Brain and cranial nerves

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  • Largest of the cranial nerves Blinking in response to light touch to the eyeball
  • Can be fatal if vagus nerve is damaged – 2 routes
  • Paralysis will cause head to turn toward injured side
  • Brain and cranial nerves

    1. 1. Brain and CranialBrain and Cranial NervesNerves
    2. 2. TerminologyTerminology  HemispheresHemispheres  Gyrus (Gyri)Gyrus (Gyri)  Sulcus (Sulci)Sulcus (Sulci)  Longitudinal FissureLongitudinal Fissure  VentriclesVentricles – CSFCSF
    3. 3. Anatomy of the BrainAnatomy of the Brain  CerebrumCerebrum  CerebellumCerebellum  DiencephalonDiencephalon – ThalamusThalamus – HyothalamusHyothalamus  Brain StemBrain Stem – MidbrainMidbrain – PonsPons – MedullaMedulla oblongataoblongata
    4. 4. CerebrumCerebrum  AnatomyAnatomy – Frontal lobeFrontal lobe – Parietal lobeParietal lobe – Occipital lobeOccipital lobe – Precentral gyrusPrecentral gyrus – Postcentral gyrusPostcentral gyrus  FunctionsFunctions – Sensory cortexSensory cortex – Motor cortexMotor cortex – EmotionEmotion – IntellectualIntellectual processesprocesses – AuditoryAuditory – VisualVisual – SpeechSpeech
    5. 5. CerebellumCerebellum  AnatomyAnatomy – HemispheresHemispheres  FunctionsFunctions – Compares intendedCompares intended movement withmovement with what is actuallywhat is actually happeninghappening – Smooth,Smooth, coordinatedcoordinated movementsmovements – Posture/balancePosture/balance
    6. 6. Brain StemBrain Stem  AnatomyAnatomy – Medulla oblongataMedulla oblongata – PonsPons – MidbrainMidbrain  FunctionsFunctions – MedullaMedulla  Relays motor andRelays motor and sensory informationsensory information  Regulates heartbeat,Regulates heartbeat, breathing and bloodbreathing and blood vessel dilationvessel dilation – PonsPons  Control breathingControl breathing
    7. 7. Protective CoveringsProtective Coverings (Meninges)(Meninges)  Dura materDura mater Dense connective tissueDense connective tissue  ArachnoidArachnoid Nonvascular connective tissueNonvascular connective tissue  Pia materPia mater Highly vascularHighly vascular Covers surface of the brain and spinal cord andCovers surface of the brain and spinal cord and invaginates along cortical surface to forminvaginates along cortical surface to form perivascular spacesperivascular spaces
    8. 8. Cerebral Spinal FluidCerebral Spinal Fluid  Formed in the choroid plexusFormed in the choroid plexus  Reabsorbed into saggittal sinus byReabsorbed into saggittal sinus by arachnoid villiarachnoid villi  Protects brain against concussiveProtects brain against concussive traumatrauma  removes waste productsremoves waste products
    9. 9. Foramen of Monro
    10. 10. Cranial NervesCranial Nerves  I:I: OlfactoryOlfactory  II:II: OpticOptic  III:III: OculomotorOculomotor  IV:IV: TrochlearTrochlear  V:V: TrigeminalTrigeminal  VI:VI: AbducensAbducens  VII: FacialVII: Facial  VIII:VestibulocochlearVIII:Vestibulocochlear – AcousticAcoustic  IX:IX: GlossopharyngealGlossopharyngeal  X:X: VagusVagus  XI:XI: AccessoryAccessory  XII: HypoglossalXII: Hypoglossal http://www.gwc.maricopa.edu/class/bio201/cn/cranial.htm
    11. 11. MnemonicMnemonic  OnOn  OldOld  Olympus’Olympus’  TowerTower  TopTop  AA  FinFin  AndAnd  GermanGerman  ViewedViewed  AA  HopHop
    12. 12. MNEMONICMNEMONIC  OLFACTORYOLFACTORY  OPTICOPTIC  OCULOMOTOROCULOMOTOR  TROCHLEARTROCHLEAR  TRIGEMINALTRIGEMINAL  ABDUCENSABDUCENS  FACIALFACIAL  VESTIBULOCOCHLEVESTIBULOCOCHLE ARAR  GLOSSOPHARYNGEGLOSSOPHARYNGE ALAL  VAGUSVAGUS  ACCESSORYACCESSORY   OHOH  ONCEONCE  ONEONE  TAKESTAKES  THETHE  ANATOMYANATOMY  FINALFINAL  VERYVERY  GOODGOOD  VACATIONVACATION  A-HEADA-HEAD
    13. 13. CN I: OLFACTORYCN I: OLFACTORY  Cranial nerve ICranial nerve I  Function:Function: – smellsmell  Clinical test forClinical test for damage:damage: – determine whetherdetermine whether a person can smella person can smell something aromaticsomething aromatic
    14. 14. CN II: OPTICCN II: OPTIC  Cranial nerve IICranial nerve II  Function:Function: – visionvision  Clinical test forClinical test for damage:damage: – tests peripheral visiontests peripheral vision and visual acuityand visual acuity  Effects of damage:Effects of damage: – blindness in part or all ofblindness in part or all of the visual fieldthe visual field
    15. 15. CNIII: OCULOMOTORCNIII: OCULOMOTOR  Cranial nerve IIICranial nerve III  Function:Function: – eye movements, opening ofeye movements, opening of eyelid, constriction of pupil,eyelid, constriction of pupil, focusing, proprioceptionfocusing, proprioception  Clinical tests for injury:Clinical tests for injury: – differences in pupil size;differences in pupil size; pupillary response to light; eyepupillary response to light; eye trackingtracking  Effects of damageEffects of damage – dropping eyelid, dilated pupil,dropping eyelid, dilated pupil, double visiondouble vision
