Anthropologists are interested in studying personalityin relation to external cultural forces and social pressures.Sociologists focus on the development of the self as a resultof the socialization process.
Personality as a product of socialization comes about as a result of the interplay of various forces like biological (inheritance) and cultural environment, social groups, social structures and past experiences. Nature (biological make-up)Nurture (environment)
Defines the nature of the society, ideas, norms, and values by which people can interact and the kind of roles one has to play.
Id – stores our instinctive and/or primitive reactions, unconscious, consists of instincts, has no contact with reality.As children start to get in touched with the reality, anohter structure is formed: ego - deals with the demands of reality. It is called the executive branch of personality because it uses reasoning to make decisions. The id and the ego have no morality. They do not take into account whether something is right or wrong. The superego is the Freudian structure of personality that is the moral branch of personality. The superego takes into account whether something is right or wrong. Think of the superego as what we often refer to as our “conscience.” You probably are beginning to sense that both the id and the superego make life rough for the ego. Your ego might say, “I will have sex only occasionally and be sure to take the proper precautions because I don’t want the intrusion of a child in the development of my career.” However, your id is saying, “I want to be satisfied; sex is pleasurable.” Your superego is at work, too: “I feel guilty about having sex before I’m married.”
Theid, orthe biological component, consists of everything psychological,including the instincts which are inherited.The ego's psychological component has controlover all the cognitive and intellectual processes and tries to control thegateways to action.The superego is the moral arm ofpersonalityand consists ofthe conscience and ego ideal.
Enculturation – They are interested in the aspects of personalityshared with others of the subculture or of the society, which they call themodal personality. The modal personality refers to those traits that have&re highest frequency in the society or subculture.
As persons move from one stage to another, such as fromchildhood to adolescence, from adulthood to old age, orfrom one groupto another, they discard ways which may not be applicable to the newstage or new group. They learn more viable ways of behaving, acquirenew codes, regulations, sanctions, or learn the rules of the game or theropes of the frade. Socialization is a lifelong process. At the various stages of lifefrom infancy, to childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age, theindividual occupies ceftain social statuses and plays the correspondingroles. Social status refers to one's position or rank in a particular socialgroup at a particular time.
Ex: child: respect, obidience, doing households, be modest, follow norms. parents: take care of the child, provide for their needs
Various persons and institutions play an important role in shapingan individual's values, attitudes, and behavior. The essential units in theprocess of socialization are the small primary groups, characterizedbyintimate, face-to-face association, and cooperation.
Weaning – to accustom or to adjust
Emily Cabrera, chair of McCann-Erickson philippines, assertsthatkids who are watchingtoo much television shouldwonyparents.
Should they find the place dull and oppressive, then they may leave.
One of the dimensions of culture is the body of standards ofbehavior which the members of the society are expected to follow. ThenorTns prescribe the patterns for appropriate behavior and standards aboutwhat constitute an ideal person. There are sanctions and means of socialconffol to make the members of a gtoup conform to the norm. Despite theefforts of society, there are instances when the members go astray orbreak the norms. Behavior that goes beyond certain limits of what isconsidered normal and is in ways radically different from the norms,especially if done constantly, is called deviance (Howard and Hattis,1992:480-481). Deviance refers to aviolation of anorm.
Deviance involves thebreaking up of social norms. The membersof a group or society do not allow deviant acts as they pose a threat tothem or cause confusion.
Ostracism – barring, isolation
Lec 5 culture_and_personality
CULTURE ANDPERSONALITY Sociology and Anthropology Second Semester
PERSONALITY• is the pattern of behavior that is distinctive for each individual. (Tischler)• is a more or less enduring organization of forces within the individual, associated with a complex of fairly consistent attitudes, values, and modes of perception which account, in part, for the individuals consistency of behavior. (Barnouw)
Culture VS. Personality• Defines the nature of the society, ideas, norms, and values.• Guides the individuals along the norms that express society’s needs and values.
PERSONALITY • Sigmund Freud’s Theory of Personality • is a form of biological determination and that socialization was a process characterized by an internal struggle between the biological component and the social-cultural environment.
