee is getting ready for the class, includingmaterial, resources, and how there is an anticipation to possible problems.During the class development, it is considered the interaction between thetrainee and the students. It is necessary to catch student‟s attention byMaría G. Martinez
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOKproviding interesting information for them. One of the most important points toconsider in this part is clarifying doubts and questions properly, as well asproviding clear explanations about grammar structures and communicationpatterns.Finally, the class ending must cover a feedback about the topic. It is importantthat during this section of the class, students clarify all the doubts. It is needed ageneral review of the session as well.In order to achieve a satisfactory evaluation of 70% of practice, and 30%theoretical knowledge, the teacher has to achieve those three sections in everysession. For that reason, the trainee has to comprehend and put into practice allthose requirements. The evaluation will be divided in the next form:Class preparation.- 30%Class development.- 45%Class ending.- 25%María G. Martinez
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOKTrainer Evaluation checklistName of trainer _____________________ Date ______________________________Class observed ______________________ Mark with an X in the appropriate space: 1: Excellent, 2: Good, 3: acceptable 4: Could improve, 5: Not observed Trainer EvaluationPoint to cover Result Observation/ 1 2 3 4 5 Comment 1. The training met my expectations. 2. I will be able to apply the knowledge learned. 3. The training objectives for each topic were identified and followed. 4. The content was organized and easy to follow. 5. The materials distributed were pertinent and useful. 6. The trainer was knowledgeable. 7. The quality of instruction was good. 8. The trainer met the training objectives.María G. Martinez
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOK 9. Class participation and interaction were encouraged. 10. Adequate time was provided for questions and discussion. 11.- The trainer showed patience during the training 12.- The trainer showed fairness and objectivity in evaluationsMATERIALA reading list1.- The importance of language awareness, Maria Prtic Soon; see the article at:http://dspace.mah.se/bitstream/handle/2043/6229/Examensarbete100%25vers.fin.pdf?sequence=12.- Language awareness: an international project, Dolors Masats; see the article at:http://jaling.ecml.at/pdfdocs/articles/English.pdf3.- 100+ ideas to promote language awareness, Joe Debono; see the article at:http://www.newburypark.redbridge.sch.uk/langofmonth/activitiesbooklet.pdf4.- Culture and Language, Edward P. Lazear; see the full article at: http://faculty-gsb.stanford.edu/lazear/personal/PDFs/culture%20and%20language.pdf5.- culture and language studies-wonderland through the linguistic looking glass,Biljana Misic Ilié; see the article at: http://facta.junis.ni.ac.rs/lal/lal2004/lal2004-01.pdf6.- Factor affecting the language learning process, Bilqees Shabbir; see the completearticle at: http://www.usindh.edu.pk/irjah/irjah_37/6.%20Bilqees%20Shabbir.pdf7.- Interpreting communicative language teaching, Sandra J. Savigon; see thecomplete article at: http://yalepress.yale.edu/yupbooks/pdf/0300091567.pdf8.- Planning, conducting, and evaluating parenting education programs, KarenDeBond; see the full article at:http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/fcs/temp/parent_ed/pdfs/planning%20family%20programs.pdf9.- Self-assessment and development planning; you can see the full article at:http://dera.ioe.ac.uk/4104/1/self-assessment-and-development-planning.pdfMaría G. Martinez
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOKDossiers ExamplesUTSV Task 1: LANGUAGE AWARENESS To learn information questions with Who and articles a and an. Who is a doctor? Who is an engineer? Theme: WHAT DO YOU DO? JANUARY 2013María G. Martinez
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOKTable of Contents: - Description of the area - Description of class and course - Topic - Aims of the lesson - Correction - Procedure - Conclusions - Self evaluation - Lesson plan - AttachmentsMaría G. Martinez
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOK LANGUAGE AWARENESS1.Description of the areaThis area includes to Analysis of phonology, grammatical and lexical structuresand use of related basic terminology, to link between linguistic competence andcommunicative competence, to target language description and appropriateterminology, language description being understood as a system of abstractelements, constructions, and rules, to awareness of language systemsdifferences to application of this awareness to teaching and learning experience(i.e. analysis of learning materials)2. Description of class and courseThis course is level 1 course. There are twenty students between the ages of 18and 21, 15 male and 5 female. Three of the ladies like to talk and express theirfeelings in English. The other two ladies join the class but they admit that theydo not like English language because the pronunciation is difficult for them. Tenmale students join the English class they say they like English but it is not theirfavorite subject. The other eight male students say they do not like thegrammar.The group meets on Monday mornings from 12 to 1:40 p.m. The course book isOpenMind 1. The reasons for joining the course were to accredit their Englishclass but also communicate with friends abroad, for being able to have a normalconversation about general information, their abilities, professions, their likesand dislikes, routines in present.3. Topic – What do you do?4. Aims of the lesson b) To revise and practice articles a and an. c) To revise and practice possessive nouns „s and s‟ d) To expand vocabulary related to family members and occupations. e) To read and talk about jobs, celebrities, family members and ideal careers. f) To revise adjectives for describing jobs and adjectives for describing employees. g) To revise two-syllable nouns.María G. Martinez
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOK5. Personal aims To provide an interesting, entertaining lesson for the students to enjoy. To explain the uses of the articles in a simple way that students understand. To motivate students to experiment with the language. To promote learner autonomy. To motivate students to experiment with their skills. To show students the importance of knowing how to express themselves using general information.6. ProcedureThe topic of the new chapter (Unit 2/p.17) was WHAT DO YOU DO? In thislesson we looked students asking about other people‟s occupation, describingpeople‟s careers, talking about jobs and talking about family members. A goodpart of this lesson directly follows the lesson layout of the Teacher‟s Guidewhich is very practical and has a variety of different pieces of advice that helpimprove teaching. During our UT‟s term, we have been able to discuss and usemany of these strategies and examples, which have made our experience asteachers richer and more useful.For the first exercise, the Icebreaker, I had 3 pictures of famous people (JohnTravolta, Woody Allen and Beyonce). I wrote the celebrities‟ name on the boardworksheets, I asked the students to identify the three famous people in thepictures. The students worked individually to match the people to their mainoccupations. After some minutes the students compared their answers in pairs,then they checked the answers with the class. After that I gave them picturesthat I had cut from magazines. The pictures were of people with differentprofessions, e.g., baseball player, doctor, teacher, police officer, etc. I wrote thecorresponding occupations on pieces of paper and had the students play withthe pictures as a team memory game. I place the pictures and the occupationsface down on a table and asked teams to come up and take turns trying to findmatching pairs. The team that found the most matching pairs won.We now opened the books (p.18) and individually the students looked at the 10pictures of different professions. I had students work individually to match theoccupations with the correct picture. When they finished they checked theiranswers, first in pair, and then with the class. The next exercise was to givetheir opinions on the most (and least) interesting jobs. After doing that, I askedMaría G. Martinez
