Lec 9 socialization2


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Lec 9 socialization2

  1. 1. Socialization1 socialization/erikchoi 12/14/12
  2. 2. What is Socialization? Socialization is the term sociologists use to describe the ways in which people learn to conform to their society’s norms, values, and roles. How people learn to behave according to cultural norms—the way they learn their culture, makes possible the transmission of culture from one generation to the next.2 socialization/erikchoi 12/14/12
  3. 3. When does Socialization Occur? Socialization occurs throughout the lifetime as individuals learn new norms and new groups and situations. Socialization can be divided into three major phases.3 socialization/erikchoi 12/14/12
  4. 4. Primary Socialization Occurs within the family and other intimate groups in a child’s social environment.4 socialization/erikchoi 12/14/12
  5. 5. Adult Socialization Person learns the norms associated with new statuses such as wife, husband, researcher, teacher.5 socialization/erikchoi 12/14/12
  6. 6. Secondary Socialization occurs in late childhood and adolescence, when the child enters school and comes under the influence of adults and peers outside the household and family environment6 socialization/erikchoi 12/14/12
  7. 7. Controversial Issues in the Study ofSocialization Nature vs. Nurture What is the relative strength of biological (i.e., genetic) vs. social influences on the individual? 7 socialization/erikchoi 12/14/12
  8. 8. How do we come to be who we are?Nature vs Nurture The nature position holds that human behavior is the product of a person’s heredity, which is determined at birth and is thus beyond human control. According to this view, many of our characteristics, abilities, and personality traits are dictated by our biological equipment, innate intelligence, and hormonal make-up. 8 socialization/erikchoi 12/14/12
  9. 9. Nurture The nurture position argues that human beings are flexible and adoptable and that human behavior is determined by the learning and social contact that people experience as they mature.9 socialization/erikchoi 12/14/12
  10. 10. Sigmund Freud Theory of personality is based on the assumption that human beings are born with certain biological drives, such as the desire to seek pleasure, that must be controlled by society and channeled into socially productive activities. The relationship between the individual and society is one of conflict and tension. 10 socialization/erikchoi 12/14/12
  11. 11. Sigmund Freud (human qualities innate; biologically determined) was the social scientist to develop a theory that addressed both the nature & nurture aspects of human existence. Freud believed that the social self develops primarily in the family, where the infant is gradually forced to control its biological functions and needs: sucking, eating, defecation, genital stimulation, etc.11 socialization/erikchoi 12/14/12
  12. 12. Freud Freud believed that infants have sexual urges and by showing that these aspects of the self are the primary targets of early socialization—that the infant is taught in many ways to delay physical gratification and to channel its biological urges into socially accepted forms of behavior.12 socialization/erikchoi 12/14/12
  13. 13. Freud divided personality into threefunctional areas: ID Superego Ego 13 socialization/erikchoi 12/14/12
  14. 14. The id. . . . The id is the unconscious biological fund of primitive energies with which every person is born. In the newborn child, the id is the only part of the personality that exists. Through interaction with others, child learns that unrestricted satisfaction of id is impossible. This leads to emergence of the . . . 14 socialization/erikchoi 12/14/12
  15. 15. Superego The superego is the “conscience,” consisting of internalized rules that guide behavior. It represents the morality of society and usually reflects the beliefs, values, and norms of the child’s parents. The superego constrains the impulses of the id, while the ego conciliates the id and the superego by searching for ways of satisfying the id that are acceptable to the superego. 15 socialization/erikchoi 12/14/12
  16. 16. Ego (the moral component of thepersonality) The ego exists at a conscious level and seeks socially approved ways of gratifying the desires of the id. The ego serves as mediator between the impulses of the id and the constraints of society.16 socialization/erikchoi 12/14/12
  17. 17. Importance of Socialization Socialization is vital to culture – transmission of culture from one generation to the next. - if disrupted, a culture disintegrates or even dies Socialization is vital to personality - training is important for every child - it greatly affects his personality - consider the example : The Case of Isabelle17 socialization/erikchoi 12/14/12
  18. 18. Importance of Socialization Socialization is vital to sex differentiation - it provides every individual the expected role he or she play in the society according to their sexes - difference between boys and girls (biological factors determine abilities and interest of the sexes; i.e. bigger and stronger than women but also instinct for hunting, fighting and organizing. Women, to bear children and instinct to complement them ---gentleness and domesticity)18 socialization/erikchoi 12/14/12
  19. 19. Humans without Social Contact Other cases of humans who grew up without social contact have appeared in the news occasionally. What emerges is a consistent picture of beings: who do not use language who react to others with fear and hostility who exhibit a general apathy19 socialization/erikchoi 12/14/12
  20. 20. Conclusion Intelligence, and the ability to establish close bonds with others depends on early interaction. The self concept begins in childhood20 socialization/erikchoi 12/14/12
  21. 21. Behaviorism viewed individuals as a tabula rasa, or a blank slate, that could be written upon by socialization21 socialization/erikchoi 12/14/12
  22. 22. Criticisms of behaviorism Sociologists argue that while behaviorists may show us how some types of social learning take place, psychological research often does not deal with real social environments.22 socialization/erikchoi 12/14/12
  23. 23. The Social Construction of Self in sociology, the self is viewed as a social construct: It is produced or constructed through interaction with other people over a lifetime. How the self emerges usually take an interactionist perspective (symbolic interactionism) 23 socialization/erikchoi 12/14/12