Sigmund Freud’s Theory of Personality id ego Super ego• he original • Is the executive • the social system of the of personality component personality and and is the • the internal the matrix within mediator representative of which the ego between the the traditional and the superego needs of the values and ideals become organism and the of society as differentiated. objective world interpreted to of reality. the child by its parents.
CULTURE VS. PERSONLITY• Cultural anthropologists view...• Personality as formed through the process of enculturation or socialization.• Personality development is a result of the transmission of the culture of a society.• Stress that a societys culture, including its worldview, influences the individuals behavior.
SOCIALIZATION PROCESS• are social learning processes of conforming to the norms and values of the group, internalizing them and acquiring a status, and performing the corresponding role.
SOCIAL ROLES• Refers to the expected patterns of behavior, obligations, privileges associated with a certain status.
SEATWORK• Ask your classmates, about 10 of them, to describe the values that they have observed in school.
AGENCIES OF SOCIALIZATION• FAMILY - is the main link between the individual and society. - is where the baby first gains experiences in love, affection, kindness, sympathy, and the like. - is where child gets oriented into the culture of the group, its norms, goals, types of consensus, and sanctions.
AGENCIES OF SOCIALIZATIONFamily....cont...Function of Socialization in Families:• Transmission of culture, growth and development of individuals, social control.• Protect the welfare and interests of the children• Provide an opportunity for the children to become socially functioning persons.
AGENCIES OF SOCIALIZATION• Peer Group - groups linked with their age and interest. - status where individuals learn to make decisions. - provides the members with motivations as it sets norms of achievement. - members develop a strong attachment and loyalty to the group, getting support and security in times of uncertainty, and stress. -lifestyles, consumption of needs, recreation, and other activities are influenced, aided by media. - Peer groups become especially influential when parental guidance, affection, and attention are lacking.
AGENCIES OF SOCIALIZATION• School - the primary agent for weaning children from home and introducing them to the larger society. - children get their formal instruction, acquire skills in reading, writing, and arithmetic, and develop cognitive ability. - inculcates cultural values, the recreational and intellectual skills. and selective knowledge that they will need to participate in the society to which they belong.
AGENCIES OF SOCIALIZATIONSchool...cont...• all educational institutions shall aim "to inculcate love of country; teach the duties of citizenship; and develop moral character, personal discipline, and scientific, technological and vocational efficiency.“---Philippine Constitution
AGENCIES OF SOCIALIZATION• Mass Media - include newspapers, periodicals and journals, radio, television and movies, are another agent of socialization. - functions are primarily to inform, entertain, and educate.
AGENCIES OF SOCIALIZATIONMass Media cont...• Of the various media, television is the most stimulating and entertaining as well as informative.• Television exposes children to social worlds they might not experience, like foreign culture so the arts, nature, and history in the making, as well as to the world of work and romance and such complex problems as alcoholism, crime, prostitution, and AIDS.
AGENCIES OF SOCIALIZATION• Church - provides for the spiritual and moral needs of children as well as of adults. - Through prayers, rituals and ceremonies, develops among people a strong faith in God.
AGENCIES OF SOCIALIZATIONChurch cont...• Children learn the norms of conduct and codes of behavior set forth by the religious organization.• Expectations of what would result from doing good, the fear of sin, concept of life after death, and the concepts of heaven and hell motivate individuals to do what is good in order to be at peace with their maker.
AGENCIES OF SOCIALIZATION• Workplace - a place where individuals socialize in accordance with its role expectations. - some provide formal training in the form of apprenticeship, orientation sessions, and training courses. - as individuals interact with their co- employees and boss, they are oriented into the organization.a
AGENCIES OF SOCIALIZATIONWorkplace cont...• Employees learn the hierarchy of statuses and find their place into it.
SOCIALIZATION INTO GENDER ROLES• Sex – refers to the biological characteristics that one is born with genitals, hormones, and chromosomes. – inherited• Gender – refers to social expectations, learned behavior and beliefs associated with maleness and femaleness. – learned
SOCIALIZATION INTO GENDER ROLES• Sex-role Socialization – Begins at infancy – Learning what is proper according to being maleness or femaleness. – Learning masculinity and feminnity – Can be understood in terms of both biological and cultural components interacting in complex ways.