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOKthem to compare the professions using numbers and ranking the pictures from1 to 10 (in this case from 1 for very dangerous to 10 for not dangerous). Thesecond step of this exercise was making students to number again the picturesbut this time the ranking was for occupations they thought were very interesting(1) and which they thought were not interesting at all (10). I encouraged thestudents to give reasons why they thought the jobs were interesting or notinteresting, e.g., a taxi driver meets a lot of people.It was interesting listening to their opinions and to notice that they are able toexpress themselves in simple sentences. But also it was a good tool to see whothe weaker or shy students were. It was nice to observe them talking abouttheir ideas, and as it was expected the stronger students made more commentsthan the others and they participated more often with different ideas.We continued with a pronunciation exercise. It is important that students knowthe correct pronunciation for the professions because they have to use articlesat the same time. If they are not aware of the correct pronunciation the makethe most common mistakes we all make when learning a second language.I wrote on the board the words teacher and doctor. I asked the students howmany syllables each word had. Then I had students to repeat the wordschorally. After that I asked students to go to page 19 and look at the words. Iplayed the recording once (CD 1 Track 8) and had students just listen with theirbooks closed. Then I had students open their books and draw their attention tothe underlined (stressed) syllables. Then I played the recording again andasked the students to repeat the words with the correct stress. I emphasizedthat the stress is on the first syllable.Some students found the pronunciation of “lawyer” challenging. I asked them torepeat the word several times until they could say it comfortably.As a consolidation exercise the students looked at the Watch out! Box. Iemphasized that with occupations, we always use a or an in English. I remindedthe students that when they see a noun in plural form, it will never have theindefinite article a/an. After that they did the exercise about writing the indefinitearticle when necessary in some sentences. To wrap up I had students repeatthe correct sentences, first chorally and then individually, focusing on the stressof the two-syllable nouns.Finally, I showed the students the pictures of the famous people again. I askedindividual students what does he/she do? And elicited answers, he’s a/an…;she’s a/an… After that I wrote on the board, what_____ _____ do? And IMaría G. Martinez
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOKpointed to the picture again, I had students tell me the missing words in thequestion (does, she). I elicited the answer; she’s a singer, from the class. I hadthe students to ask and answer the questions about the remaining pictures inpairs. When they finished we checked the answers with the class. Forhomework they had page 10 from the workbook, section 2.7. ConclusionsI think this lesson contained a variety of exercises for checking the correctpronunciation of the two-syllable nouns, also the students had the opportunity toask and answer question in simple present about different occupations. Givingthem the opportunity to personalize the subject and talk about something “real”and interesting for them. The activities motivated the students to expand thediscussions, as well as promoting group adhesion. Using visual aids is also verypopular in this group. It helps them remember and produce vocabulary, withoutinhibiting their own input.8. Self EvaluationI tried to make this lesson interesting and fun, providing pictures of people thestudents admire which would appeal to all learner types and promote learnerautonomy. I attempted to encourage the students to participate and it was notdifficult because everybody loves famous people. I motivated the students touse the grammatical structure as a communicative tool to help them completethe task. However, errors continue to be made but with more practice they tentto disappear.María G. Martinez
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOK9. Lesson PlanT = teacher / S = students Phases of Social Time Learning Activities Media/materials Aim of activity Form (mins)Icebreaker/ - T. Write the words teacher and doctor on the board. - Teacher introduce theme. 1Introduction to Ask the students how many syllables each word has. N/A -two syllabletheme Have the students repeat the words chorally, and ask nouns.“Talents“ them whether the stress is on the first or the second syllable in each word.Extension of T. See the student‟s book page for the audio script. Recognize thetheme T: play the recording once, and have the students just -Student book stressed syllable. listen with their books closed. Then ask them to students tell you which syllable is stressed in each word 5 (the first in all cases) - Audio T. Have the students open their books and draw their attention to the underlined (stressed) syllables. Then play the recording again, and ask the students to repeat the words with the correct stress. Emphasize that the stress is on the first syllable. T. Note that many learners find the pronunciation of lawyer challenging. You may need to ask the students to repeat this word several times until they can say it comfortably. h) See the student‟s book page for the audioPersonalisation script. Before you have the students work in pairs, -individual -Student book - Practice give them time to practice saying the words pronunciation 10 individually.Transfer- - put the students into pairs, and have them take turns -individual - practice saying the words. -plenary -Student book pronunciation and - Encourage students to listen to their partner‟s correct stress 15 pronunciation and make sure that the first syllable is -Collaborative stressed. learning - when the students finish, play the recording and have them repeat the words chorally.Consolidation -Look at the watch out box. -individual -student‟s book -S. can see - Ask them to identify the error. Emphasized that with structure clearly. occupations, we always use a or an in English. -plenary 15 - students complete the sentences using a or an. - when the finish have them check the answers with the class. Ask individual students what does he/she do? Elicit answers, he‟s a/an… she‟s a/an…Conclusion and - S ask and answer what are the occupations of the -individual -Pictures -S. “see” whatEvaluation famous people in the pictures. they have learned 20 -plenary and that they can apply it.Homework task -T. asks S. to complete WORKBOOK(p.10 section 2) -individual -workbook -speak about different occupations.María G. Martinez
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOK10..AttachmentsMaría G. Martinez
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOK Task 2: LANGUAGE AND CULTURE Theme: DOWN TIME - Sensitising students about the use of different types of words - Reading: Recognizing cognates January 2013María G. Martinez
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOKTable of Contents: 1. Description of class and course 2. Aims of the lesson 3. Personal aims 4. Procedure 5. Conclusions 6. Self evaluation 7. Lesson plan 8. Attachments LANGUAGE AND CULTUREMaría G. Martinez