  24. 24. Charles Horton Cooley. The Looking-GlassSelf One of the founders of the interactionist perspective The self is a social product; developed through interactions with other people. The term looking-glass self refers to the process through which we develop our sense of self based upon the reactions of other people to ourselves or our actions. 24 socialization/erikchoi 12/14/12
  25. 25. Three elements of looking-glass self. . . We imagine how ourselves or our behavior appear to other people (presentation) We imagine how these people evaluate us or our behavior (identification) We experience some feeling because of this judgment; develop a self-concept (subjective interpretation) 25 socialization/erikchoi 12/14/12
  26. 26. So….how is the “self” developed? You should be able to describe the contributions made by Cooley, Mead, and Freud to our understanding of the socialization process.26 socialization/erikchoi 12/14/12
  27. 27. George Herbert Mead Credited with having expanded Cooley’s ideas People not only react to each other, but they also interpret each other’s actions. That is, they learn to take the role of the other. That is, to put themselves in someone else’s shoes. Learned in play Significant others As children internalize expectations, develop sense of “generalized other”—our perception of how people in general think of us 27 socialization/erikchoi 12/14/12
  28. 28. The Generalized Other. . . Mead maintained that the experience of role-play and pretence in early childhood were vital for the formation of a mature sense of self, which may only be achieved by the child learning to take on the role of the other, i.e., seeing things from another person’s perspective. Able to see self not just from another’s point of view, but from groups of others. 28 socialization/erikchoi 12/14/12
  29. 29. Three Stages Imitation—mimic others 29 socialization/erikchoi 12/14/12
  30. 30. Stage 2: Play Play—children act out roles of others. Even if only pretending, children behave as though they were the other person and thereby learn to view world from different perspective. 30 socialization/erikchoi 12/14/12
  31. 31. Stage 3: Games Games—children perform roles that require them to coordinate their actions with real people. 31 socialization/erikchoi 12/14/12
  32. 32. Two Parts to Self; “I” and “Me” “self” – it has development. - not initially there at birth - it is develop as a result of relations to the social process and to other individuals within that process -children begin to take the on the social roles they observe around them. “me” is the part of the self that reflects our perceptions of what people think of us. It is the part that permits evaluation and enables us to control our behavior. It is objective, a product of socialization32 socialization/erikchoi 12/14/12
  33. 33. “I” The “I” is the active, independent, spontaneous, idiosyncratic self (what makes you different from others) and unpredictable side of the self. It is subjective – product of individual distinctiveness33 socialization/erikchoi 12/14/12
  34. 34.  Without the “me” orderly social interaction could not occur; without the “I”, social interaction could be mechanical and monotonous. With these two complimentary parts, we are able to reflect on our own behavior and develop a sense of inner continuity or identity.34 socialization/erikchoi 12/14/12
  35. 35. Ervin Goffman: The Presentation of Self Impression management  Altering of the presentation of self—ways we learn to present ourselves socially. 35 socialization/erikchoi 12/14/12
  36. 36. Situations:36 socialization/erikchoi 12/14/12
  37. 37. Effects of Childhood Socialization Children raised in childhood isolation. The case of Anna (1932-1938): 5 years in near total isolation. Raised in a storage room in a Pennsylvania farm house by an unstable mother from a strict family where illegitimate children were taboo. When rescued by a social worker, she was a zombie – unresponsive to the social world. Re-socialization helped her a little – she learned to smile - but she was permanently retarded in virtually every way: cognitive, affective and behavioral.37 socialization/erikchoi 12/14/12
  38. 38. Conclusion Children raised in near total isolation suffer retardation along all three dimensions of personality.  Long term isolation – the duration of the primary socialization period - seems to produce permanent or irreversible retardation.  Short term isolation – perhaps a few years during primary socialization – produces initial retardation, but these effects may be reversible with effective re- socialization.38 socialization/erikchoi 12/14/12
  39. 39. Children Raised in TotalInstitutions Total Institution: residence where inmates are cut off from society, under the control of a hierarchy of official.  Examples: prison, boarding school, asylum, boot camp, bureaucratic orphanage. Many orphanages in the 1950s were total institutions. Personality studies revealed that some of these children did not have a chance to establish close emotional ties with specific others. The result was slight physical, social, and emotional retardation for some, particularly in emotional empathy skills. They were a bit more emotionally aloof or “cold” than other children. 39 socialization/erikchoi 12/14/12
  40. 40. Monkeys raised in totalisolationrhesus monkey experiments revealed thatHarry Harlow’s even in monkeys, social behavior is largely learned, not inherited.  Isolated monkeys didn’t know how to mate.  Female mothers who are artificially impregnated treat their offspring in an unloving and abusive manner, or simply ignore them.  This suggests there may not be a “maternal instinct.”  Infant monkeys, if given a choice, prefer a “cuddly” cloth doll with no feeder bottle to a wire doll that has a feeder bottle attached, suggesting an instinct for emotional/physical contact. 40 socialization/erikchoi 12/14/12
  41. 41. The Harlow Research -Conclusions 1. Isolated monkeys become asocial. 2. Infant monkeys seem to derive emotional benefits with physical contact/hugs. 3. Social contact – not necessarily with the mother – is the key. 4. Short periods of isolation (3 months or less) produce damages which can be reversed, but long term isolation produces irreversible damage to the monkeys. 41 socialization/erikchoi 12/14/12
  42. 42. Implications for Humans Humans, lacking the complex instincts that guide behavior in most other species, can become fully human only by learning in social interaction with other people. Intimate contact appears to be a critical need, especially during primary socialization.42 socialization/erikchoi 12/14/12
  43. 43. Maraming Salamat po…! 43 socialization/erikchoi 12/14/12