    16. 16. CNIV: TROCHLEARCNIV: TROCHLEAR  Cranial nerve IVCranial nerve IV  Function: eye movementsFunction: eye movements and proprioceptionand proprioception  Clinical test for injury: abilityClinical test for injury: ability to rotate eye inferolaterallyto rotate eye inferolaterally  Effects of damage – doubleEffects of damage – double vision, patient tilts headvision, patient tilts head toward affected sidetoward affected side
    17. 17. CN V: TRIGEMINALCN V: TRIGEMINAL  Cranial nerve VCranial nerve V  Function: sensory nerve of theFunction: sensory nerve of the faceface  Clinical test for injury:Clinical test for injury: – corneal reflex; sense ofcorneal reflex; sense of touch, pain, and temperature;touch, pain, and temperature; clench teeth; move mandibleclench teeth; move mandible side to sideside to side  Effects of damage:Effects of damage: – loss of sensation andloss of sensation and impaired chewingimpaired chewing
    18. 18. CN VI: ABDUCENS ANDCN VI: ABDUCENS AND CN VII: FACIALCN VII: FACIAL  Cranial Nerve VICranial Nerve VI  Function: EyeFunction: Eye movementsmovements  Clinical test: lateral eyeClinical test: lateral eye movementmovement  Effects of damage:Effects of damage: inability to rotate eyeinability to rotate eye laterally; at rest – eyelaterally; at rest – eye rotates mediallyrotates medially because of action ofbecause of action of antagonistic musclesantagonistic muscles  Cranial Nerve VIICranial Nerve VII  Function: facialFunction: facial expression; sense ofexpression; sense of tastetaste  Clinical test: motorClinical test: motor functions – close eyes,functions – close eyes, smile, whistle, frown,smile, whistle, frown, raise eyebrows; tasteraise eyebrows; taste  Effects of damage:Effects of damage: inability to control facialinability to control facial muscles; distortedmuscles; distorted sense of tastesense of taste
    19. 19. CN VIII:CN VIII: VESTIBULOCOCHLEARVESTIBULOCOCHLEAR  Cranial Nerve VIIICranial Nerve VIII  Function: hearing and equilibriumFunction: hearing and equilibrium  Clinical tests: test hearing, balance,Clinical tests: test hearing, balance, and ability to walk a straight lineand ability to walk a straight line  Effects of damage: deafness,Effects of damage: deafness, dizziness, nausea, loss of balance,dizziness, nausea, loss of balance, and nystagmusand nystagmus
    20. 20. CN IX:CN IX: GLOSSOPHARANGEALGLOSSOPHARANGEAL AND CN X: VAGUSAND CN X: VAGUS Cranial Nerve IXCranial Nerve IX  Function: swallowing,Function: swallowing, salivation, gagging; touch,salivation, gagging; touch, pressure, taste, and painpressure, taste, and pain sensations from tongue,sensations from tongue, pharynx, and outer earpharynx, and outer ear  Clinical tests: gag reflex,Clinical tests: gag reflex, swallowing, and coughingswallowing, and coughing  Effects of damage: difficultyEffects of damage: difficulty swallowingswallowing  Cranial Nerve XCranial Nerve X  Function: swallowing; taste;Function: swallowing; taste; speech; respiratory, CV, andspeech; respiratory, CV, and GI regulation; sensations ofGI regulation; sensations of hunger, fullness, andhunger, fullness, and intestinal discomfortintestinal discomfort  Clinical tests: test withClinical tests: test with cranial nerve IXcranial nerve IX  Effects of damage:Effects of damage: hoarseness or loss of voice;hoarseness or loss of voice; impaired swallowing and GIimpaired swallowing and GI motilitymotility
    21. 21. CN XI: ACCESSORYCN XI: ACCESSORY ANDAND CN XII: HYPOGLOSSALCN XII: HYPOGLOSSAL Cranial Nerve XICranial Nerve XI  Function: swallowing; head,Function: swallowing; head, neck, and shoulderneck, and shoulder movementsmovements  Clinical tests: rotate headClinical tests: rotate head and shrug shoulders againstand shrug shoulders against resistanceresistance  Effects of damage: impairedEffects of damage: impaired movement of head, neck,movement of head, neck, and shoulders; paralysis ofand shoulders; paralysis of sternocleidomastoidsternocleidomastoid  Cranial Nerve XIICranial Nerve XII  Function: tongue movementsFunction: tongue movements of speech, foodof speech, food manipulation, and swallowingmanipulation, and swallowing  Clinical test: tongue functionClinical test: tongue function  Effects of damage: difficultyEffects of damage: difficulty in speech and swallowing;in speech and swallowing; atrophy of tongue; inability toatrophy of tongue; inability to stick out (protrude) tonguestick out (protrude) tongue

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