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOK1. Description of the area This area will aware of socio-cultural and intercultural aspects of language use and language learning, dealing sensitively with difficult classroom situations relating to cultural aspects like music, clothes, art, architecture, food, and customs. Understanding different backgrounds, using different reading strategies for reading comprehension of students.2. Description of class and course This course is the same A1 course as for Language Teaching. Students will be able to understand and use cognates when reading. There are nineteen students between the ages of 19 and 25, 15 male and 4 female. 3 male students come from different classrooms and careers and the rest of them come from the same classroom and career. The group meets on Tuesday mornings between 9.30 and 11 a.m. The course book is Openmind1 (Cambridge). The reasons for joining the course is because is part of the syllabus for University Superior Technician and when they finish the career they have to be able to read different texts and understand at least the main idea and know different information related to culture.3. Aims of the lesson - To talk about hobbies and interests - To recognize words from different countries. - To compare own language with a foreign language.4. Personal aims - To provide an interesting, lively lesson that students will enjoy. - To explain the difference between cognates and false cognates. - To encourage my students to be aware of different type of words. - To promote reading for getting information from other cultures.5. Procedure Before the lesson began, I wrote words that are cognates in the students‟ language, e.g. hotel, television, interesting and program on the board. I asked the students if they recognize these words or parts of them, I told them that some English words were similar to words in their language. I read the information in the skills box in their books to emphasize those sometimes long words in English can be cognates, and students might be able toMaría G. Martinez
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOK recognize at least parts of the word and this was particularly useful when reading. Next, I had students to open their books on page 29 and asked them to read the title of the text “do you want a celebrity hobby?” and find a word that was similar to one in their own language (e.g. hobby and celebrity were likely to be cognates). I had students to complete the task by circling or underlining words they recognized. When they had finished we checked the answers with the class. The possible answers were: celebrities, antique, editions, valuable, condition, model, imagination, create, systems, passengers, interested, architecture, reconstruction, probably, design, decorate, art, objects. I encouraged students to read because I believe that “reading” in any language help to extend our knowledge about different topics or disciplines, because the most you read the most you learn about different cultures. The text titled “do you want a celebrity hobby?” described the hobbies of different celebrities around the world for example: the British singer and songwriter Rod Stewart who has achieved numerous solo hits worldwide, but mainly in the U.K. where he has had six consecutive number one albums and he has lived in the U.S. since 1975 or the American actress Sarah Michelle Gellar best known for her role as the character Buffy Summers in the famous TV series Buffy The Vampire Slayer for which she has won many awards and finally Brad Pitt is an American actor and film producer. He is known for his roles in many movies, including Ocean‟s Thirteen and the Curious Case of Benjamin Button. He is married to actress Angelina Jolie. For the next exercise I asked the students to do this exercise individually and then to compare their answers in pairs. The activity consisted in match each celebrity hobby to the correct famous name. I encouraged students to discuss any different answers they had and decide with their partner which one was the correct. Then, I checked the answers with the class. I asked them to explain how the pictures helped them to make their choices (e.g. picture A showed antique books, etc.). Here the students recognized the importance of “knowing” themselves about different cultures aspects for example, music, clothes, art, architecture, food, and customs. To conclude I questioned the students to discuss why was it important to read different types of text and help them to comprehend what they are reading by using reading comprehension strategies like recognizing cognates and also all agreed that it is important to make predictions about any text that you have to read and you can do this using your previous information learned from different sources.6. ConclusionsMaría G. Martinez
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOK I think this lesson encouraged students to reflect on their own cultural knowledge and in the use of their own language as the use of vocabulary in a foreign language.7. Self-Evaluation I tried to make this lesson interesting and with a real text than can be found in everyday life. It is important for me as a teacher to sensitize students about the importance of developing the competences necessary for reading comprehension and the great need of teaching students different strategies that can be useful for a better comprehension e.g. prediction, use of cognates, scanning, skimming, etc.LESSON PLAN “Culture”T = teacher / S = studentsPhases of Activities Social Form Media/materials Aim of activity TimeLearning (mins)Introduction -Teacher writes some -Plenary -Board, markers To introduce the 5to theme: cognates on the board and themeDown time ask students to recognize them.Sensitizing -Have students to open their -individual -Student book Introducing 10students to books on page 29 and readingread in a asked them to read the title comprehensionforeign of the text. strategies.languageComparing -students complete task 1 -individual -Student book Apply reading 10L1 vs L2 by by circling or underlining strategyRecognizing words they recognized that recognizingcognates are similar in their own cognates languageSensitizing -Encourage students to read Group -N/A Making students 5students as a way to learn about aware aboutabout the different cultures. reading for gettingimportance of knowledge fromreading different culturesBrainstormin Elicit information from the Group -N/A Using previous 10g about people in the reading. Have knowledge fromculture them know some facts students about the famous people in the text.Making I asked the students to do Group -N/A Using 15agreement this exercise individually collaborativewhen and then to compare their learninglearning in a answersgroupConclusion Have students to discuss -Plenary -N/A To reinforce the 5 the importance of reading importance of different types of text and reading and use help them to comprehend techniques what they are reading by strategies when using techniques strategies reading a text.María G. Martinez
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOK UTSV Task 3: LANGUAGE LEARNING PROCESSESTo learn the simple present, and express general information Theme: WHAT DO YOU DO?
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOK LANGUAGE LEARNING PROCESSES Table of Contents:b) Description of the areac) Description of class and coursed) Topice) Aims of the lessonf) Personal aimsg) Procedureh) Conclusionsi) Self evaluationj) Lesson plank) Attachments
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOK LANGUAGE LEARNING PROCESSES 2.Description of the areaThis area covers the needs that a learner requires when learning a language. It isfocused on correcting their own mistakes and other‟s mistakes, the learner is ableto learn by being autonomous, and using his/her own learning style. The studentsare going to be able to create their own learning strategies in order to interact withtheir classmates and imitate real life situations and in this way they are going toimprove their learning process. 3.Description of class and courseThis, material is designed for learners in a level 1 course. Most of the learners arestudents between the ages of 18 and 20, with some age exceptions.This class is going to let students interact in a conversation, and talk about realexperiences. The main purpose is to use of the simple present, including previousvocabulary about occupations and family members. At the end, learners have tobe proficient to express their own ideas and talk about other person besidehimself/herself. The book needed for this class is open mind 1 from Macmillaneditorial; covering the unit 2, page 23.3.Topic - Simple past present7. Aims of the lesson • Students can use previous vocabulary in a conversation. • Students can form questions and negative statements in the simple present. • Students can understand and use simple present. • Students can talk about real people. • Students can use verbs with −s endings for third persons correctly. • Students can understand other people in a real conversation.8. Personal aims To show students that they are able to communicate in a real life situation. To motivate and encourage students to experiment with the language. To promote learner autonomy and improvisation during a conversation. To help them to interact with each other and use previous vocabulary in a conversation.