SOCIALIZATION INTO GENDER ROLESMALE FEMALERun errands CookingGather fire woods WashingDo the gardening Cleaning the housefetching water Taking care of the younger siblingsFeed animalsAssertive
SOCIALIZATION INTO GENDER ROLES• Distinctions in courses for males and females in school Male Female Mathematics Education Natural Science Nursing Engineering Home Economics Medicine Social Works Politics Secretarial Education Law Nutrition
SOCIALIZATION INTO GENDER ROLES• With increasing urbanization and industrialization, these sex roles are being altered.• The wife, on account of her educational training and skills, may earn a higher income than her husband.• The roles of males and females in actual life are interchanged at times.• There are women employed in all the occupational groups.• Women have a higher percentage of employment than males in professional and technical work, in sales, in services, sports, and related activities.
SOCIALIZATION INTO GENDER ROLES• Senate Bill No. 1200 (Women in Development Act) by Former Senator Santanina Rasul – Gives women full and equal status to men. – Rights: • Opportunity to borrow money without the consent of the husband • Unrestricted capacity to act according to their civil status • Access to all government and provincial programs granting agricultural credits and non- material assistance. • Enter to Philippine Military Academy and have equal access to memberships in all clubs, committees, and associations.
SOCIALIZATION INTO GENDER ROLES• With the thrust of the government for national development the potentials of our young boys and girls must be developed to the fullest.• Verily, the success of nation-building programs depends on the equal partnership of man and women in social, political, economic, religious, and other activities.
DEVIANCE• Refers to the violation of norms.• Constitutes departure from norms which result in social disapproval so that the variations arouse or are likely to elicit negative sanctions if detected
DEVIANCE• Clinard and Meir variations in the definitions of deviance: – Statistical – What is normal or non-deviant is determined by common conditions; what is the statistical minority represents deviance. – Absolutist – it is an outcome of a value judgment based on absolute standards. It is defined in terms of violation of tradition or custom. – Reactivist –it is a result of reaction or label of a social audience of behavior or condition of a person or persons. – Normative – the label “deviant” results from a group’s notion of actions and conditions that should and should not occur.
DEVIANCE• Sociologists: - deviant behavior is one that tails to conform to the rules or norms of the group. It implies something evaluated negatively. - are interested in how deviance comes about and its effects on society.• Anthropologists: - are concerned primarily with how the members of a society jointly reach consensus about deviance.
DEVIANCE• Is RELATIVE!• What is accepted to one society may not be accepted to another. - Abortion, pre-marital sex, polygamy, and divorce are strongly disapproved by the catholic church
DEVIANCE• The important questions to consider in determining whether a certain type of behavior is deviant or not are: – Which norms are violated? – Who violated them? – Are they members of the upper class or of the lower class? – How visible is the deviation? – Who decides whether such acts are deviant or not? – Deviance is thus the result of judgment by members of a society that an individual is departing, conform to from social norms.
Explanations for Deviant Behavior• Emile Durkheim: people lose their sense of belongingness and life for them becomes meaningless, uncertain or fraught with conflict – ANOMIE - This feeling makes them drift and resort to other types of behavior.• Robert Merton: failure to achieve goals, coupled with unequal access to important environmental resources, leads to deviance.
SOCIAL CONTROL• The measures taken by society with behavior that goes astray or violates the norms.• The deliberate attempts to change behavior and to ensure conformity to the norms.• Sanctions are used to ensure conformity. – Positive sanctions are rewards meant to encourage conduct that conforms to the groups norms. – Negative sanctions are meant to discourage deviant behavior.
SOCIAL CONTROL- Informal sanctions are used in the small groupsor in the remote rural areas where one knowseveryone else in the group. These may be in theform of approval and praising, expressions of badopinion and gossip, or even ostracism.- Formal social control refers to mechanisms thatinvolve specialized agencies which formulaterules, codes, and standards of behavior to befollowed or punishments.