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOK To show students that they can ask and answer questions about general information.9. ProcedureThe utsv is focused on communicative approach development; which is achievedthrough a constant interaction between students. This topic is focused in unit 2,“What do you do?” (p. 23). In this section learners have to use the simple presentto talk about general information and express it by making use of the previousvocabulary seen in class. They also have to understand the main idea in a presentcontext, and also share information related to the topic they are discussing. Forthis reason the first aim that students must cover is getting in contact with verbs inpresent. The book is going to provide clear examples of how to express ideas inpresent, and activities that are going to help the learners to practice.The first exercise is a reminder for previous vocabulary. All have to draw a versionof their family tree. The main idea is reviewing the vocabulary the already saw.The activity consists in drawing the picture and writing who is who in the familytree.After they finish drawing their family tree and writing the names of their familymembers, they have to say the relationship of each person in the drawing. Theywork in pairs. They have to ask and answer questions (e.g., student 1: who isFrancisco?; student 2: he is my father). The next activity is in the book (p.23). Herethe learners are going to listen to a conversation (CD1, track 14) with their booksclosed. I wrote two questions on the board. I played the recording once so thatstudents can look for the answers in the recording. After playing the recordingonce, students compare their answers in pairs. Then, students opened their booksand checked their answers. After understanding the conversation they have to make a similar conversation,using the pattern given by the book but inserting their own information about theirfamily members.Once all students practice the conversation in pairs I asked several students to tellme something about their partner‟s family, e.g., Maria‟s father is a doctor. This is agood time, when all they have finished to correct the mistakes heard during thepractice with the students‟ help.Finally, they are going to go to the Watch out box in their books (pag. 23) toemphasize that we do not say, “This is the pen of Maria” in English.10. Conclusions
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOKPersonally, I consider this topic one of the most important because it is necessaryto understand, use and remember verbs in simple present in the correct form fordifferent subjects (singular and plural). I consider that these activities are helpful tolet students practice in a situation that could be very similar to a real situation. Alsoit helps students to realize about the knowledge that they already have. Finallythey have to use that new knowledge. In the end, they are going to learnprogressively, each one at their own rhythm and they are going to notice it.11. Self EvaluationThe main objective of all the lessons is having a communicative approach, for thisreason it is important that learners interact between them. Activities have to bedifferent, interesting, and valuable for the students. Activities also have to berelated to reality, so they can see that what they are learning in the classroom canbe applied to a similar situation outside the classroom. Interaction between thelearners is important and has to be taken into account. No matter the topic, it isimportant to provide confidence to the students, so they can feel eager to interactwith each other and make questions and answer them when necessary.
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOK12. Lesson PlanT = teacher / S = studentsPhases of Activities Social Media/material Aim of activity TimeLearning Form s (mins)Icebreaker/ - S. have to draw a picture of their family tree. --group -None - To introduce the 5drawing - T. has to explain the instructions of the activity. topic. - T. has to say that they are only drawing and writing -to elicit vocabulary the names under each picture without any other already known. information.Extension of -S. work in pairs. They have to ask and answer - To review previoustheme questions about the members in their family -group -notebook vocabulary about 30 (relationship and occupations) family members and occupations. -to practice simple present tense for questions and the correct structure for answers for third persons.Personalisation - After finishing the activity S. have to tell the T. -individual l - None -Talk about their 20 information about their classmate‟s family members. families. - Provide feedback of the mistakes made during the drill.10.Attachments
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOKUTSV Task 4: LANGUAGE TEACHING TOPIC: Different Strokes To revise and practice present simple affirmative sentences with Lifestyles Adjectives vocabulary ….?The Class has to make an action plan for changing any area of their lives for examplebeing green, social relationships, work and study or healthy living, etc. Describe thearea of life to change. Look back through the unit book for ideas. January 2013
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOK Task 4: LANGUAGE TEACHINGTable of Contents: 1. Description of the area 2. Description of class and course 3. Topic 4. Aims of the lesson 5. Personal aims 6. Procedure 7. Conclusions 8. Self evaluation 9. Lesson plan 10. Attachments
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOK LANGUAGE TEACHING1. Description of the area This area includes Selection of appropriate methods to suit learning and teaching objectives, evaluation, selection and adaptation of teaching and learning materials to suit the aims of the lesson, evaluation of language learning tasks, use of media, definition of teachers and learners role in a learner-centered approach, use of target language for instructions and explanations and classroom management.2. Description of class and courseThis course is an A1 course. Students will be able to understand and producesimple present sentences with vocabulary adjectives and talk about lifestyles.There are nineteen students between the ages of 19 and 25, 15 male and 4female. 3 male students come from different classrooms and careers and the restof them come from the same classroom and career.The group meets on Tuesday mornings between 9.30 and 11 a.m. The coursebook is Openmind1 (Cambridge). The reasons for joining the course is because ispart of the syllabus for University Superior Technician and when they finish thecareer they have to be able to communicate basic ideas with friends, at work or fortravelling purposes.3. Topic: Different strokes.4. Aims of the lesson- To revise and practice affirmative forms in present simple tense.- To expand vocabulary relating to a green lifestyles and lifestyle adjectives.- Students talk about green lifestyles.- To revise family members vocabulary5. Personal aims- To provide an interesting, lively lesson that students will enjoy.- To explain the use of adjectives in simple steps that the students understand and can easily employ.
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOK- To motivate and encourage the students to experiment with the language.- To promote learner autonomy.6. Procedure The topic of the new chapter (Unit 6/p.57) was Different Strokes and in this lesson we looked at “A green lifestyle”. A good part of this lesson directly follows the lesson layout of the Teacher‟s Guide. This book is an invaluable selection of guidelines and tips, which not only facilitate lesson planning, but have taught me many useful strategies to improve my teaching and help my students everyday. For the first exercise, the opener, I read aloud the words and phrases next to the pictures, and I had the students repeat them. Then I asked the students to look at the pictures and gave me a few examples for what each category meant. I elicited answers like social relationships: friends, people having fun; entertainment: relaxing, listening to music, watching movies/TV; food: going to restaurants, cooking at home, eating with friends; exercise: playing sports, going to the gym, jogging; shopping: buying clothes, books, DVDs, food. (see p 57). Next, I asked them to check the things individually that were a big part of their life. I explained to students that a big part of their life meant something that was important in their life. After that, students worked in pairs and they compared the similarities or differences in lifestyles. This was a nice introduction and as individual were keen to see what the others had written about lifestyles, so it motivated them to study this topic. We now opened the books (p.58) and I read the instructions to the class, and nominated two students to read a model conversation. Reading these aloud gave the students time to digest the information and reflect on how this information (which can be found throughout the book) can help them. I pointed out that speakers in the model sentences added extra information to their answers. For example, they did not just said, Food is a big part of my life; they added details to support the answer (I like going to restaurants…) I told the class that this was an important conversation skill. I wrote phrases on the board to help students to add extra information, e.g. I like… I also like…, I often…, and I don’t usually… For each of the categories, I had the class brainstorm different preferences, e.g. Social relationships: Spending time alone, spending time with friends; food: cooking at home, eating in restaurants; exercise: going to the gym, playing sports, etc. Then, I put the students into pairs to discuss their personal preferences. This social strategy, helps students to learn from each other, not only benefits group cohesion, but promotes autonomous learning. This exercise discussing in pairs discuss their personal preferences also allowed the students to use the vocabulary they have learned previously. When the pairs finished, I elicited some ideas from the class and I found out which activities are a big part of the lives of most of the students in the class. Finally, I nominated several students to tell me about their partner, e.g. Exercise is a big part of Martha´s life. She goes to the gym three times a week. Shopping isn‟t a big part of Frank‟s life. He doesn‟t like shopping.
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOKAt least two students on each pair said 1 sentence. As this is a medium group,we can work more often in plenary, but I use pair work a lot, as peer help can bea strong motivating factor. Also students have the possibility to formulateanswers in a “closed” atmosphere, before presenting ideas in a big group. This isparticularly advantageous for the shy or weaker students. Another advantage isthat students are recycling and using the vocabulary and all students areinvolved. I reminded my students that they often won´t know or remember theexact word they are looking for, but they can describe what they need by usingother words they know.After the introduction, I make a list of pairs of opposites the students will know,e.g. big/small; long/short, old/new; hot/cold. I wrote the pairs in random order andasked the students to make four pairs of opposites. Then I told them they weregoing to do the same thing with some new adjectives. I explained them what isthe function of adjectives because I did not want the students confusedgrammatical terms.To conduct this exercise I read the instructions to the class. Then I read theadjectives in the box, and had the students repeat them after me.After, I had the students work individually or in pairs to match the words to thepictures. I checked the answers with the class. After that, I asked the students towork in pairs to match the adjectives with their opposites. I checked the answerswith the class (relaxing/stressful; healthy/unhealthy; boring/exciting;wasteful/green.To encourage students to speak using the new vocabulary and also to transferthe vocabulary learnt into a different context, I asked the students to practice inpairs saying what type of lifestyle his/her family had and saying why. E.g. StudentA: My mom has a healthy lifestyle. She plays sports and she eats healthy food.Student B: Really? Well, my dad is 65 now, so his life isn’t very exciting, toperform this activity we reviewed vocabulary for family members. I elicitedvocabulary the students know for other family members and wrote the words onthe board. Then, I put students into pairs to complete the task. At this level it‟simportant to give students time to gather their thoughts. I circulated and gavehelp where required. It is not only a good opportunity to monitor whether thevocabulary has been understood and can be employed, but also shows thestudents that you are a part of the group. When circulated I helped students tocorrect mistakes using the guidelines to correct DT2 activities. To conclude Iasked students to read personal profiles individually on section 2 of the unit toreinforce what they had been studying that day. The activity consisted on readingsome profiles and say where did they think they came from and answer somequestions with the information on the profiles e.g. What do the people have incommon? In what ways are they different? I asked students to compare theiranswers in pairs and we finished this class eliciting some examples of thevocabulary studied that day and asking them when we can use these words.As part of the homework and reinforcement I asked students to write a personalprofile similar to the previous exercise and making activities on Macmillanplatform.
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOK 7. Conclusions I think this lesson contained a variety of exercises for revising the present simple affirmative form. The conversation model used recycled vocabulary and it was a good idea for integrating old vocabulary in students‟ conversations or activities. The activities used gave them the opportunity to personalize the subject and talk about something “real” and interesting to each of them motivated them to expand the discussions, as well as promoting group adhesion. Using visual aids like pictures in their book is also very popular in this group. It helps them remember and produce vocabulary, without inhibiting their own input. 8. Self Evaluation I tried to make this lesson interesting and varied, providing material which would appeal to all learner types and promoting learner autonomy wherever I could. I attempted to encourage the students to use the grammatical structure they learned before as a communicative tool to help them complete the task in hand, and they did it very successfully. I also established that errors in using new vocabulary is completely normal and they need to use them to understand when can they use these type of vocabulary. 9. Lesson PlanT = teacher / S = studentsPhases of Activities Social Media/materials Aim of activity TimeLearning Form (mins)Icebreaker/ -Introduce the activity --group Student Book -Introduce theme. 5Introduction to - Students look at pictures and -to elicittheme brainstorm a few examples for vocabulary“different strokes“ different preferences e.g. social -pairs already known. relationships, food, exercise, etc. -plenary -students in pairs discuss their personal preferencesExtension of theme -Make a list of pairs of opposites -Teacher Board -Extend the students will know, e.g., big- -Students Markers vocabulary small, long-short, old-new, hot- Student Book -Lifestyle cold. Write the pairs on the adjectives 10 board in random order, and ask the students to make four pairs of opposites. Then tell them they are going to learn some more new adjectives -Have the students work -Individual Student book -Recognition of 10Personalization individually or in pairs to match -Pairs vocabulary the words to the pictures (on -Plenary page 58). -Check the answer with the class. -Ask the students to work in pairs to match the adjectives with their opposites. Check the answers with the class.Transfer Ask ss to practice in pairs -Individual N/A S: Use the saying what type of lifestyle -pairs information in a his/her family had and saying -Plenary different context - 15 why. E.g. Student A: My mom provides a
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOK has a healthy lifestyle. She progressive way plays sports and she eats to build healthy food. Student B: Really? vocabulary skills Well, my dad is 65 now, so his for education and life isn’t very exciting. for practicing -Elicit vocabulary for family vocabulary members from ss write the studied recently. words on the board.Consolidation -Have ss read personal profiles -Individual -Student book S:Reflect on their on section 2 and answer some -pairs lifestyles and questions after reading with the -plenary practice the information on the profiles e.g. learned 15 What do the people have in vocabulary common? In what ways are they different?Conclusion and I asked students to compare T. Measure theEvaluation their answers in pairs and we progress of 20 finished this class eliciting some students about examples of the vocabulary the numbers of studied that day and asking words learned them when we can use these and the concept words. they studied.Homework task Ask ss to work on activities at Individual Internet connection Reinforce Macmillan platform section knowledge. vocabulary10. Attachments
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOKAttachment 2Attachment 3
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOK Task 5: PLANNING AND EVALUATIONClass project to manage their time by writing a to-do list with activities for each day ofthe week. Theme: Here, there and everywhere January 2013
TASK 4.6 PART 3 HANDBOOK PLANNING AND EVALUATIONTable of Contents: 1. Description of the area 2. Description of class and course 3. Theme and motivation 4. Aims of the project 5. Planning 6. Procedure 7. Conclusions 8. Evaluation of the project and self-evaluation 9. Lesson plans and attachments
UTSV TRAINEE HANDBOOK PLANNING AND EVALUATION1. Description of the area. This area covers a wide range of needs especially Elementary students. For this area it is necessary to recycle and consolidate the target language of the unit, and to expose the students to vital soft skills that will enable them to become more competitive and successful in their academic and professional lives. It is also important to remember that the skills developed can be applied in contexts beyond the English classroom.2. Description of class and course This course is the same A1 course as for Language Teaching. Students will be able to understand and use cognates when reading. There are nineteen students between the ages of 19 and 25, 15 male and 4 female. 3 male students come from different classrooms and careers and the rest of them come from the same classroom and career. The group meets on Tuesday mornings between 9.30 and 11 a.m. The course book is Openmind1 (Cambridge). The reasons for joining the course is because is part of the syllabus for University Superior Technician and when they finish the career they have to be able to read different texts and understand at least the main idea and know different information related to culture.3. Aims of the project - to recycle and consolidate the target language - to expose the students to vital soft skills4. Personal Aims. - Evaluate students in a different way e.g. by developing a project. - Help my students to plan further learning to suit their needs. - Analyze and assess my students‟ language competence according to the CEFR.5. Planning: The project was to cover the last lesson of the current UT term. Step 1: To understand different problems to manage time Step 2: To write a to-do list and categorize each task Step 3: To make decisions on the order of tasks.6. Procedure
UTSV TRAINEE HANDBOOKStep 1:To start the lesson I asked students if they had time to do things, or if theysometimes feel they didn‟t enough time to do all the things they needed to do. Ichecked that they understood the word busy (a busy person has many things to doand not enough time).I emphasized the importance of effective time management. I also explained theconcept of a to-do list (writing down all the things you have to do in a day or a week)and the benefits of putting these in order of priority (from most important to leastimportant).I asked the students if they wrote to-do lists and, if they did, how they help them plantheir days.The first exercise consisted on looking at the pictures on the quiz on page 44 onstudent book. I asked them which picture showed a calm, organized person. I wentover the meanings and pronunciation of worried and waste time. Then I read theinstructions for the quiz. I made sure the students understood that they needed tochoose one answer for each question. I told them to circle the answer that was truefor them in each case and next I had them to do the exercise individually.I circulated while the students were working, and offered help when needed. Whenstudents finished I had them to calculate their scores according to the chart at thebottom of the quiz. I took a class poll to find out which category the studentsbelonged to. At this point was necessary to explain the concept achieve (dosomething successfully) and attitude (your opinion about something).Step 2:At this step I referred the students to the term to-do list (a list of everything you wantor need to do). I asked the class how many of them made to-do lists regularly.I then, had students look at the example list on student‟s book and I asked them whatthree categories were included in the to-do lists (the day or date, the tasks, theestimated time for each task) I checked that they understood the word task(something that you need to do, often something that is difficult).After, I asked the students to make s similar to-do lists for all the days of the nextweek. I wrote the three categories on the board to remind the students to includethem all. I gave them plenty of time to think about this before moving to step 3 on thislesson.Step 3:At this stage, I nominated four students to read aloud the four categories. I explainedthat this is one possible way of prioritizing tasks when writing a to-do list – important,not important, necessary, and not necessary. I pointed out to the How to say it box,(Is this important? How important is this?, It‟s very important!, I don‟t really needto…and I had the students repeat the sentences chorally and then individually. Next,I put the students into pairs, and told them to exchange to their to-do lists with theirpartner, I encouraged them to use the questions in the How to say box to find outwhether the tasks in their partner‟s to-do list were important or not, and had themwork together to rank the tasks from category 1 to category 3. When they finished Itold them to give the to-do lists back to their partner.
UTSV TRAINEE HANDBOOKTo finish this class I asked students to reflect on their lists. I explained that theywould need to reorganize their original to-do lists based on how important each taskwas. I highlighted the importance of prioritizing. I emphasized that the students mightfind it helpful to balance out their to-do lists if they moved tasks from one day toanother. While the students were doing this task, I circulated and monitored and gavehelp where required.I encouraged them to evaluate each other‟s lists and decide if they had enough timeto do everything they had listed. When the pairs finished, briefly got some feedbackfrom the class. I briefly reminded the class effective time management can help us tobe calm and relaxed, even when we are busy. Making to-do lists, planning;prioritizing can help us to organize our time much more effectively.7. ConclusionsThe project turned out to be a success and an enjoyable way to end the term. Thestudents agreed that know how to manage our time it‟s a good skill than could beapplied not just for classroom but beyond it in their real life.8. Evaluation of the project and self-evaluationThe development of this project was very satisfactory, because this life skill sectionhas the purposes to include a linguistic focus and a soft skill focus and the aim of thefirst is to recycle and consolidate the target language of the unit, and the aim of thesecond is to expose the students to vital soft skills that will enable students tobecome more competitive and successful in their academic and professional lives.However, this project should have taken more than one class because sometimesthe fact of explaining a lot of new terms to students took more time from the originallyplanned time for this classroom situation. On the other hand, this was a greatopportunity to encourage students to reflect on how does categorizing tasks help usto organize our time and on what they had learned or practiced in this section andwhere and how they could apply the strategies outside the classroom. 9. Lesson Plans and Attachments:
UTSV TRAINEE HANDBOOKLesson Plan: Planning and EvaluationT: Teacher / S: StudentPhases of Activities Social Media/materi Aim of activity TimeLearning Form als (mins)Icebreaker/ - T. asked ss if they have time to do things, or -group -None - To introduce the 5Managing time if they sometimes feel they don‟t have enough topic. time to do all the things they need to do. -to elicit vocabulary -T. explained basic concepts like the word already known and busy, the expression to-do list. to explain new T. emphasize the importance of effective time vocabulary and management. expressions.Extension of -T. ask ss to look at some pictures on a quiz on - -course book - To analyze own 40theme page 44. Individual activities and T. ask ss to say which picture shows a calm, evaluate organized person. themselves about T. Read the instructions for answering the quiz. the way they T.ask ss to do the exercise individually. -group manage their time T. circulate while ss are working, and offer help - -to extend as needed. individual vocabulary. T. When the ss finish, have them calculate - their scores according to the chart at the bottom of the quiz. -Pairs T. take a class poll to find out which category the students belong to. T. Explain any concept that may be necessary for students understanding. Note: the quiz can be done as an interview. (Ask ss to work in pairs and ask each other the questions. They should then write down their partner‟s answers to each question, and figure out their partner‟s score and which category they belong to.
UTSV TRAINEE HANDBOOKPersonalisatio T. refer ss to the term to-do -group Course book -writing to-do list. 30n - -Learn sentences T. ask the class how many of them make to-do individuall for evaluating lists regularly. y priority in tasks T. have students to look at the example list on student‟s book. T. check any difficult term. T. asked the students to make similar to-do lists for all the days of the next week (alternative: ask the students to make a to-do list for just two or three days of the next week) T. Nominate 4 students to read aloud the four categories (important, not important, necessary, not necessary) Explain that this is a way of prioritizing tasks when writing a to-do list. I point out to the How to say it box, (Is this important? How important is this?, It‟s very important!, I don‟t really need to… T. Have students to repeat the sentences chorally and then individually. T. put the students into pairs, and tell them to exchange their to-do lists with their partner T. Have them work together to rank the tasks from category 1 to category 3.Conclusion T. class I asked students to reflect on their lists - Course book -Reflect on their 15 individual management time T. highlight the importance of prioritizing. -pairs Encourage them to evaluate each other‟s lists and decide if they have enough time to do everything they have listed. When the pairs finish, briefly get some feedback from the class. T, Briefly remind the class effective time management can help us to be calm and relaxed, even when we are busy. Making to-do lists, planning; prioritizing can help us to organize our time much more effectively.Step 1:(a) Quiz management timeStep 2:(a) To-do list formatStep 3:a) Schedule for managing time.
UTSV TRAINEE HANDBOOK Task 5: SELF-ASSESSMENT AND DEVELOPMENT Topic: Day in, day out.This lesson we will use feedback rules, difficult classroom situations. As teacher, ourpurpose is to observe the student‟ skills, dealing with feedback, awareness of one‟sown strengths and weaknesses, and awareness of possibilities for furtherprofessional development.Students will be able to reflect and draw conclusion from observations and self-observation in order to gain a better understanding of their own skills. JANUARY 2013
UTSV TRAINEE HANDBOOK SELF-ASSESSMENT AND DEVELOPMENTTable of Contents: - Description of the area - Description of class and course - Theme and motivation - Aims of the project - Planning - Procedure - Conclusions - Evaluation of the project and self-evaluation - Lesson plans and attachments
UTSV TRAINEE HANDBOOK SELF-ASSESSMENT AND DEVELOPMENT1.Description of the area This area includes Development of observation skills, dealing with feedback, awareness of ones own strengths and weaknesses, awareness of possibilities for further professional development and the resources and sources of help.2.Description of class and course This course is a level 1 course. Where students will be able to understand and use the simple present, frequency adverbs and prepositions of time to talk about interesting activities. In this lesson students will talk about when things happen, they will learn to organize and plan activities (time management) and also the will learn to describe weekday and weekend routines.3. Topic: day in, day out. Theme and motivation The real motivation for students about this course was seeing that they can apply what they practice in class in a real life situation. We believe that it is a successful lesson because students get more interested in their activities and also they show interest in their classmates‟ activities. Students will feel motivated when they share their interest with other students.4. Aims of the lesson - Students describe weekdays and weekend routines. - Talk about interesting activities - talk about unusual activities - talk about the frequency they do their activities - Use prepositions of time correctly.5.Personal aims - To receive feedback on my teaching performance - To give constructive feedback to colleagues - To share ideas with colleagues to promote best practice - To promote learner autonomy.
UTSV TRAINEE HANDBOOK6.ProcedureYou can find this topic in the unit 4 (p. 41). A good part of this lesson directly followsthe lesson layout of the Teacher‟s Guide. During UT‟s term, the English academy hasbeen able to discuss and share ideas to promote best practice.For the first exercise, the icebreaker, ask the students to look at the picture on page41. Ask them what a routine is. Then explain them that they will hear Mark talking toJanet about his routine. Don‟t expect them to produce any complicated sentenceshere; it is just to let them know what is the audio listening about.Before starting this exercise students have already practice simple present in pastsessions and also they just saw and learn how to use frequency adverbs andprepositions of time. Students opened the book (p. 41) and individually they read thequestions at the end of the conversation. After doing that, I played the recording onceand checked progress. I asked if they need to listen to the recording again andchecked the answers with the class.The next step is to walk around the classroom and ask each person to tell them twointeresting or unusual things their classmates do each week. Students have to find asmuch as they can. Give students a little time to think about the interesting or unusualthings they do. (e.g., suggest sports or hobbies). To give them a better idea of whatthe objective of the class is, I asked two students to read the model conversationaloud. When they finished, all the class start to walk around the classroom.When students finish the exercise, I asked for the first volunteers to share someinteresting things they learned about their classmates. As students give theiranswers, I encourage the rest of the class to ask questions to find out moreinformation about their classmates‟ interests. It is interesting to write on the boardsome interesting or unusual activities to help them stimulate and increase theirvocabulary.Finally, I asked the students how they felt during the activity, if the activity was easyor difficult for them. If they found useful the vocabulary during the activity. If they thinkthey could find a similar situation in real life. They all agreed that was fun, interestingand they probably will face a similar situation in the future.
UTSV TRAINEE HANDBOOK13. ConclusionsI think this lesson encouraged students to experiment with the language, to use theprevious vocabulary and grammar they learned. I consider that this lesson was usefulfor them because it made them realize that there is a purpose, that they can use it ina real life situation. The objective in general of this course is that students realize thatthey can apply the language, the can use the activities practiced in the classroom tointeract outside the class.14. Self EvaluationI try to do this lesson authentic, using slide in a language classroom, giving studentsreal life situations, encouraging and motivating the students to learn and use thelanguage and I also incorporate listening task and activities which encourage andfacilitate learner autonomy and interaction between the members of the class. Theseactivities take into account learners‟ learning styles and cultural expectations. I alsoshared ideas with colleagues to promote the improvement in our classrooms andstudents. This is also important to find solutions to difficulties in teaching during aclass.
UTSV TRAINEE HANDBOOK 15. Lesson plan T: Teacher / S: StudentPhases of Activities Social Media/material Aim of activity TimeLearning Form s (mins)Icebreaker/ - T. asked ss if they have time to do things, or if -group -None - To introduce the 5Managing time they sometimes feel they don‟t have enough time to topic. do all the things they need to do. -to elicit vocabulary -T. explained basic concepts like the word busy, the already known and to expression to-do list. explain new T. emphasize the importance of effective time vocabulary and management. expressions.Extension of -T. ask ss to look at some pictures on a quiz on page -Individual -course book - To analyze own 40theme 44. activities and T. ask ss to say which picture shows a calm, evaluate themselves organized person. about the way they T. Read the instructions for answering the quiz. -group manage their time T.ask ss to do the exercise individually. - -to extend T. circulate while ss are working, and offer help as individual- vocabulary. needed. T. When the ss finish, have them calculate their -Pairs scores according to the chart at the bottom of the quiz. T. take a class poll to find out which category the students belong to. T. Explain any concept that may be necessary for students understanding. Note: the quiz can be done as an interview. (Ask ss to work in pairs and ask each other the questions. They should then write down their partner‟s answers to each question, and figure out their partner‟s score and which category they belong to.Personalisation T. refer ss to the term to-do -group Course book -writing to-do list. 30 - -Learn sentences for T. ask the class how many of them make to-do lists individually evaluating priority in regularly. tasks T. have students to look at the example list on student‟s book. T. check any difficult term. T. asked the students to make similar to-do lists for all the days of the next week (alternative: ask the students to make a to-do list for just two or three days of the next week) T. Nominate 4 students to read aloud the four categories (important, not important, necessary, not necessary) Explain that this is a way of prioritizing tasks when writing a to-do list. I point out to the How to say it box, (Is this important? How important is this?, It‟s very important!, I don‟t really need to… T. Have students to repeat the sentences chorally and then individually. T. put the students into pairs, and tell them to exchange their to-do lists with their partner T. Have them work together to rank the tasks from category 1 to category 3.
UTSV TRAINEE HANDBOOKConclusion T. class I asked students to reflect on their lists -individual Course book -Reflect on their 15 -pairs management time T. highlight the importance of prioritizing. Encourage them to evaluate each other‟s lists and decide if they have enough time to do everything they have listed. When the pairs finish, briefly get some feedback from the class. T, Briefly remind the class effective time management can help us to be calm and relaxed, even when we are busy. Making to-do lists, planning; prioritizing can help us to organize our time much more effectively.10.Attachments
UTSV TRAINEE HANDBOOKPREPARING FOR LESSON OBSERVATIONA live lesson observation will take part in your training exam.The lesson observation consists in the preparation, actual teaching, a written self-assessment by the trainee and a written evaluation of the teacher trainer of alanguage lesson.Please consider the following questions and send a file with your responses:How would you as a teacher trainer introduce the peer lesson observation?When organizing a peer observation, it is essential to discuss the following at least aweek before the observed lesson is due to take place, for example: Which levelgroup or class to observe, The time, date and duration of the observation, theobservation focus, the aims and lesson structure and content, The role of theobserver during the lesson, e.g. where they should sit, their involvement (if any) inthe lesson itself, the composition of the group, e.g. numbers, boys, girls, specialeducational needs; or mixed ability, the observation recording format to be used,whether the observer can ask pupils questions and look at their work, the informationthat will be required by the observer prior to the observation, e.g. the lesson plan.Which observation tasks could be interesting for your trainees? How to teachvocabulary, how to conduct drills, how to correct mistakes from students during theclass on each Drill, etc.How would you prepare your visit with the trainee? Focus on the areas agreedbeforehand with your colleague, Record information as accurately as possible, Onlyrecord information relevant to what was agreed prior to the observation, Arrive ontime and be positive.How long should the lesson observation last? The lesson observation should last15minutes at least.How would you write down your feedback? For feedback I have to be effective, itmust be given in an environment of trust, that is, we should all be committed tohelping each other learn and improve as much as possible. With this on mind Ishould be honest, specific and not to forget to focus on positive.
UTSV TRAINEE HANDBOOKObservation Point Example of proper teaching Comments on the real observation. strategy/techniqueProvide the objectives of the class to - Explains the objectivesthe learners, - Makes questions to the learners to check their understandingInvolve learners in self-assessment - Helps learners to understand learning outcomes in the context of the topic - Provide time to the learners in order to reflect on what they have learned. - provides opportunities for discussion, so that learners are able to make comments, express ideas, in order to improve their skills.Provide feedback that lead the - Questions the learners about thelearners clarify doubts and continue activity.practicing - Provides information that let students continue learning and improving. - Provides a brief general explanation about the topic at the end of the class.Promote confidence to the learners - Provides challenging objectives to their needs. - Provides positive comments and constructive feedback. -Congratulates the good performance of the learners.Involve the learners in reviewing and - Maintains continuous dialoguereflecting on assessment information about the progress of the learners. - Constantly reminding about the objectives that learners had covered.